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Piaget underestimated childrens cognitive abilities in his theory

Piaget underestimated childrens cognitive abilities in his theory. Piaget’s developmental theory is based on four stages on the child’s development. The first is the Sensori motor stage which is from birth to two years. This is when an infant differentiates itself from objects. The infant also have no object permanence. The infant demonstrates simple reflexes from the first habits, up to the coordination of means and goals. Intelligence at this stage is highly based on movements rather than language, this can be also known as schemata. The Sensori motor stage was later more defined with six stages, the first stage (0-1month) use of reflexes, stage two (1-4months) primary circular reactions, three (4-8months) secondary circular reactions, four (8-11months) co-ordination of secondary schemes, five (12-18months) tertiary circular reactions and the final stage (18-24months) invention of new means by mental combinations. The second stage is Preoperational stage which is from two to seven years, Piaget defined that as “an action that can return to its starting point, and that can be integrated with other actions also possessing this feature reversibility” Piaget 1948. The child at this stage learns to use language and to represent objects by words and images. The child also becomes egocentric, this is when the child doesn’t have the ability to take someone else’s view. The language that the child might use are most likely to be idiosyncratic (Piaget 1956). The child also identify objects by a single feature an example would be the child calling each adult male dad. This is regardless whether there are the father or not, the fact that the adult is a male, makes them believe that they are the father. The third stage is concrete operational which is from seven to eleven years. This is when the child achieves conservation of quantity, weight, and volume. A good example for this would be when estimating the correct water mass on different shapes of glass. There is still egocentricity, but in the representation of objects, the perfect example for this would be the mountain task and the second type of egocentricity is in social relations (Piaget 56). The final stage is formal operational stage which is from eleven and beyond (Some resources would consider from eleven to fifteen). This is when the child begins to have the ability to plan and think ahead, been able to think in terms of abstract. The child would be able to collect information and problems and identify the solution. Thinking beyond his or herself, avoiding egocentrism (Lin 2002). The first underestimation made by Piaget would be at the sensori motor stage. Some researchers have claimed that infants do in fact posse object permanence at earlier stages than what Piaget somewhat predicted. Tom Bower (1982) carried series of experiments at Edinburgh University one of these carried infants as young as eight months. The infants were watching the screen passing the objects and were measured by heart rate. In half of the experimental trials the object was still present after the screen passed by, but on the other half, the object would have disappeared. The series showed that there was an increase of heart rates when the objects disappeared suggesting that there were more surprised when the object didn’t reappear. Bower found that infants as young as eight weeks can turn their eyes to anticipate whether the object would reappear or not on the other side of the screen. Both of these results suggest that Piaget might have underestimated this measure. In the Preoperational stage with regards to the language learning of children, Piaget often stands accused of neglect or partial interest (Beilin 1975 and Sinclair 1969).When it came to the language development the closest he came to adopting child language as the object of a developmental study was in his novel “Play, Dreams and Imitation in the Child”. This was when he outlines an account of conceptual development and the role of language in this. In this statement he seems to approach the task with a certain reluctance, referring to the intervention of language with the words “Collective verbal signs coming to interfere with the symbols we have already analysed”. Some of Piaget’s treatment of language cannot be put into a proper perspective unless we recognise that he is not a developmental psychologist but a genetic epistemologist. He does not seem to be concerned to review all aspects of the development of a child. There are also two other factors that regards’ Piaget’s lack of concern with language, first since he does not look at other factors that may embrace language development such as environment or through the nature/nurture argument, it does weaken his theory on the preoperational stage. Secondly the extent in which he uses language in his own experiments, he might misinterpret his findings by failing to take into account how linguistics component is affecting the outcome. The other main entity on the preoperational stage is egocentrism in children. In many series of experiments Borke (1971) has shown that children as young as three can identify emotions such as anger and sadness in others and have the ability to understand another’s visual perspective if the task is simplified. One of the other series done was by Mossler, Marvin and Greenberg (1976) designed a task in which the child knew something that their parents didn’t due to immediate prior information. The two to three year olds had difficulty with the task however the four to seven year old performed well with no egocentric behaviours. When it came to the Concrete operational stage the main criticism was the Mountain task. Borke (1975) did later series of studies with the mountain tasks. Borke used more employable stimulus materials that children were familiar with. This included a wide variety of things such as animals and miniature people. She also included a three dimensional model instead of selecting photographs like the standard Piagetian test. Whilst the test was upgraded and seemed more realistic to real life, the results were incredible. Many children under the age of seven performed very well. The three year old subjects gave forty two percent of correct answers and the four year old subjects gave sixty seven percent of correct answers. Some of the subjects scored as high as eighty eight percent. This unmistakably shows that Piaget underestimated children’s cognitive abilities. In the case of the Formal operational stage Ennis (1978) claimed that there were problems with Piaget’s logical system test for young adolescence at the formal operational stage. Danner and Day (1977) gave subjects bending rods for the Piagetian task involving their ability to isolate variables in a formal operational sense. This was to find which several variables would determine whether the rod will bend. Suggestions were given for some subjects for the strategy, they were told that if there wanted to find out which one was bending, they had to make sure that everything was the same except the one thing their were testing. With this prompt added it made the formal operational procedure improved. Lowenthal (1977) has shown that in game like situations even children as young as nine can operate in a logical complex manner and display formal operational structures. In conclusion Piaget did underestimate children’s cognitive abilities. There are many empirical evidence to support that researchers like Beilin Ennis and more prove so. In addition to all this it is also very important to study the manner in which the child’s cognitive ability changes when well trained. With this, it would make a better judgment on how the child can develop cognitive abilities and measure it. Piaget also tends to ignore the environmental aspects in which the child grew up in. An example would be that a child who may attend nursery/day-care early may have a bigger advantage in developing its cognitive skills compared to a child who didn’t start interacting with many children till there started school. Plus the socio-economic facts of the child’s parents or guardian. Words 1315 Piaget underestimated childrens cognitive abilities in his theory
Public Management 03.

Instructions – PLEASE READ THEM CAREFULLYThe Assignment must be submitted on Blackboard (WORD format only) via allocated folder.Assignments submitted through email will not be accepted.Students are advised to make their work clear and well presented, marks may be reduced for poor presentation. This includes filling your information on the cover page.Students must mention question number clearly in their answer.Late submission will NOT be accepted.Avoid plagiarism, the work should be in your own words, copying from students or other resources without proper referencing will result in ZERO marks.All answered must be typed using Times New Roman (size 12, double-spaced) font.Submissions without cover page will NOT be accepted.Assignment 2Submission Date by students:Before the end of Week 11Place of Submission: Students Grade Centre via blackboard.Weight: 05 MarksCLO: Apply different management and leadership styles for different situations (Lo 3.1)We expect you to answer each question as per instructions in the assignment. You will find it useful to keep the following points in mind. The assignment with be evaluated in terms of your planning, organization and the way you present your assignment. All the three section will carry equal weightageKindly read the instruction carefully and prepare your assignment accordingly.1) Planning: Read the assignments carefully, go through the Units on which they are based. Make some points regarding each question and then rearrange them in a logical order.2) Organisation: Be a little selective and analytical before drawing up a rough outline of your answer. Give adequate attention to question’s introduction and conclusion.Make sure that:a) The answer is logical and coherentb) It has clear connections between sentences and paragraphsc) The presentation is correct in your own expression and style.3) Presentation: Once you are satisfied with your answer, you can write down the final version for submission. If you so desire, you may underline the points you wish to emphasize. Make sure that the answer is within the stipulated word limit.Write an essay in about 1000-1200 words on the following topic.“Success of any organization depends upon leadership skill in the organisation”.In line with this statement briefly discuss the role of leadership in the success story of any organization of your choice. With an example, critically analyse the leadership style which is suitable for the smooth decision making and effectively resolving business issues.Important: You are required to present at least three scholarly journals to support your answers
Public Management 03

A Curse for Team Performance Human Resource Case Study Summary

A Curse for Team Performance Human Resource Case Study Summary.

The case study format below should be adopted in analyzing the case:• CASE SUMMARY: Brief analysis/summary of the case • PROBLEM(S): Identified problem(s)/issue(s) – something important happened and there is no
explanation for it – e.g. an accounts manager notices that a few of their good customers have large
accounts payable balances • SOLUTION(S): Solution(s) of identified problem(s)/issue(s) – the best strategy that can be used to solve
the problem(s). Should create more benefits and has fewer or less severe downsides. give all solutions, please. • RECOMMENDATION(S): Recommendation: what would you recommend in solving this problem by
reviewing the solution(s) you have the most confidence in – determine if they seem weak or strong.
Apply the one(s) that has the most evidence in relation of the point of view in the case. What are the
reasons for the preference? • CONCLUSION: including implementation of the recommendation(s) and/or contingency plan. simply words and sentences structure please. case is attached.
A Curse for Team Performance Human Resource Case Study Summary

Responses must be a minimum of 150 words and include direct questions.

programming assignment help Responses must be a minimum of 150 words and include direct questions..

Original Discussion Question: Define Best Value Contracting, and briefly describe the contractor’s role in an Integrated Process Team (IPT).Assignment: Respond to the 3 students below. Responses should be a minimum of 150 words and include direct questions.STUDET 1: TylerGood evening class, We are tasked to define best value contracting and to describe the contractors role in the integrated process team. Best value contracting is used by the Department of Defense to award contracts based on the best overall value. Multiple factors are considered when awarding contracts to determine what would fit best. These factors include cost, performance, quality, and schedule and compares other factors to determine which would be the best fit and best value. Rather than just buying from the lowest possible contractor, DoD analyzes which would best fit overall. This makes sense because in the long run, you get what you pay for. We might have to pay a little bit more for a contractor but the quality of work is better, the overall performance of the contractor is better, and they have proven to keep on time schedules. Losing time and money in quality and performance in the long run would cost more to the DoD if they chose the lowest costing contractor initially. The contractor’s role in an integrated process team is to identify and resolve issues with representatives from the appropriate disciplines that are working together on a project. These representatives will work together to make timely recommendations and decisions for complex development programs. The use of IPT is very vital because all stakeholders are collaborating together to optimize design and manufacturing processes. This allows everyone to be on the same page when working on a project and to ensure that multiple chains’ of commands are not dishing out false or inaccurate information. STUDENT 2: AdamThe best value contracting approach, allows contracting officials to closely examine, evaluate and rate contractors on their respective qualifications and performance capabilities and choose the best qualified contractor who offers the best price. Best value contracting ties all the following initiatives together in order to mane a through quality-based contracting decision. These initiatives are as follows, successful best value contracting requires, early determination of key parameters, time and money are interchangeable at this point and lastly that the development of performance requirements are prioritize in the correct order. BVC is when both the contractors and subcontractors are required to comply individually with pre qualification and active apprenticeship requirements. An Integrated Product Team (IPT) is a team composed of representatives from appropriate functional disciplines working together to build successful programs, identify and resolve issues, and make sound and timely recommendations to facilitate decision making (AcqNotes). So how does a contractor play a role within the Integrated Process Team (IPT)? A contractor will overall ensure that the government meets its contractual obligations. While doing that they will also monitor the performance and progress of the contract to ensure that all contract requirements have been met within the specified performance period.Within the Coast Guard we have technical experts who can provide insight into solutions like detection or sensor technologies that are so valuable to law enforcement. These integrated process teams that the Coast Guard provide are the members who understand the challenges as well as members who understand the needed solutions.STUDENT 3: SamanthaBest Value Contracting refers to the government’s obligation to get the best value out of whatever is being acquired. This includes aspects such as cost, performance, quality, and schedule and it can also mean the government needs to make certain trade offs between cost and non-cost factor. The government cannot just always go with the lowest bidder because that could wind up with a product that has quality issues and end up being more expensive in the long run. They also cannot always go with the most expensive bidder as well because there is an obligation to keep the price of acquisitions reasonable. This is when a Contract Officer would need to weigh the choices together and go for the contract that provides the best overall value for the government at the sweet spot between quality and cost effectiveness in order to avoid going with something with a high initial cost, or going with something that can cost more long term in maintenance costs.
A contractor’s role in the Integrated Product Team would be to collaborate with the other members of the team to ensure proper execution of whatever the team is gathered for. The Integrated Product Team is put together in order to collaborate and build successful programs, identify and resolve issues, and make timely recommendations that will allow for effective decision making. This team would be beneficial for a contractor to be a part of considering that it gives them the opportunity to gather more knowledge about certain aspects of an acquisition from people with years of experience which can allow for a smarter way of working.
Responses must be a minimum of 150 words and include direct questions.

3D Printer Technology Research Paper

3D Printer Technology Research Paper. Introduction 3D printing is a unique form of modern day printing, originating from traditional ways of prototyping. It is a form of manufacturing technology with an additive element whereby a 3D object is generated by the process of multiple laying-down of material layers. It has impacted greatly modern business transactions. This paper outlines the technology used for a Form 1 3D printer (Kickstarter par. 4), as well as the impact this technology has had on business over the past ten years, the future of technology and business, the impact technology may have on business transactions in the next ten years. The paper also assesses knowledge, skills, and abilities one may need to be a successful manager in the future. Technology The technology used This printer employs Stereo Lithography (SL), the technology in which a laser sucks in a liquid plastic resin onto its surface; it is then hardened by exposing it to specified light frequencies/wavelengths. One layer is sucked in and hardened by the laser; then another follows suit up to the last layer that completes the model. The printer requires connection to a computer that contains the blueprints of the object of interest. The Impacts of technology on business in the past decade The production process was slow as it involved traditional methods of handcrafting. The quality of business products was poor due to lack of high resolution by previous 3D printers. The cost of production was higher as machines like CNC Mills were used for crafting employed X-ray technology, which was expensive. Since only a few countries could afford, crafting machines, such as the CNC Mill, a physical shipment of goods to consumers in remote areas was necessary. The future of 3D printing technology and business In future 3D printing, technology may be used to set up buildings since teams at Loughborough University are researching 3D concrete printing (T.T, S.A and S. 2012). Bio-printing, a technology of creating replacements for human beings, may become an area of investment for businesses. Most businesses may acquire a 3D printer as its cost is foreseen to fall significantly; goods will be customer customized as this will only involve keying instructions in the software and direct printing. Impact of technology on future business transactions The 3D printer that uses the technology of Stereo Lithography will reduce business expenditure as it is fast and reduces cost by automating the design process, printing and binding separate parts of a model (Bomfunkman par. 4). Business transactions will be quick since 3D printing is a fast process. There will be reduced a buyer-seller interaction as most homes may acquire the device. Businesses will stock blueprints of products rather than the tangible product itself. Products will be manufactured close to their point of purchase and consumption; goods that previously relied on the productivity of large centralized companies will be manufactured locally (Richard A. D’Aveni 34). There will be reduced international business transactions, involving the shipment of goods as the goods will be printed locally. Qualities of a successful future manager For success as a manager, one will need to be computer literate, have knowledge of CAD and be creative to produce unique products. One will need to embrace IT to be at par with changing technologies and be flexible to accommodate unique customer needs and also be well versed with the knowledge of their industry. Conclusion In conclusion, it must be highlighted that 3D printing technology has evolved gradually, it has also had numerous impacts on business, and its future looks green with impacts on businesses expected. Works Cited Bomfunkman. “3d printing.” 2o13. Web. Keppner, Kai. Inventory3D Printer Technology Research Paper

Whether or not Human Cloning Should be Allowed Essay

Table of Contents Introduction Disadvantages of cloning humans Benefits of cloning My recommendation Conclusion Reference List Introduction Cloning can be defined as the process of producing an embryo which has similar genes to its parents and implanting it to a surrogate mother. A number of organizations have also given slightly different definitions for cloning. One such definition is that cloning is the preservation of cells in cultures to produce tissues, organs and even embryos (Head, 2010, p. 1). It is a method of reproduction that is viewed as a prospective haven for people with reproduction problems. Cloning has attracted substantial ethics-related questions since its discovery. The first clone was a lamb named Dolly and since its birth, the possibilities and speculations of human cloning has attracted a lot of ethical questions concerning the same. Up to date, the acceptability of human cloning is depended on personal opinion and its applicability is largely based on theory (Head, 2010, p. 1). This is despite the fact that cloning of cells to form tissues has been widely used in therapeutic procedures to treat people in hospital. Let us have a look at the benefits and the disadvantages of cloning. Disadvantages of cloning humans Human cloning has more disadvantages than its benefits. Firstly, it is true that cloning is not in accordance with the Christian faith. Thus Christians, who make the world’s most popular religion, will feel as if they are playing God if they get involved in cloning activities. Among the weightiest arguments against cloning is the fact that the cloning of embryos makes them vulnerable and therefore the resultant child may develop serious problems for the rest of his/her life. However, scientists argue that cloning may be developed to be more safe that the normal delivery as more advancements are made. Another disadvantage associated with human cloning is the fact that while cloning a human being, a number of embryos may be killed during testing (Farnsworth, 2000, p. 1). This is, arguably, killing of a human being and thus it taints the ethics behind the practice of human cloning. There is also the issue about the expectations that people are bound to have on their clones. The original person will have very high expectations on the clone and this could lead to considerable pressure on the clone and disappointments on the part of the original person. This can be explained by the fact that with the identity that identical twins have and their differences in personality, nothing better is expected from clones. Another worry is that since clones will be known to be copies of people, they may be discriminated against and thus their lives would be difficult. However baseless this claim appears to be, it has a point and its applicability would depend on how human clones would look. If they will be such that a person can identify a clone just by looking at him/her, then the argument is justified. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As mentioned above the technology of cloning is still inferior. During the development of the first clone, Dolly, more than 250 eggs were used and only one survived. It is thus apparent that application of this technology would have major drawbacks in terms of taking chances on life. It is possible that during testing, a number of embryos would be formed before the desirable embryo is formed. This means that these embryos may be frozen for future use (Head, 2010, p. 1) or even destroyed, if their standards are unacceptable. This may be taken as the treating of a human being as an animal and it could attract considerable action by human rights activists. Besides the possible protests by human rights activists, the cloning process may prove to be haunting to the doctors in case they realize that they have been terminating lives by experimentation. Benefits of cloning Cloning is associated with a number of benefits that make pro-cloning activists believe strongly in their convictions. For instance, cloning of human cells has been constructively applied in therapeutic cloning to which is used largely during organ transplant mts. It is used to ensure that the donated organ fits the patient and saves the patient from taking lots o drugs normally meant to suppress immunity. However, most of these benefits are beaten by logic and a closer examination reveals the fact that we should not encourage cloning of human beings. One of the benefits of cloning is the fact that it is able to provide children to people with fertility problems. However, it will be more reasonable to adopt homeless kids and offer them a home instead of undergoing the risky cloning procedure. Another benefit of cloning that is frequently cited by pro-cloning activists is the fact that people with genetic illnesses who do not wish to pass their sicknesses to their kids have an option with cloning. However, it is arguable that such people will do better with adoption of the numerous homeless children in orphanages. It has been widely argued that adoption of cloning as a legal medical exercise would lead to creation of people with perfected characteristics since the genes that are used are often chosen and it is logical that a person wishing to get a child will go for a donor with good characteristics. This is both a good thing and a bad thing. This is because such people will not have a lot of heath and other problems but it will lead to a set-up that could bring problems. These problems will most probably be experienced in social life. Among the evidently controversial benefits of cloning is the idea of body replacements which is so far theoretical. It suggests that a person having a given problem can be reconstructed to live as another person who does not have the problems he/she has. This is among the suggestions associated with cloning that has made people question the ethical appropriateness of cloning (McKay, 2010, p. 1). We will write a custom Essay on Whether or not Human Cloning Should be Allowed specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More My recommendation As evidenced in the discussion above, my opinion about the cloning controversy is that, in as much as cloning is a highly admirable technological advancement, it is wrong to pursue human cloning. This statement is made with reference to the cloning of cells to form an embryo. It is wrong to try to pursue ways of making life other than the way that God created us to use. It is no wonder that the process of cloning cells to form embryos is associated with a myriad of problems. Even for people who do not believe that God exists, should be discouraged by the killing of tens or hundreds of embryos in the lab during the testing period. Additionally, the uncertainties that face human clones in terms of health, similarity to the original person and the like should also discourage people from taking such kinds of people (Farnsworth, 2000, p. 1). It is clear that anyone supporting embryo-forming cloning has not given the subject a keener thought since so many possible problems that could come with child-formation cloning can easily be acquired. Despite the fact that cell-physiology is a complex process and it is normally cheaper to engage in tissue growth cloning. This kind of cloning is simpler and it has better objectives. This is because most clone-generated tissues are used by doctors to save lives in hospitals by helping them to treat major health complications (McKay, 2010, p. 1). Conclusion Humans have repeatedly got themselves into problems after doing things just because they could do them. We should thus be very careful before we start using any discovery in a bid to benefit from it. It is specifically necessary for a re-examination of the intricacies of cloning in order to make informed decisions on whether to legalize it or not. Cloning should be studied deeply to establish the dangers it poses to a child it bears. At the same time, we should ensure that we fully understand the ethical issues posed by cloning before we claim to be pro-cloning. It is only in the case of commendable technological advancement that embryonic cloning should be allowed. This is because some measures will have been put in place to ensure that we do not get disappointed after paying for cloning services. It can be clearly seen that the disadvantages of cloning outweigh its benefits and thus cloning should be discouraged at all cost. Reference List Farnsworth, J. (2000). To clone or not to clone: The Ethical Question. Retrieved from http://www.thefarnsworths.com/science/cloning.htm Not sure if you can write a paper on Whether or not Human Cloning Should be Allowed by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Head, T. (2010). Should human cloning be banned? Retrieved from https://www.thoughtco.com/should-human-cloning-be-banned-721486 McKay, C. (2010). Should the cloning of human beings be prohibited? Retrieved from http://www.scienceclarified.com/dispute/Vol-2/Should-the-cloning-of-human-beings-be-prohibited.html