Table of Contents Introduction Advantages of Exercise Conclusion Works Cited Introduction College students often face myriad challenges in their studies such as drug abuse, obesity, terminal diseases and psychological problems. Students with health complications are disadvantaged in academic activities. Most students often seek medical treatment for physical and psychological problems. However, most of them are oblivious of the fact that they can avoid many health complications by performing regular exercises (Hardman and Stensel 12-13). Although students engage in various activities such as watching movies, reading novels, shopping and interacting with each other, most of them disregard physical activity as form of leisure. Therefore, students who dislike physical activities such as games and sports should change their attitude because they risk having physical and psychological challenges including poor academic performance. This essay discusses the benefits of conducting physical exercises. Advantages of Exercise Medical research indicates that physical exercise has the following benefits to the wellbeing of an individual. Many college students are grappling with the challenge of being overweight because they have poor diets. Although there are various approaches of dealing with obesity, conducting regular bodily exercise is arguably the best solution to this challenge. Physical activities facilitate the burning of extra body fats, which accumulate in the body overtime. Therefore, regular engagement in physical activities is the most sustainable way of managing weight loss. Although losing weight is as difficult as paying debts it can be overcome through dedication and consistent exercises (Ginis and Petruzzello 72-73). Most heart complications can be avoided or retracted by regular exercise because the heart is one of the body organs that need to be active to function efficiently. Physical activities can repair impaired blood vessels by eliminating bad fats that clog them. Exercise also relaxes arteries; hence, making the heart to function properly (Hardman and Stensel 23-24). Moreover, simple activities such as walking, running, jogging and swimming can prevent or mitigate hypertension. Intensive academic tasks often fatigue many college students. Prolonged fatigue leads to lack of concentration in class and depression. Although many people often use tranquilizers to alleviate fatigue, they only feel better for a short duration. Interestingly, body exercise is the best therapy for fatigue and depression because it relaxes the brain and boosts self-esteem (Ginis and Petruzzello 57-65). Respiratory complications such as common colds and asthma can be mitigated by engaging in activities that generate body heat. When the body is warm, the respiratory tract functions well. Moreover, exercise boosts body immunity for several minutes. Health specialists often propose swimming as one of the most viable exercises for asthmatic individuals. Diabetes is one of the complicated diseases that is increasingly affecting the youth since most of them have adopted sedentary lifestyles. Activity lessens cholesterol and insulin as well as weight loss, which can enable diabetics to avoid further complications such as circulatory disorders. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More “Research findings by Seattle Cancer Research Centre shows that approximately 35 percent of cancer deaths are linked to overweight inactivity” (Marcus 15). Exercise facilitates digestion and elimination of toxic substances from the body, which can trigger irregular growth of cells. In addition, “high concentrations of oestrogen hormones that often trigger breast malignancy among women can be eliminated easily through physical activity” (Marcus 89). Many people use beauty-enhancing products to make them look young and beautiful, but such products are prepared using lethal chemicals that can cause side effects such as skin disorders. Exercise is a good alternative to be young and beautiful; for example, young overweight individuals can easily be mistaken to be adults. Exercise facilitates transmission of blood in the body and mitigates the danger of stroke. Research findings reveal that active individuals are 27 percent less likely to suffer from stroke compared to the sedentary people (Hardman and Stensel 89-90). Moreover, the brain works better when it receives constant flow of oxygenated blood and this process can be enhanced by exercise. “A research finding by the University of Illinois showed that activity stimulates the growth of nerve cells in the memory component of the brain” (Hardman and Stensel 35). Medical studies reveal that active individuals experience good sex life because they have better blood transmission, which enhances libido and performance of their sexual organs. Furthermore, the relaxing effect of exercise on the brain facilitates sexual activity. Conversely, since the brain influences sexual activity, depressed people do not enjoy sex. “The American Council of Exercise points out that a physically active individual has natural Viagra” (Marcus 68). Last, sleeping can be enhanced by activity because it alleviates headaches, stress and insomnia. Exercise also helps in activating endorphins, which alleviate pain, and improve emotional health in the body. Conclusion This essay has revealed the benefits of engaging in activity. Therefore, it is evident that majority of health complications can be evaded through regular activity. Consequently, people should drastically change their attitude towards bodily activities because they are beneficial to their mental and physical well-being. People should be more creative to make bodily activities interesting. Therefore, it can be concluded that activity provides good therapy to the human body. Works Cited Ginis, Kathleen and Steven Petruzzello. The Psychology of Exercise: Integrating Theory and Practice. New York: Holcomb Hathaway, 2010. Print. Hardman, Adrianne and David Stensel. Physical Activity and Health: The Evidence Explained. New York: Routledge, 2009. Print. We will write a custom Essay on Physical Exercise’s Advantages specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Marcus, Bess. Motivating People to Be Physically Active. New York: Human Kinetics, 2008. Print.
What exactly is satire. Satire is the use of wit especially irony, sarcasm, and ridicule to criticize faults. Samuel Clemens or also more known as Mark Twain wrote Huckleberry Finn, a sequel to his other novel, Tom Sawyer. Huckleberry Finn has been acclaimed to be one of the greatest pieces of American literature of all time. This is due to Twain’s use of many writing elements, one of them being satire which he incorporated in this novel. This classic story tells of a young white boy named Huckleberry Finn, and a runaway slave named Jim. Together they travel down the Mississippi River trying to get Jim free, and have an unbelievable journey, with nail biting encounters. Twain satirizes man’s cruelty, religious hypocrisy, and superstition, in one of his best works Huckleberry Finn. A problem in society of course in the 19th century was mans cruelty especially to blacks. Mark Twain detested the fact of how one man could be so merciless and malice to another one. An example of someone who is subject to cruelty in the book is obviously Jim, the runaway slave. Tom Sawyer who we see from time to time in the book shows a supplementary amount of cruelty to Jim towards the end of the novel. When Jim was locked up in the shed Tom, created an extremely complex and enigmatic plan to help Jim escape. Not only did this plan take weeks and weeks to complete, it made Jim confused, and caused him some pain. Tom already knew Jim was free through Miss Watson’s will, instead of telling people about Jim’s newly discovered freedom he continued to use Jim as his own form of entertainment. During this elaborate escape plan, Tom could have easily freed Jim; they actually unchained him so he could move a stone into the shed. “We see it warn’t no use; we got to go and fetch Jim. So he raised up his bed and slid the chain of the bed-leg,” and then when the job was done “we helped him fix his chain back on the bed-leg.” Tom deliberately put Jim in a situation where he could’ve been free in minutes instead of weeks. Huck someone who has been Jim’s partner, someone who has been through a moral dilemma due to this whole journey was even cruel to Jim at one point in the novel. When the two friends got separated by the fog, Huck eventually found Jim sleeping on the raft. When Jim finally awoke and found Huck with him, he was surprised and ecstatic to have his friend back. Huck being insensitive at the time told Jim he didn’t go anywhere. He explains to Jim how he was just dreaming the whole thing and that the separation never occurred. Once Jim notices the broken oar and debris on the raft he realized Huck was fooling him. Then Jim with a serious expression tells Huck “Dat truck dah is trash, en trash is what people is dat puts dirt on de head er dey fren’s en makes ’em ashamed.” Huck feeling ashamed and disgusted apologizes to a black man for the first time and never again would he be cruel to Jim. With the incorporation of satire Twain was able to expose what blacks had to go through, and Twain was able to point out the cruelty that occurred. The most dominant sense of satire of cruelty to men in the novel is when the king and duke get tarred and feathered. After weeks of swindling people with their subterfuge they finally got there dosage of karma. Huck points out after watching the scene that “Human beings can be awful cruel to one another.” This shows the satire of what’s going on but it shows that not only criminals can be cruel but humans in general. Religious hypocrisy is another way Twain can use satire in this novel. Twain makes fun of religion clearly throughout the book. One prime example of this is when Huck resides in the Grangerford’s home. When they all go to church on Sunday and “The men took their guns along,” you can’t help but chuckle at the enormous irony in this scene. The sermon is about brotherly love, the Shepardsons and Grangerfords both believe heavily in this sermon. Even though they want to kill each other when they are not in church. What Twain is trying to say is people at this time tried to act religious but didn’t, hence the hypocrisy they both possess. One night with Widow Douglass, she tells Huck about Moses, Huck really didn’t care about her preaching saying “Here she was a-bothering about Moses, which was no kin to her, and no use to anybody, being gone, you see…” Through Huck, Twain is able to tell the reader of the sightless faith that a civilized people presented towards religion. Towards the climax of the novel when Huck is in a moral dilemma we can see religious hypocrisy. He could do the right thing and write a letter telling where the runaway slave Jim was or go to hell to aid him. Through morals that have been taught to Huck he should have turned Jim in, but after contemplating he screams “All right, then,Â I’ll go to hell- and tore it up.” Even though he ignored his morals and religious teachings he does a Christ like thing by saving a human being. Finally superstition is used in Huckleberry Finn as one of Twain’s many satirical targets. Twain used superstition in the novel to show hope for Jim and Huck. Jim is hoping to be a free man one day and Huck running away from trying to civilized. Superstition provides a hope that fortunate things will happen in the future. In the beginning of the novel when a spider is crawling up Huck’s shoulder he brushed it off and killed it before he could even react. “I didn’t need anybody to tell me that that was an awful bad sign and would fetch me some bad luck, so I was scared and most shook the clothes off of me. I got up and turned around in my tracks three times and crossed my breast every time; and then I tied up a little lock of my hair to keep witches away.” Already the premature use of bad luck and superstition in the novel can foreshadow that more is to come later in the novel. When Tom and Huck take off Jim’s hat and put it on the limb of a tree, Jim comes up with this elaborate superstition about witches. “Jim said the witches bewildered him and put him in a trance, and rode him all over the state, then set him under the trees again, and hung his hat on a limb to show who done it.” The other Negros were entranced by this story “so favorably…that he enlarged the territory covered until the witches ‘rode him all over the world.” Twain shows how fascinated people were by the supernatural with Jim’s story of what happened to his hat. Later in the novel Jim was telling Huck how it is bad luck to touch snakeskin with your hands. Huck not believing Jim’s frivolous superstitious fact pulls a prank on him and puts a dead snake by Jim’s feet while he is sleeping. Ironically the snake’s mate comes and bites him, which gives both Huck and Jim and reason to believe in superstition. With these examples and some others (hairball oracle) Twain is able to satirize superstition effectively and well. It gave slaves hope that better things were to come, and in this instance Huck, a different and better life. Twain satirizes how society in this time would believe silly rituals and precautionary actions for a better future. Mark Twain’s The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn is truly a great book. It’s funny and Sam Clemens really uses satire in a genius manner to depict and criticize society at the time in the 19th century. While it did have some laughs in it, it also contained and pointed out serious issues at the time. The conflicts that I’m talking about are cruelty towards man, religious hypocrisy, and superstition. I can see why people acclaim this book as one of the greatest American literary novels of all time; it is a moving book and will be remembered for years to come.
Analytical Report on the “Prevention of Obesity for through Targeting Nutritious Foods”.
I’m working on a research & summaries report and need a sample draft to help me study.
In this assignment you will demonstrate your ability to follow the necessary steps for research: define a research question, develop a research methodology, gather information using that methodology, and analyze the information (see Figure 11.2 (p. 317) and Chapter 14). You will then demonstrate your ability to write an analytical report based on that research. Your report will follow the general analytical report structure—Introduction, Methodology, Results, Discussion, Conclusions and/or recommendations—the IMRaD structure. the analytical report is going to be written off of the proposal draft attached below.
Narragansett Indians Act of Submission 1644 Essay (Book Review). The article is about a humble submission by Sachem on behalf of the people of Nanhingansets to the government of old England for protection (Sachem 81). The Princes and Pessicus arrive at this decision after jointly and unanimously agreeing to sign the act and deed of submission. The details of the act submission entail declaration of their loyalty to the King and offer their lives to the majesty. The decided with one consent “freely, voluntarily, and most humbly to submit, subject, and give over ourselves, peoples, lands, rights, inheritances, and possessions whatsoever, in ourselves and our heirs successively forever unto the protection, care and government of that worthy and royal Prince, Charles, King of Great Britain and Ireland, his heirs and successors forever…p.82” The article is historical in the sense that it was written on the nineteenth day of April 1644. This is also most four centuries ago. The article is also good to know about. This is because it tells the audience or reader the history of Narragansett Indians and how England contributed to its development. For instance, it is revealed that Narragansett was colonized by England and that they paid to her majesty the queen (p. 82). The author’s main points are to submission to the government of England and receive protection in return. The author is not biased as he has involved all concerned parties and the benefits will be for everybody. The other thing is that the author is writing to a specific- the government of old England. Gachadow The article is about the speech written to the Virginia Commissioners at the Treaty of Lancaster 1744 (Gachadow 125). It is a complaint and reminder to brother assaraquoa. In this article, the governor is also reminded of how the Great King conquered the Indians and how they were employed by Maryland to Conquer the Conestoga’s. The Indians wanted peace through face to face confirmation with the Cherokees and Catawbas; this never came to pass since those Nations never sent their men. The article also advances complaints that the colonial government promised Indians somethings but was given. Instead, the colonial government ended up stealing local resources leaving locals impoverished. The article is important to know about. This is because it reveals how locals in Pennsylvania dealt with or come face-to-face with colonialism ad how they were impacted. The author’s main points were the unfulfilled promises made by the colonial government and the experiences locals went through in the hands of the colonial government. He completed his speech by talking about the injustices inflicted upon them by the White People (Gachadow 125). The author also wrote about what the opposing side achieved. The author is not biased as he exposed all things that happened both to them what they did to opponents such as Catawbas. Also, Gachadow confirmed and believed they are justified to continue fighting with Catawbas; advice the council not to be troubled at what they do to the Catawbas. The Catawbas assaulted Virginia society with hurtful gender metaphors. The author wrote to a specific audience brother Assaraquoa-the Virginia commissioner. Oneida Indians The article is about the speech to Governor Trumbull and was written in 1775 by a representative of the Oneida Indians living in New England (Oneida Indians 150). The time of publication shows that it is a historical article. The main points are the intentions of the Indian community to remain neutral in the impending American Revolution. It is specific audiences are the Governor, Jonathan Trumbull, and the chiefs of New England. The Oneidas decided to sit on the fence and not to take part in the dispute between two brothers. They advocate for peace and proclaim not to support any side in the contest. This is attributed to the fact that the Oneidas bear equal affection to both sides. The chief says if the conflict was with an alien, a foreign nation, then they could consider giving aid to their ally (Oneida Indians 149). It is important to know about the information presented in the article. Being a historical article it helps the reader to know the participants in the American Revolution. It also helps in understanding the reasons why Indians chose to remain neutral. Also, it helps one to know whether Indians remained neutral to the end or not. The decision by Indians is attributed to the fact that the Oneidas were preventing being targeted during the American Revolution. Another reason is that the conflict seemed tactical since it involved brothers, and the Indians did not wish to get involved. Indians also had a historically close relationship with the whites and did not want to savor it. The author did not have any bias as he attributes to his people what they deserved and to others what they deserved. The message is directed to the governor of Trumbull. In this case, he is the specific audience. Surviving as Vanishing Americans This article is about the plight of Indians living in the Northwestern part of Ohio. First, it details some intentions made to remove them from where they living-Northwestern part of Ohio. In the 1790s, General Anthony Wayne defeated them at the Battle of Fallen Timbers in northwestern Ohio. The Indian confederacy was split by playing on different tribal interests. This resulted in the tribal leaders ceding most of Ohio to the United States in 1795. In the early 19th century, Indian resistance was revived again by Shawnee Prophet. The pan-Indian unity led the Creeks to fight a bloody war for independence against the American expansion. They lost and became the vanishing race as they sought to survive in a society mortifying them. The article has important information that is worth learning about. That is it reveals reasons why the US wanted to displace Indians. For instance, Indians were considered immigrants and that they were hostile and warlike savages who fought against the pioneers and resisted civilization. The resistance of the Indians provided the colonizers with further justification to destroy their cultures and take their land. Thousands of Indians have driven away from their ancestral homes after Congress passed the Indian Removal Act in 1830. Americans thought that the Indians were bound to be extinct. The article is historical as it was written way back in 1793 and contains detailed information of the origin and challenges faced by Indians in Ohio. The author illustrates how the Vanishing policy threatened the Indian adaptations. The author is not biased in his writing and he is not writing a specific audience. What the author does is to bring out the plight of Indians in Northwestern Ohio. Speech at the Confederate Council The article is about disappointments expressed by the United Indian Nations at the Confederate Council after being excluded in the peace treaty (United Indian Nation 176). The peace treaty involved the King of Great Britain. It mainly entails the intentions of Indians to promote peace after the war. In the article, the United Indian Nations pointed out the mischief that happened between the Americans and them. The Indians also expressed their displeasure at separate treaties with different nations. The Indians complained of the neglect and lack of openness in the treaties. They reiterate their plan of effecting peace and reconciliation involving the general council. The whole confederacy should be involved without restraint on either side. The article is historical in the sense that it was written in late 1786. It brings out the historical contributions of the United Indian Nation towards the new nation (United Indian Nation 175). It is also important to know about as it brings out all players who contributed to the establishment of the new nation. It also unravels the reasons why Indians were persistent in their quest to be included in the peace process. The policies dealt with sensitive matters of peace and right to property (United Indian Nation 176). They are also worried about the factional divisions and rivalries amongst themselves. The author was not biased as he presented the views and reasons advanced by all parties. The speech is specific as it was addressed at the confederate council where the main points were the failure to include the Indian community in the peace process and the likely consequences. Works Cited Gachadow. “Speech to the commissioner of Virginia at the treaty of lanchaster.” Colonial records of Pennsylvania (1744): 125-126. Print. Oneidi Indians. “Speech to Governor Trumbull.” American Archives (1775): 150-151. Print. Pennsylvania. Provincial Council. Minutes of the Provincial Council of Pennsylvania: From the Organization to the Termination of the Proprietary Government. Pennsylvania: J. Severns Press, 1851. Print. Sachem. “Narranganset Indians Act of Submission.” Records of Colony of Rhode island (1644): 81-82. Print. United Indian Nation. “Speech at the confederate council.” American State papers (1644): 175-178. Print. Narragansett Indians Act of Submission 1644 Essay (Book Review)
Analytical Report on the “Prevention of Obesity for through Targeting Nutritious Foods”
Essay on Skin Cancer
Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp New Zealand has a lot of people with skin cancer. It has the highest rate of skin cancer in the world, in fact skin cancer is the most common cancer in New Zealand and it is on the rise in every year. The purpose of this essay is to inform people of skin cancer should be taken seriously and give suggestions how to reduce the number of people with skin cancer. This article has been discussed the cause, the impact and the prevention of skin cancer. The cause has been divided into two factors, environmental and individual. The main cause of skin cancer is environmental factors. The environmental factors can be divided into two parts, pollution and sun. Air pollution can cause skin cancer. Pollutants can enter the body from all aspects, the largest area of pollutants in contact with skin, and it has the greatest impact. According to Hoover (2017), the main pollutants come from burning of “coal, tobacco, diesel, asphalt, creosote, gasoline, wood, oil, and tar”. However, the issue of the link between air pollution and skin cancer is a less one and it is still being studied and explored by scientists. So it is not an important cause of skin cancer. The most important cause of skin cancer is the sun. Sunshine can cause damage to body cells, especially the skin is particularly frail. Skin cells are most exposed to sunlight and are easily damaged. A few minutes can do harm to fair skin. If not treated and repaired in time, it will become worse. According to research, 90% of skin cancer is caused be sunlight. In report (2016), “If exposure to sunlight continues for several years, the damaged skin has an increased chance of developing one of the forms of skin cancer. Exposure to ultraviolet radiation increases the risk of developing these cancers (although it may not be the only cause of the disease).” New Zealand has a good environmental protection and the hole in the ozone layer, it makes the sky in New Zealand especially clean and causes the sunlight to be stronger. Because of the low buildings in New Zealand, people are more exposed to the sun when the sunshine is direct. Plus New Zealanders love the sun when they are on the beach or park grass in New Zealand. It is common to see many people lying in the sun. Therefore, a lot of people in New Zealand get skin cancer. In addition to environmental factors, family genes are also key to skin cancer. If a person has skin cancer genes in their family, they have a good chance of having cancer. They are 43% more likely to get skin cancer. The reason for this is that skin cancer like high blood pressure is hereditary. According to Berlin (2015), “Individuals with a first-degree relative diagnosed with skin cancer prior to age 50 and those with a family history of both melanoma and NMSC are at highest risk for early-onset BCC.” Everybody should have their genes checked by a specialist. If there are people in family who have skin cancer, it is recommended that person have regular physical examinations and early screening to find out whether you have skin cancer genes. It is necessary for health. If a mole or spot on a person body becomes bigger, that person must go to the hospital or institution that can detect the skin cancer genes. New Zealand has many places can detect the skin cancer genes. But there is no good way to prevent future generations from passing on skin cancer genes, scientists will try to find a good way to prevent skin cancer genes. There are many ways to prevent or lower the risk of getting skin cancer, such as the following: • Avoiding the sun at its strongest times between 10am to 4pm. Do not schedule outdoor activities during this time, including sport lesson, extreme sports. • People can sit in the shade of a tree or a building when they cannot avoid the peak of the sunlight. • People can wear hats and clothes in summer, which can greatly reduce the chance of sunlight hitting the skin. • If people do not like to wear hats and long sleeves, they should apply outdoor sunscreen at least SPF 30 degrees throughout the year even on cloudy days. • New Zealanders should learn to hold umbrellas. Umbrellas can be used not only in rainy days, but also in sunny days to keep out the sun. • Vegetables and fruits are good for health. There are rich in vitamins. Now the price of vegetables in New Zealand is often higher than the price of meat. If the government can strongly support farmers to grow vegetables and reduce the price of vegetables, people can buy more vegetables. Then vitamin intake can be more adequate. The rates of fat and cancer will be reduce. The impact that skin cancer has on the death rate. This part to show the current state of skin cancer in New Zealand. If the problem is not solved, the impact could be worse and it shows that the problem is very important. According to the O’Dea (2009), “Since 2000, deaths have numbered about 250 per year from melanoma, and about 100 per year from non-melanoma skin cancer.” It is clear from the table that from 2000 to 2005 the total number of melanoma deaths of men and women in New Zealand was about 256, while the number of deaths from non-melanoma skin cancer was about 100 per year. If person add them together, the overall number of deaths per year from skin cancer is about 356. It is a very high proportion of deaths. New Zealand has a much higher rate of skin cancer deaths than any other countries. Skin cancer has the impact on economy. As the death rate of skin cancer continues to rise, the government economic expenditure on skin cancer is also on the rise. Firstly, the economic impact of health-care costs. New Zealand’s health-care costs were NZ$57.1 MN in 2006. According to O’Dea (2009), “health-care provided by dermatologists, plastic surgeons, and hospital oncology departments.” Secondly, the economic impact of lost production. It includes being unable to work after skin cancer, it was NZ$66.0 MN in 2006, and total were NZ$ 123.1 MN. The rise of skin cancer is also a pressure on the government economic. In conclusion, skin cancer is the most common cancer in New Zealand and it is on the rise. Sunlight is the most important cause of skin cancer. People can prevent ahead of time, if they discover the skin has a problem and go to a doctor in time. The best way to prevent skin cancer is to avoid too much sunlight. The death rate from skin cancer is on the rise, it has also led to increased economic pressure on the government over skin cancer. The problem is not an easy question for New Zealand, so the issue of skin cancer should be taken seriously for everybody. (Canadian Centre for Occupational Health
1. How can you apply this information to organizations? Does it align with any of the concepts we’ve discussed
cheap assignment writing service 1. How can you apply this information to organizations? Does it align with any of the concepts we’ve discussed thus far? Please describe the concepts which are similar to those we have reviewed. 2. What do you think about the way the information is presented – is it useful? 3. Can you apply this information to your personal life, and if so, how? Don’t forget to cite the video too – Word helps you with that. 🙂 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=16hxCB1Dvd4
Brite Divinity School Strategies to Grow and Expand a Non Profit Business Discussion
Brite Divinity School Strategies to Grow and Expand a Non Profit Business Discussion.
Strategies to Grow and Expand a Nonprofit BusinessGrounded in Penrose’s theory of growth, the purpose of this qualitative single-case study was to explore strategies leaders used to develop and expand a nonprofit business in the midwestern region of the United States.Purpose StatementThe purpose of this qualitative single case study was to explore effective strategies leaders of a nonprofit enterprise use to grow and expand their business. The targeted population was leaders of a nonprofit organization located in the midwestern region of the United States who desire to develop effective strategies to grow and expand their nonprofit business. The implications for positive social change include the potential for creating effective strategies to grow and expand business, thus increasing the capacity to positively transform the lives of children and single mothers such nonprofit organizations seek to serve.Use at least 5 peer reviewed sources from 2017 to 2021
Brite Divinity School Strategies to Grow and Expand a Non Profit Business Discussion
Travellers In Irish Society Sociology Essay
Furthermore, as will be explained, policy makers contributed significantly to the feelings that were aimed at the Travelling community; their recognition of them as a problem to be solved during the 1960’s sealed their fate as ‘inferior others’. Whilst there were attempts to rectify the situation during the 1980’s towards integration; there was still a failure to recognise the discrimination that was prevalent in relation to Travellers. Finally the 1990’s has seen some improvements but Travellers are still seen as inferior by the majority of society. During the 1940’s Ireland experienced a shift from a predominantly rural society towards an urban society. This shift resulted in a displacement of the Travelling community; they were now being considered a problem for Irish society. Kuhling and Keohane (2007) argue that groups, including the travelling community have been involuntarily globalised; whilst there is need to recognise the need for improvements in society, it is equally important to respect the decision of any group to maintain their cultural identity unfortunately, ‘their cultural distinctiveness became constructed, with a highly racialised discourse of Traveller deviance and inferiority, as justification for spatial exclusion and discrimination’ (Fanning, 2002 p. 153). This strong feeling towards the Travelling community gave legitimacy to the political goal of assimilation. Institutional discrimination in relation to the Travelling community has contributed significantly to the challenges faced by Travellers. Such discrimination can be traced back to the 1940s -1950s; Helleiner (1998) explains that anti Traveller discourse, in particular within parliamentary debates during this period, demonised Travellers blaming them for all the problems within society at the time. This was possibly a deflection technique as it resulted in diverting attention away from the real problems within the economy at the time. The 1963 Report of the Commission on Itinerancy used the ‘drop-out’ theory in order to deal with the issue of Travellers; this theory explains that Travellers were sedentary people forced to become nomadic due to personal problems such as alcoholism or illegitimacy (Ní Shuinéar, 2004). Furthermore the word Itinerant was used to describe Travellers, a word associated with vagrancy. For the next two decades the focus of attention was on the need to save and assimilate the ‘poor misfortunate’s’ back into the general population. The 1980s saw a shift in policy; the government finally recognising that assimilation was not the answer; there was now a focus on integration of Travellers, however very often Travellers had to fit in with mainstream society rather than having policies specifically focused on the needs of Travellers, and unfortunately there was a failure to recognise discrimination in policies. Such recognition did appear in legislation throughout the 1990’s. Although there has been a shift in policy, Travellers still experience individual discrimination on a daily basis. This is something I experienced it firsthand a number of years ago; I had just attended the funeral of a friend, who was a member of the Travelling community, the group I was with decided to go for a drink, however I soon realised that almost all of the public houses were closed; I asked one of the group if there was something happening in town that I was not aware of to which he replied, ‘yes a Travellers funeral’. I was aware of the negative feelings toward the Travelling community, but this made real for me the blatant discriminatory practices displayed towards the Travelling community. Refused entry to public houses is only one area where Travellers face such discrimination; they are often turned away from restaurants, shops, and when trying to book a hotel for a wedding Travellers have to hide their identity in order to avoid being refused. The Equal Status Act in 2000 made it illegal to exclude members of the Traveller community; however an amendment to the act, due to complaints from liquor license holders meant that action taken in relation to refusal of services or goods would be tried in District Courts where there is less expertise in relation to issues of equality (Pavee Point) Representation of the Travelling community through the media has contributed to the socially constructed view of Travellers as deviants; newspapers, and television criminalise and demonise the Travelling community, thus perpetuating the feelings of discontent and further identifying them as social deviants ( Kabachnik, 2009). Lentin and McVeigh (2006) highlighted the inability of the media in relation to the murder of John Ward in 2004, to focus attention on the brutality of the murder, choosing instead to reverse the ‘categories ‘perpetrator’ and ‘victim’ for the media, political parties and criminal justice system alike’ (ibid, p. 129). One of the most significant challenges facing the travelling community is the continued lack of provision within the education system. Travellers experience within the education system has been primarily negative. This is due to the lack of understanding on behalf of the educators in relation to Traveller culture. Historically, Travellers have received differential treatment in relation to education; they were overlooked in education policies until 1970. They also experienced a policy of segregation from the rest of their peers; Travellers were taught together in a separate class regardless of age or ability. From the 1990s onwards there has been an increase in the numbers of Traveller children attending school; however there is still a significant number who choose to leave before Junior Cert level. Many felt that differences between them and the settled community contributed to a feeling of isolation. Lynch and Lodge (2004) argue that, there is a ‘culture of disrespect for difference’ (ibid, p.145). This culture is not only confined to peer culture, but stretches to the education system itself which, for quite some time has displayed a lack of recognition for difference and diversity. The Chief Inspector Report 2001-2004 found that the achievements of Traveller children were not at the same level of their peers. It also concluded that Traveller pupils were not challenged appropriately by their teachers (Department of Education and Science, 2005); low expectations on behalf of the teaching profession impacts on the ability for Traveller children to progress at the same level as their peers and often results in disillusionment with the education system. The Hidden curriculum in schools also provides a challenge for many Travellers; academic language, used in secondary school, makes learning more difficult. Functionalists argue that the education system has the responsibility with inculcating individuals with the values and norms necessary to function in society; therefore it is vital that the education system ensures that Traveller culture is recognised and promoted in a positive light throughout the curriculum. Discrimination towards the Travelling community is highlighted throughout The TEACH Report; comments from employees in relation to employing Travellers indicate that the discourse surrounding Travellers remains relatively unchanged. The report also represents Travellers awareness of the prejudice; one interviewee explains; ‘if they know you’re a Traveller you haven’t a hope. They’ll tell you in a nice way there’s no vacancy. Somebody else could go down. A settled person could apply a week later and next thing you know they’re working there. You know you could have more qualifications’ (Hourigan