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# PHY 206 University of South Florida Circuit Resistor Diagrams Presentation

PHY 206 University of South Florida Circuit Resistor Diagrams Presentation.

CircuitsInstructions: For each circuit presented, you will construct the circuit using power-point shapes (resistors, wires, meters,…). In addition, based on the voltage values, you will calculate the total resistance and the total current for each circuit. The power-point file that you are to work on is attached to this page. Open it, perform the work, save it, and lastly upload it to the link provided. Refer back to the video in the previous module if you need a start. NOTE: When placing the ammeter in its place, you are measuring the current (coming out of) that would flow back through the battery.1. Two resistors in series: Construct the circuit on your breadboard for the two-resistor series circuit. Place an ammeter to measure the TOTAL current in the circuit.Measure the voltage across any of the two resistors. Drag the voltmeter to a convenient spot and take two wires to hook it up properly to measure the desired voltage. Place the value of the reading (what it should read ideally) in the space provided on the sheet.Use the wires provided. Save the red for the power input and then use whatever colors you prefer, or your TA prefers, for the meters and and return wire.2. Two resistors in parallel: Construct the circuit on your breadboard for the two-resistor parallel circuit. Place an ammeter to measure the TOTAL current in the circuit.Measure the voltage across any of the two resistors. Drag the voltmeter to a convenient spot and take two wires to hook it up properly to measure the desired voltage. Place the value of the reading (what it should read ideally) in the space provided on the sheet.Use the wires provided. Save the red for the power input and then use whatever colors you prefer, or your TA prefers, for the meters and and return wire.3. One resistor in series with a parallel combination: Construct the circuit of the single resistor in series with a parallel combination. Place the ammeter to measure the TOTAL current in the circuit.Measure the voltage across any of the three resistors. Drag the voltmeter to a convenient spot and take two wires to hook it up properly to measure the desired voltage. Place the value of the reading (what it should read ideally) in the space provided on the sheet.Use the wires provided. Save the red for the power input and then use whatever colors you prefer, or your TA prefers, for the meters and and return wire.
PHY 206 University of South Florida Circuit Resistor Diagrams Presentation

Substance abuse is a multi-facetted problem that plagues a whole society, irrespective of different age categories and social classes. The consequences and the amount of harm caused to the individual, the family and society are diverse. Mauritius, while being a small island of approximately 1.2 million [1] inhabitants only, far away from the leading powers of the global economy, and niched at the heart of the Indian Ocean has not been spared from this issue. According to the National Drug Control Masterplan 2004-2009 [2] , the age of initiation to substance abuse in Mauritius starts from as early as 11 years because of peer or media influence. The rationale of substance abuse is however not this simple. Sometimes, some people give in to the instinctive human behaviour which is trying to find the easiest escape from harsh realities and nuisances of daily life, and resort to substance abuse. Evolution of substance abuse in Mauritius Substance abuse may have become an alarming phenomenon of late, but drugs have been present in Mauritius for a far longer time. The use of drugs has been recorded to have started with as early as during the French colonisation [3] with illicit rum production by slaves. With the arrival of indentured labourers, Indians brought along with their culture and traditions, cannabis, while Chinese immigrants brought opium [4] . These drugs were mostly utilised in a socio-cultural circumstance, by adults without being a cause for serious concern. Mid-sixties brought with it the Hippie Culture [5] to Mauritian shores as well as new forms of drugs such as LSD [6] , Mandrax [7] and other hallucinogens which became synonymous to ‘new highs’ to youngsters. The seventies caused an altogether different trend of substance abuse, as the situation changed drastically from its socio-cultural to a more significantly worrying use. A rudimentary form of heroin [8] known as “Brown Sugar” was introduced in Mauritius. Brown Sugar was smuggled through the airport, harbour and through postal packets. The ”Amsterdam Affair” [9] that broke out in 1985 was the quintessence of the scope of the drugs problem in Mauritius. As an attempt to display its willingness to leave no stone unturned in the combat against drug trafficking, legislation was amended [10] and death penalty was introduced for proved traffickers. No drug trafficker have however been executed because of the thorny legal issues surrounding capital punishment. A sudden downward trend was observed in 1987 and continued until 1990 after which indicators revealed a slight increase in illicit trafficking and consumption [11] . In 2003, the “White Lady [12] ” was a psychotropic drug opted by most drug users. Post 2005, Subutex [13] , which is normally used as treatment on those dependent on narcotic pain killers, and opiates, soon became the most sought-after drug in Mauritius. Substance Abuse and Repercussions Social Consequences Significant social consequences include the disintegration of the family unit, with the emotional and psychological well-being of family members being upset. Substance abuse and delinquency go hand in hand; as sometimes dependency and withdrawal syndromes overcome reason and push addicts towards theft, violence and similar such acts to procure the financial means to obtain their required dosage. The 2009 World Drug Report [14] shows that number of drug-related crimes has increased by 18% from 2006 to 2007. Health Consequences Substance abuse affects the personal health of drugs addicts themselves. Withdrawal and apathy are a few of the psychological dysfunctions they might face. The impact of addiction can be far reaching. Cardiovascular disease, stroke, cancer, and lung disease can all be caused by drug abuse [15] . Because of needle sharing behaviour [16] , a well-established norm among IDUs as has been shown by the IDUs Respondent Driven Sampling [17] , which is explained by the increased costs and low financial means of IDUs as well as Police Services continuous stalking of IDUs in possession of drug paraphernalia, blood borne diseases such as AIDS or Hepatitis [18] are easily transmitted, repercussions of which is catastrophic both for the IDU and society at large. IDUs who get affected by such blood borne diseases will often through a domino effect, affect their sexual partners, while pregnant women who are IDUs run the risk of contaminating their unborn children with such. Injecting drug use is the cause for an increasing proportion of HIV infections in many parts of the world, Mauritius included. It is estimated that between 11 and 21 million people worldwide inject drugs, and of those, between 0.8 and 6.6 million are infected with HIV [19] . Financial Impacts Health services that have to be provided to drug addicts include treatment of diseases which may develop in drug addicts as a consequence of substance abuse, as well as costs of rehabilitation services, which is often overlooked by most persons. The cost of non-generic antiretroviral treatment per person per annum may amount up to \$ 1500 [20] , averaging to about Rs 50, 000 based on current exchange rates. Financial consequences on the economy are grave, with the parallel running of a black economy with profits obtained from the illicit traffic, as well as with the effects of drugs abuse of members of the workforce which reduces productivity. Conventional Approaches to Substance abuse Mauritius has ratified the United Nations Drug Control Conventions [21] . It has also ratified the 2000 Convention on Trans-National Organized Crime [22] and is also signatory of both the African Union [23] and the SADC Drug Control Protocol. Existing legal frameworks that were used, and still are used to control drugs supply and demand reduction are: The Dangerous Drug Act 2000 [24] The Pharmacy Act 1983 [25] The Financial Intelligence and Anti Money Laundering Act 2002 [26] Drugs Demand Reduction Drugs demand reduction is one of the approach used to combat the substance abuse crisis at its core. Drug demand reduction refers to policies and programmes directed towards reducing the consumer demand for narcotic drug and psychotropic substances as covered by the three main International Drug Control Conventions, as mentioned above. The National Agency for Treatment and Rehabilitation of Substance Abusers (NATReSA) is a parastatal body under the aegis of the Ministry of Social Security, National Solidarity and Reform Institutions which was set up by an Act of Parliament in 1996 [27] and it is responsible for all demand reduction activities in the country. By conducting a number of prevention activities in the community, schools and the workplace, NATReSA uses education as its main vehicular weapon to try to diminish the demand for drugs. It provides funding to a number of NGOs engaged in prevention, treatment and rehabilitation work. The National Prevention Unit set up by the NATReSa in 2002 has set up a Demand Reduction Integrated Program, from which more than 25 regions have already benefitted till date. Supply Side Reduction As to supply side reduction, the law enforcement side is actively involved and a number of institutions operating under the aegis of different ministries are responsible for drug control activities. The Anti Drug Smuggling Unit (ADSU) [28] , the National Coast Guard and the Special Mobile Force are special units of the Mauritius Police Force, working under the command of the Commissioner of Police involved in drug control. The Passport and Immigration Office also operates under the supervision of the Commissioner of Police and has a role in the screening of passengers at the seaport and airport while Custom Investigation and Intelligence Unit plays a noteworthy role in the checking of containers and other luggage entering the country. The Pharmacy Section of the Ministry of Health and Quality of Life is responsible for the issuing of licenses for the import of licit narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances. Finally, Mauritius Post Services work in close cooperation with the above units to exercise close control to guarantee that drugs do not enter the country through letters and postal packages and the Forest Department aids through its field work in forests, mountains and state lands, and is instrumental in detecting cannabis cultivation. According to the 2010 World Drug Report [29] , Mauritius is the country with the highest opiates consumption prevalence in the African continent with an estimate of 1.9 %. This demonstrates clearly that conventional approaches to the Mauritian drug problem have not met expectations in terms of efficiency in tackling it. Instead, new factors borne due to a rapidly changing society contributed to the rendering them inefficient – opening up of airspaces which while increasing benefits from the tourism and travel industry has also increased the risks of drugs being brought into the country by foreigners, expansion of the offshore sector through which large sums of money transits through Mauritius, sources of which remain confidential to the offshore companies and the open secret being that sometimes, part of these monies go into the black economy, financing drug transactions and poverty and prostitution which are key contributory factors as well to the expansion of the Mauritian drug market among others. The escalation of drug use became a cause for worry as the main vehicle for substance abuse being through injection, this implied a heightened risk of transmission of blood borne diseases [30] among the IDU population and hence a greater number of HIV positive and hepatitis cases amongst others. An altogether new approach was hence adopted to counter this eventuality, known as the harm reduction approach. The harm reduction which consists of needle exchange programs as well as methadone substitution therapy implied a completely different perspective, the core principle being admitting the existence of a substance abuse issue in a community, which often is stubbornly resisted by authorities, hence displaying the huge difficulty in the implementation of this method. Over the years, numerous observations have been made by journalists and Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) representatives on the structural changes of the drug situation in Mauritius, the worrying dimensions of the issue of substance abuse and its relations with transmission of blood borne diseases. Harm reduction however, being a relatively new concept in Mauritius dating only back to 2006, remains a rather unexplored path. Hence, the purpose of this dissertation would be to bring focus on Needle Exchange Programs (NEPs) as they are carried out in the Mauritian context. While running through a general overview of the harm reduction approach, the rationale behind it will be examined along with implementation timeline of NEP in Mauritius. Policy aspects will be reviewed and an analysis of the legal backdrop of NEPs in Mauritius will be presented, which will consist of a study salient features of the existing laws and NEPs and eventually the NEP specific framework which is the HIV/AIDS Act 06. NEP in prisons, being a delicate and debatable issue, will be considered and the prospect of such in Mauritian prisons discussed. The dissertation will be concluded by evaluating the Mauritian NEP, and proposing recommendations of possible ways to gear more towards efficiency and best practice with regards to Mauritian laws and needle exchange. Preliminary Chapter: Understanding Harm Reduction The Basic Concept Harm reduction refers to policies, programmes and practices utilised and applied with the objective of diminishing risks associated with the use of drugs by substance abusers [31] . Subdivided into needle exchange programs and methadone substitution therapies, harm reduction is viewed as a far-reaching innovative approach to the problem of substance abuse and its related risks. The salient feature of this novel method is the radical shift in focus to the prevention of harm caused by substance abuse, rather than on the prevention of drug use itself. This entails recognising the existence of a substance abuse problem in society which in turn indicates the inability or sometimes even failure of concerned authorities in tackling the drug problem. This approach was often discussed in Mauritius after recognition of the threat of HIV as well as other blood borne diseases which were spreading through injecting drug use. (RSA(??)) [32] . Stakeholders including the National AIDS Secretariat [33] agreed that harm reduction does not undermine but instead complements approaches seeking to prevent or decrease drug consumption. It is based on the recognition that many people throughout the world continue to use drugs despite the best of efforts to prevent drug use. Rationale Behind Harm Reduction Harm Reduction and Human Rights The harm reduction approach to drugs is based on a strong pledge to public health and human rights. Harm reduction interventions have found support among numerous United Nations (UN) [34] human rights mechanisms, specifically in context of HIV prevention and the right to attain the highest achievable standard of health International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights [35] (ICESCR) And Harm Reduction. The Committee on the Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights [36] (CESCR) has recommended [37] many times that States Parties scale up their harm reduction programmes in order to meet their obligations under Article 12 [38] of the ICESCR. In its Concluding Observations on Ukraine (2007), the Committee stated that it was “gravely concerned atâ€¦the limited access by drug users to substitution therapy,” and recommended that the state party “make drug substitution therapy and other HIV prevention services more accessible for drug users” [39] . In 2009, the UN Human Rights Council [40] adopted a resolution on human rights and HIV/AIDS that unequivocally provided support to harm reduction programs, including needle exchange. The resolution reflected past Commitments [41] made at the General Assembly [42] in 2001 and again in 2006. In 2010, the UN Commission on Narcotic Drugs [43] adopted a resolution more than ever, backing the far-reaching package of interventions for HIV prevention treatment and among injecting drug users. Both ECOSOC and the UNAIDS Programme Co-ordinating Board(will be explained in footnote) have also endorsed these interventions. Article 15.1.b ((will be laid out in footnote) guarantees the right of everyone to benefit from scientific progress and its applications. In the context of injecting driven HIV, this implies a right to benefit from evidence based programs that can prevent, treat and control HIV/AIDS and other drug related potential diseases. Harm reduction methods have been backed by extensive scientific evidence base indicative of their effectiveness at reducing injecting-related risks. Research Based Rationale Supply reduction has been used in Mauritius now, since many years and although being an expensive method to combat substance abuse, drug trafficking crimes and substance abuse is still well present in the Mauritian society. 2002, 2003 to 2004 mode of transmission of HIV and blood borne infections steadily shifted from heterosexual activities to injecting drug use.(annexed charts) The 2009 Injecting Drug User HIV surveillance survey was implemented by the AIDS Unit of the Mauritius Ministry of Health and Quality of Life (MOH
Nationstate Insurance Case Study. I need an explanation for this Computer Science question to help me study.

Nationstate Insurance Case Study
Read the Nationstate Case Study on pages 160-164 in the textbook. Answer Discussion Questions 1-2 at the end of the Case Study. Your responses must be complete, detailed and in APA format. See the sample assignment for expected format and length. The grading rubric is included below.
Nationstate Insurance Case Study

Colonial Terrorism Who Really Invented Terrorism Powerpoint Presentation.

Looks worse than it is. Please go through instructions below carefully.one assignment isPROMPTFor this assignment, you will organize the main points from your social issue projects into a Google Slides, PowerPoint, Adobe Spark Page, Microsoft Sway page, Prezi, or a medium of your choosing. This is a way for everyone to see what you’ve been working on! All students must submit their presentation to earn at least a “B” in the course. To earn a “pass,” presentations must adhere to the prompt guidelines.If you are doing a slide show, you MUST include at least 10 slides covering the following information:background information about the issuediffering viewpoints about the issueyour stance/opinion on the issue (this would be a good place to discuss your essay commentary—present the material in a different way that teaches the class about your issue)important facts you deem essential to presenting the issue to your classmatesdescription of the creative project (how you came up with it, why you think it is a good representation of your stance on the issue, what the project actually IS); include your creative commentary in your slide showOptional: record your voice narrating the presentation!For an Adobe Spark or Microsoft Sway page, be sure to include all of the same information outlined above.Post your presentation to our Social Issue Presentation Padlet.Then, view/watch some of your peers’ presentations and comment on at least two of them for a “complete” score.ResourcesHere are some resources to help you with constructing your presentation:Google Slides tutorial (Links to an external site.)PowerPoint tutorial (Links to an external site.)Microsoft Sway tutorial (Links to an external site.)Adobe Spark Page tutorial (Links to an external site.)SamplesStandardized TestingMental Health StigmaSubmitting your PresentationTo submit to Padlet,Find your class title and click the plus sign under the appropriate column. This will pop up:2. Then, add your file by either selecting the “UP” arrow or the link icon.3. Then, for title, put your social issue. For “Write something,” add your name (first name and last initial is sufficient)4. Watch your presentation appear on the grid!5. Then, comment on at least 2 peers’ presentations by typing in the “Add Comment” box under their presentation. Comments must insightfully respond to the presentation and offer praise and thoughtful suggestions.Here is our Presentation Padlet:Intro to Social Issue Projectsand here is the link I want the same as the video https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0dyZ43ZH2M4&feature=emb_logoThe second one is Your second commentary will be a creative commentary. For the creative commentary, you can choose from different genres, such as formal commentary or parody, a commentary aimed at a specific social or age group, a visual such as a cartoon commentary (of your own making!), a twitter message, or a more literary commentary such as a poem. There are no limits to your creativity with this project. You can literally create anything you’d like, as long as your social issue and your stance are clear. The only thing I ask is that you CREATE SOMETHING. Simply taking an image or video off of Google will NOT suffice. There are lots of examples on Canvas to help you. Once done, submit to our Creative Commentaries Padlet (Links to an external site.) and to Canvas.Criteria:Clearly explores the social issueSocial issue and stance can be clearly identifiedHas some creativity! Have fun with this!PreviousNextCan the social issue you write about be “Facts About Climate Change”one assignment isPROMPTFor this assignment, you will organize the main points from your social issue projects into a Google Slides, PowerPoint, Adobe Spark Page, Microsoft Sway page, Prezi, or a medium of your choosing. This is a way for everyone to see what you’ve been working on! All students must submit their presentation to earn at least a “B” in the course. To earn a “pass,” presentations must adhere to the prompt guidelines.If you are doing a slide show, you MUST include at least 10 slides covering the following information:background information about the issuediffering viewpoints about the issueyour stance/opinion on the issue (this would be a good place to discuss your essay commentary—present the material in a different way that teaches the class about your issue)important facts you deem essential to presenting the issue to your classmatesdescription of the creative project (how you came up with it, why you think it is a good representation of your stance on the issue, what the project actually IS); include your creative commentary in your slide showOptional: record your voice narrating the presentation!For an Adobe Spark or Microsoft Sway page, be sure to include all of the same information outlined above.Post your presentation to our Social Issue Presentation Padlet.Then, view/watch some of your peers’ presentations and comment on at least two of them for a “complete” score.ResourcesHere are some resources to help you with constructing your presentation:Google Slides tutorial (Links to an external site.)PowerPoint tutorial (Links to an external site.)Microsoft Sway tutorial (Links to an external site.)Adobe Spark Page tutorial (Links to an external site.)SamplesStandardized TestingMental Health StigmaSubmitting your PresentationTo submit to Padlet,Find your class title and click the plus sign under the appropriate column. This will pop up:2. Then, add your file by either selecting the “UP” arrow or the link icon.3. Then, for title, put your social issue. For “Write something,” add your name (first name and last initial is sufficient)4. Watch your presentation appear on the grid!5. Then, comment on at least 2 peers’ presentations by typing in the “Add Comment” box under their presentation. Comments must insightfully respond to the presentation and offer praise and thoughtful suggestions.Here is our Presentation Padlet:Intro to Social Issue Projectsand here is the link I want the same as the video https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0dyZ43ZH2M4&feature=emb_logoThe second one is Your second commentary will be a creative commentary. For the creative commentary, you can choose from different genres, such as formal commentary or parody, a commentary aimed at a specific social or age group, a visual such as a cartoon commentary (of your own making!), a twitter message, or a more literary commentary such as a poem. There are no limits to your creativity with this project. You can literally create anything you’d like, as long as your social issue and your stance are clear. The only thing I ask is that you CREATE SOMETHING. Simply taking an image or video off of Google will NOT suffice. There are lots of examples on Canvas to help you. Once done, submit to our Creative Commentaries Padlet (Links to an external site.) and to Canvas.Criteria:Clearly explores the social issueSocial issue and stance can be clearly identifiedHas some creativity! Have fun with this!PreviousNextCan the social issue you write about be “Facts About Climate Change”
Colonial Terrorism Who Really Invented Terrorism Powerpoint Presentation

## ITPM 615 American InterContinental University Making the Most of Funds Paper

ITPM 615 American InterContinental University Making the Most of Funds Paper.

Your company has assigned you to work on a project plan for a new internal support system. This system will be expected to track financial aspects of your company’s existing and proposed projects.In a 5 page proposal to the corporate management, complete the following:Explain how balance sheets, income statements, and cash flow statements would be used as inputs to diagnose the performance of a project and determine shareholder value.Note that your proposal would form the basis for developing an automated tracking support system.The balanced scorecard is a conceptual framework that incorporates operational and financial measurements of an organization. Explain how the balanced score card concept could be used in analyzing project cost performance.Deepen your discussion by illustrating with examples.For assistance with your assignment, please use your text, Web resources, and all course materials.
ITPM 615 American InterContinental University Making the Most of Funds Paper

## Religious Teachings: Carl Barth – Church Dogmatic Research Paper

nursing essay writing service Introduction Church Dogmatic refers to the works of Carl Barth on various doctrines of God. Theology has received a massive attention from researchers since the inception of formal learning. For a long time, various individuals have been concerned with the ability to understand God. God works in a special way. It has been in the interest of many scholars to create a clear understanding of the values of God. It is also their concern to help explain how human beings should relate to God.1 Carl Barth was one of the scholars who dedicated his entire live in trying to explain how this relationship works by coming up with doctrines to help clarify the issue. Theologians in the current society have increasingly found the work of this scholar highly valuable. The work of Pope Pius has had a huge impact on the current practice of many theologians, as his principles were found to be very relevant. Although there were times when his views were nearly forgotten, current scholars have revived them with a huge impact. The works of this scholar are not only relevant to the Catholics but also to other religions. According to many contemporary scholars, the works of Carl Barth are important to both the Catholics and Protestants2. This is because of the focus of the scholar. The focus of his works is on Jesus Christ. He strongly believes that all religious matters start with Jesus. He observes that for an individual to understand Christianity, he or she must have an understanding of Jesus. Lack of proper understanding of Jesus would be a clear indicator that the individual lacks knowledge of the Christian religion. The second focus is on ethics. This scholar sums the teachings of Jesus as Ethics. Since Jesus knew that God works in an ethical way, he observed all religious principles. Jesus’ teachings were based on acting ethically. When he was leaving the earth, he left only one commandment to be followed by all. The commandment was that people should love one another. This was meant to ensure that societies maintain ethics. When people develop love towards others, they maintain high ethical standards. Therefore, all other commandments would be automatically followed. This study seeks to unearth the assertiveness of the church as taught by Carl Barth. Thesis Statement Barth’s work was based on two fundamental factors, which are ethics and Jesus Christ. The work of this scholar is relevant to both the protestant and Catholic churches. This study is focused on analyzing his work and determining its relevance in the contemporary work. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Scholars in the contemporary world can utilize the views of Barth to bring about unity and understanding in society. Church wrangles are not good for Christians. Church leaders fight in the public implying that they serve their own interests. The views of Barth, particularly on ethics, can help in ending wrangles. Need for Research Theology is one of the most developed fields of study. It is through the guidance of the spiritual leaders that the peace can be maintained in the society. According to this scholar, religion plays a very important role in society3. Some societies have been associated with certain acts because of the kind of religion they practice.4 Therefore, a sound religious understanding based on the teachings of Jesus can help maintain cohesion in the society. According to the report by this scholar, as the number of theologians increase around the world, evil deeds also increase5. Many people around the world are intolerant to the behavior of others. The results are deaths and other atrocities committed against the innocent. The churches today are no longer speaking in the same language. What one church upholds is exactly the doctrine the other church abhors. This has led to huge confusion in our current churches as leaders publicly disagree even on some fundamental principles. For instance, for a long time, Catholic priests have not been marrying. This has been one of the most important fundamental principles of this church. However, some of the catholic leaders have come out to oppose this principle. This brings about a lot of confusion to church members who trust and believe in their leaders6. The Bible talks about homosexuality, especially the cases of Sodom and Gomorrah. However, some leaders of the church support this behavior right inside the church. This brings a lot of confusion. There is need for proper guidance in the church. The society should be guided by religious values regarding what should be done and what should be avoided7. All these relate to ethics and the teachings of Jesus. Jesus gave a bar on how followers should behave. We will write a custom Research Paper on Religious Teachings: Carl Barth – Church Dogmatic specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This is what we need to emulate. Ethics and the teachings of Jesus have been brought out in the scholarly works of Carl Barth. It was therefore very important to undertake research in order to avoid current confusions and bring harmony in our current society8. It is important to shed more light on some of the fundamental issues in the church. Some church leaders are taking advantage of the confusion to introduce some habits that are bringing even further confusion. Discussion Carl Barth’s teachings were based on two main principles that closely guided his research work. This scholar was concerned about bringing a clear understanding of the forces around the world, which made people behave in a certain manner. He evaluated the relevance of people’s behavior in relation to the teachings of Jesus and the Bible’s message9. Carl Barth went against some of the principles of renowned scholars. In his first volume, he discussed the doctrine of Gog’s word. He tried to give the revelation of God. In God’s word, there was power. The word of God sets out to members of the church to help them in understanding the best practices in life. In the current society, it is very important to follow the word of God. Failing to follow his word may lead human beings into many sufferings. In his second volume of the doctrines of the word of God, the scholar brings out incantation of God’s word10. He explores the role and nature of the scripture. The scripture is the word of God because men of God wrote it after being inspired by God himself. In fact, Barth says that the authors of all the books in the Bible were writing the message given to them by God. A clear point is the Book of Revelation. In this book, God himself revealed to John the activities that would take place before the world would end11. The message in this book may be a little more challenging to understand because unlike other books talking about history, this book talks about the future. It would only be through God himself that God’s servant, John, could understand the future. In Exodus 20, God talks directly to Moses giving him the Ten Commandments. It is a clear demonstration that the Bible is the word of God. Given this fact, how then should we approach the bible? Some scholars have argued that there are some little contradictions between the old and the New Testament12. Of point to note is the ‘eye for an eye’ law that existed in the Mosaic Law. This was quite contrary to the teachings of Jesus. Jesus teaches his disciples that they should forgive seventy by seven times when wronged by an individual. Not sure if you can write a paper on Religious Teachings: Carl Barth – Church Dogmatic by yourself? We can help you for only \$16.05 \$11/page Learn More How then would the same bible encourage forgiveness while there is a law that demands that the punishment should be meeting evil with an equal evil? However, Barth dispels these contradictions in his work saying that the followers should follow the teachings of Jesus13. This scholar says that when such contradictions arise in any parts of the bible, the guiding light should be ethics. The bible is based on ethics. Before acting in any given manner, the guiding light should be the ethics. In fact, this scholar argues that the bible has no contradiction at all unless one looks at it from a facial value. The bible records that during different times, there were different situations that demanded different actions. Barth argues that those different moments called for different actions from people. When God gave the Israelites commandments in the wilderness and other laws, it was supposed to help them to manage the challenges in the wilderness. This scholar notes that God gave the Israelites the power to kill their enemies. However, the commandments state that we should not kill. The message is clear and therefore it should not be interpreted differently. When he said that we should not kill, he was helping us to appreciate the fact that we should live as protectors of one another in society14. Procedure of the Study This study focuses on the works of Carl Barth. Carl Birth wrote a number of volumes of books, each with different approach. In this study, the researcher has focused on two main principles that Carl Barth held in his teachings. The study will analytically evaluate the teachings of Carl Barth on Jesus and ethics and determine how they lead to the generation of other principles. This scholar talks about the word of God, creation, and reconciliation among other principles. However, they all revolve around the two principles of Jesus’ teachings and ethics. This study will therefore relate the two main principles and the doctrines that this scholar bases his teachings on. Barth’s View of Trinity Barth’s work was considered revolutionary, given the then held beliefs. Barth’s work was a huge shift from what existed before. Many have considered the work of this scholar a little controversial15. It has been very challenging to understand the arguments of this scholar concerning trinity. By the time Barth started his work, trinity was not a new thing in the theological field. Several scholars had discussed it and many had given their view on the same. The work of Barth shows that he did not change the perception but gave it a new position. He gave trinity a front position in his work dubbed church dogmatic. His modalism approach has particularly received massive criticism from various fronts. His perception towards the use of the word ‘person’ has been a shift from what had been the norm for a long time. He dismissed tritheism as a heresy and baseless reasoning that could not hold in the current society16. Barth argued that God is one, and therefore he should be referred to as a mode of being. This way, he argues that people will eliminate any misunderstanding among themselves, Christian scholars, and even the leaders. Comparing Baths Findings and the Contemporary Thought of Knowledge Bath’s findings have proven to be very relevant in the contemporary world. In the current society, many theological scholars have found relevance in the teachings of Carl Birth. Carl Birth emphasized on two main issues for his readers. The first one was Jesus. This scholar says that Jesus’ teachings should be the basis of learning for the current scholars. He says that Jesus taught the word of God with an open mind. He holds that when understanding the teachings of Jesus, one should have an open mind. Religion should not be considered a burden17. It is not meant to punish the believers by imposing retrogressive rules on the faithful. The teachings of Jesus and religion for that matter are meant to help people live in peace. Religion explains how people should relate with one another to ensure peaceful coexistence. For this reason therefore, the current society should be weary of the religion that is oppressive. Religion that dictates oppressive rules on its followers should be avoided at all costs18. The religion should help people live peacefully and happily. In this regard, religion should not deny people happiness. The second basis of Carl Barth’s work is on ethics. Ethics is the core of the religion according to the teachings of Barth. Religion and ethics are inseparable. Barth argues that religion teaches one to behave ethically19. In all the teachings of this scholar, he has emphasized the need for all societal members, especially the leaders, to maintain ethics in all their actions. It is important that a spiritual leader base his teachings on the ethical grounds other than on some of the Mosaic laws that have become archaic20. Some laws that were given to Moses during their journey to the Promised Land may not apply in the current world. It would therefore be important to ensure that ethics and religion are viewed as one. Conclusion Carl Birth was one of the greatest theologians in the twentieth century. His work has widely been considered very useful in the contemporary world. This theologian dedicated his life to writing books and other articles on various aspects of religion. Church dogmatic is a comprehensive work done by this scholar about the church and its relevance to the society. This scholar based his work on two factors. The first factor was Jesus Christ. On this front, he held that everything starts with Jesus. The foundation would start with Jesus and then other factors would come afterwards. Jesus is the rock upon which Christian religion is based. One may not understand Christianity without understanding Jesus himself. By understanding Jesus, one would be in a position to understand his principles and therefore the principles of Christianity. Ethics, according to this scholar, is not separable from religion. It is important to appreciate the fact that religion is an attempt to shape the habit of people. The scholar holds that a careful analysis of the teachings of Jesus is based on ethics. He gave a lot of priority on ethical behavior, and never allowed any of his disciples to be swayed otherwise. A society that respects religion and maintains ethics is the one that would easily be prosperous and very peaceful. It is important that as a Christian, and based on the teachings of Carl Barth, one should strive to understand the teachings of Jesus and relate them to ethics. As discussed above, there should be an effort to ensure that ethics and religion are blended. It would be baseless to maintain a religious lifestyle without observing religious standards. In the society, the two are inseparable and therefore should be treated as one. This way, one would be in a position to lead a successful Christian life. Bibliography Baker, Benson. Crucial Moments: The 12 Most Important Events in Black Adventism. Hagerstown: Review and Herald, 2005. Cranfield, Christe. The Gospel According to St. Mark: An Introduction and Commentary. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1963. Dowd, Samuel. Reading Mark: A Literary and Theological Commentary. Macon: Smyth

## Art Illusions and the Visual System

Art Illusions and the Visual System. Introduction Over time art has been redefined through a scope of various methods and techniques. It is the combined understanding of the visual system and how certain perceptive points can be altered to create artistic illusions. This report outline seeks to explain the techniques artists use to trick the visual process and the factors that determine how the visual system functions. Intersection of Art and Science “Study the science of art. Study the art of science. Develop your senses – learn how to see. Realise that everything connects to everything else.” — Leonardo da Vinci (Green, 2018) History has seen many draw parallels between art and science. Nearly opposite in nature, Art is the imaginative flow of the conscious while science is the methodical outlook on reality. Leonardo da Vinci is one of those artists who has mastered the trick; in order to illustrate the world on canvas, there is a need to first understand it (Green, 2018). It can be said that the conception of art is the result of the artist’s subjective expression, however this expression is also dependent on the observer’s own subjective preference (Gudeim, 2019). In other words, is art a deceptive medium of expression? Does art fabricate the real world? Even though the relationship between an artist’s painting and the real world are held on by loose threads, the issue does not disregard a perspective on reality through a visual stance (Gudeim, 2019) Recent researches have shown that the “brain constantly rewires itself based on how people experience the world from one moment to the next”(O’Brien, 2014). It is an intriguing observation when people stand transfixed before a painting, when Mona Lisa’s smile makes hundreds of people fly cross country to see its magic and when some would be absorbed by the intricacies of a Van Gogh painting, while others would shrug it off meaningless. The objectives at play are the visual experiences an observer goes through while they perceive the artwork. How do we SEE Art? The starting point of vision is the eye. The eye includes the retina and other functional features that transmit signals to the brain to interpret vision. The retina comprises of rods and cones, while the optic nerve has fibres that contribute to the overall composition (Fig 1.) (Marmor, 2015). Researchers argue that the process of seeing is a result of our unique interpretation of ambiguous sensory information. To confirm this statement, the sole existence of a visual illusion where assumptions are made based on tricks and bias present in perception, even though the observer is completely aware of what is happening supports the argument. (Gregory, 1997,Gregory, 1998,Eagleman, 2001 as cited in Rodrigo Quian Quiroga, 2011). When visual information is received, it is transmitted through neural firing patterns in the retina to be further processed by the cerebral cortex (Kandel E. R., 2000). The reason why art is so attractive is because it delivers a subjective personal experience to those who observe art (Rodrigo Quian Quiroga, 2011) Figure 1: The Components of the Eye To further understand, there are laws that define the relationship between Art and the Visual system. All art that is visually perceived follows the principles of the visual system (Zeki S, 1994) – Law 1: An image of the visual world is not impressed upon the retina, rather it is assembled together in the visual cortex. Responsible for various visual phenomena’s including visual motion (Zeki S, 1994) – Law 2: The functional specialization of the visual cortex is to absorb the visual scene and process it in geographically separate parts of the visual cortex (Zeki S, 1994) – Law 3: The attributes within the visual cortex process the information individually in the cerebral cortex responsible for vision. The processing disintegrates components of form,color,motion and depth (Zeki S, 1994) Research shows that no theory can be based on aesthetics without an understanding of its neural underpinnings (Zeki, 1999 as cited in Chatterjee, 2011). It was suggestive that the nervous system and artists have similar points of interest. The nervous system decomposes visual information into different components such as color, luminance and motion (Zeki, 1999). In respect to this, several artists are known to isolate these attributes such as Alexander Calder who articulated motion, Georges Seurat who emphasized colour and luminance. Artistic Techniques to “trick the eye” Using the fundamental knowledge of vision, artists have learned the art of manipulation. There are several techniques used to ‘trick the eye’ and have been identified as signature patterns of the artists themselves. Through analysing the works of Claude Monet, Salvador Dali,Georges Seurat and Bridget Riley will provide an insight into the artist’s flare for deception and how they are perceived. Monet and the Illusory effect of colour and depth perception During the change of the 20th century, Monet had painted over 40 different versions of a scenery; this was the Waterloo Bridge over the Thames river (Fig 2.) (Valich-Rochester, 2018). The main highlight of this painting drifted away from the subject of focus itself. Monet’s focused on the details of the background instead. Research derived explains the complexity of the visual system through highlighting the key distinct features in Monet’s process and intricacies of his work (Valich-Rochester, 2018). Figure 2:The Waterloo Bridge (1903) by Claude Monet The visual system processes colour through a pathway of absorbing the wavelengths of light which is then interpreted by the brain. When the eye perceives colour, it does so through three types of cones present in the retina. S-cones (blue) are sensitive to shorter wavelengths, M-cones (green) are sensitive to medium wavelengths and L-cones (red) are most sensitive to longer wavelengths (Fig 3.) (Valich-Rochester, 2018). Simple in composition, yet these three types of cones help form the perspective of complex combinations of colour. Figure 4: Signal Transmission of the Waterloo Bridge Figure 3: Colour Perception of The Waterloo Bridge Once the retina receives information it is then transmitted through signals to the visual cortex (Fig 4.) This lies in the back of the brain, while signals are sent back and forth, other parts of the brain involved in memory, attention and experience help deconstruct the information. The brain then integrates the information with sensory information from the eyes into categories of line, shape and depth, therefore constructing it into objects and scenes (Williams, n.d. as cited in Valich-Rochester, 2018). Based on the understanding, what are the tricks Monet uses? One method of deception Monet applies is the three-dimensional effect on a two-dimensional canvas. The visual process in this case is similar (Tadin, 2018). “Our eyes are curved, but essentially a three-dimensional world gets projected—upside down—to a flat retina” says Duje Tadin (Tadin, 2018). To correctly process the image, the brain turns it right side up and creates connections. However, there is a third element missing from the equation. Monet “tricks” the observer by providing the missing third element as light, shadow and contrast. These produce the illusion of the bridge as a three-dimensional object (Tadin, 2018). Along with that, the background of smokestacks is given more importance of work as Monet details elements farther away to be small and faded or blurry to imply a sense of depth. Self-conscious may know that the painting is an illusion, yet it is perceived to be in a three-dimensional form as it is the closest relation to the real world in itself. At first glance, the brain picks up the form of the bridge, the river beneath and the smokestacks much before the finer details are noticed such as Monet’s individual brushstrokes of colour (Tadin, 2018). “The goal of our visual perception is not to give us an accurate picture of the environment around us but to give us the most useful picture, and the most useful and the most accurate are not always the same.” (Tadin, 2018). When viewing the painting, illumination plays an important role in altering the perception. This happens due to the combination created when the eye views the art. It captures the illumination falling on the point of interest as well as the intrinsic characteristics of the object itself. In terms of light in the Waterloo Bridge painting, Monet uses a mixture of pigments that have varying properties such as; brightness, hue and intensity. Here the principles of additive and subtractive colour mixing are used. Monet’s clever execution of placing colours next to each other without fully blending them makes the observer see the illusion. Same colour will tend to appear differently when placed next to different colours (Williams, n.d.). This method has been adapted by several artists to creating a depth of field effect in two dimensional artworks. “A lot of the motion in Monet’s paintings comes from the fact he used equal luminescence,” (Livingstone, 2002) Salvador Dali and Paranoiac-critical effect Salvador Dali, a renowned Spanish surrealist artist had aimed to blur the distinction between the real and the imagined (Susana Martinez-Conde, 2015). Dali introduced illusions into his artwork to further challenge his observer’s perspective to see beyond the surface of paint. Components like brightness, contrast, colour, shading and eye movements contribute to affect what the observer sees. Dali noted that what is visually interpreted of reality is moreover based on the habits of the mind than the eye. He understood that we create an ordered or disordered world from intermittent and incomplete retinal information processed by our mind’s experiences, desires and apprehensions (Martinez-Conde S., 2012). The Gestalt laws were conceptualized in the early 20th century and one of the principles of closure states our perception will group individual elements as a whole (rather than consider them as separate from each other) if they seem to complete an entity (Martinez-Conde S., 2012). The ability of the brain to reconnect sparse links helps understand the ‘paranoiac-critical method’ invented by the artist Salvador Dali. Paranoia provides a striking example of an illusory contour resulting from filling-in processes (Martinez-Conde S., 2012). Shown as an example is a sketch by Leonardo Da Vinci (Fig 5.) Figure 5: Bust over Pedestal by Leonardo Da Vinci Figure 6: Thirst by Salvador Dali While prominently portrayed a bust over a pedestal, the above part of the sketch depicts small figures on horses. Even without a face, a face is perceived immediately. As facial recognition is a dominant perceptual function the brain fills in the missing information thus giving the observer a complete output from the minimal input (Cox D, 2004). Dali’s own interpretation is seen in Thirst (Fig 6.). An ink blotched painted on paper. The initial objective was to depict two figures from the renaissance period in terms of clothing where one figure is seen to serve wine to the other. With the lack of communication through the medium, the observer still pictures the complete idea. Dali experimented with this method to further create one thing to be another. His goal was to achieve images that could not be analysed or diminished by rational logic (Martinez-Conde S., 2012). Georges Seurat and Spatial colour mixing Pointillism is a famous technique first founded and mastered by French artist Georges Seurat. It is a technique where small dots of “pure” colours are used to create an overall effect of “blended” colours when viewed from an appropriate distance (I R Schwab, 2003). In theory the technique is used to “increase the luminosity to achieve an optical blending at the retina level” (I R Schwab, 2003). First demonstrated by Georges Seurat in his famous 1884 painting “A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of the Grand Jatte” (Fig 7.) Figure 7: A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of the Grand Jatte (1884) by Georges Seurat The concept of receptive fields provides the basis of the technique of pointillism. When the painting is viewed at a certain distance, a coloured dot considered ‘pure’ will trigger a cone or group of cones therefore contributing to a centre surround receptive field (I R Schwab, 2003). As distance increases, dots will trigger the receptive field with more colour combinations. In the chance that the colours transmitted are complimentary, the result of the neural signal will portray them as achromatic dull intermediate colour (I R Schwab, 2003). As the technique is highly mechanical, detailed, and rigid, Pointillism originated as an analytical study of optical colour theory where works produced often appear to be flat, static and lifeless (A study of light; Contrasting Impressionism and Pointillism, n.d.). Pointillists are known to take advantage of the visual system’s two-stream processing (Conway, 2007). Instead of directly painting a green tree, artists tend to paint coloured dots of green, yellow, red and blues which compose the overall tree form and colour depicting a sense of shimmer or colour change when perceived from a distance. “As with the other impressionists, the pointillists’ technique works because the part of our visual system that sees color is not adept at locating items in space” (Conway, 2007) “Some say they see poetry in my paintings, I see only science” – Georges Seurat (Kate, 2018) Pointillist works are often denoted as bright in overview. This is because the colours used by artists are pure in brightness and luminesce. Bridget Riley and perceived motion in static art Geometry has always played a part in artist works. In the case of creating motion for a static work, simple geometric patters are used to illustrate the illusion. However, more than the art, it is the function of the eye. Research analysis explain that the illusion that is being observed promotes retinal shifts. These are caused by small involuntary eye movements that the observer makes when trying to find a point of fixation on the perceived artwork (Frouke Hermens, 2012). Further studies have looked into details of eye movements and inferred a prominent role of small rapid position shifts called microsaccades to be responsible for the illusory effect of motion (Frouke Hermens, 2012). Three research experiments were conducted where participants eye movements were recorded as they perceived variants of Bridget Riley’s Fall painting (Fig 8.), a black and white composition of undulating lines. Figure 8: Fall by Bridget Riley The painting was manipulated to differ the strength of induced motion and record the corresponding changes of the eye movements (Frouke Hermens, 2012). Research found other sources of instability in retinal imaging other than the microsaccades. It’s important to consider the oculomotor drift as a potential factor that affects the perspective (Frouke Hermens, 2012). In order to breakdown how the observer sees motion in static art, the explanation focuses on three main categories of fixational eye movements (Martinez-Conde S, 2006, Martinez-Conde S M. S., 2009, Rolfs, 2009) The microsaccades are the movements of the eye when it attemts to fixate over a large amplitude usually less than 1 deg of visual angle and high velocity (Otero-Millan J, 2008). The phenomenon of microsaccades occurs in both eyes simultaneously (Otero-Millan J, 2008), the properties are fairly like saccadic eye movements as well. The presence of slow oculomotor drift relate to larger movements of the eye with velocities that are much smaller than the microsaccades (Otero-Millan J, 2008) (Frouke Hermens, 2012). There are another set of movements referred to as a ‘tremor’ which are small amplitude movements that rapidly happening in each eye at a time (Otero-Millan J, 2008) (Frouke Hermens, 2012). During the first step there is displacement of the eyes where the projected image is shifted across the retina due to the alternating pattern of black and white undulating lines. The visual system processes and interprets the shifts as motion instead of changes in direction of eye movements (Zanker J M, 2004 as cited in Frouke Hermens, 2012). How does the observer perceive all the techniques used by artists to trick the eye? Research says when an observer looks at a painting, simultaneously there are two different pathways of viewing it. The first pathway is a black and white perspective, or better known as the negative and positive spaces, the second pathway is colour (Livingstone, 2002) (Dingfelder, 2010). The visual stimulus starts at the retina and is then transmitted through the visual system. Here the brain segregates the input information of a painting’s colour and brightness. Both those processing points are well separated, like sight and sound (Livingstone, 2002). The visual system adheres to the colour blind aspect which is called the “where” stream and is a common attribute human beings have with mammals. The “where” stream allows us to navigate our environment and surroundings, to locate things in space and to track any movements we perceive. The “what” stream is the component that allows the observer to process colour information. It is the sole key to helping determine what the object is (Livingstone, 2002). It can be generalized that artists also use “equal value” of the streams to confound the brain’s perspective (Livingstone, 2002). The retina is responsible for decoding the visual information with the help of layered neurons to produce a simplified language of understanding visual objects (Fig10.) (Marmor, 2015).However, there is a misjudgement produced while decoding the visual object caused by the observer’s brain properties that concentrate on what is important to recognise while also placing a limit and constraint of perception that ultimately leads to the illusory effect of illusions. The basis of retinal coding is the ability to recognise contrast. The process of this begins at the level of the photoreceptor cells and the bipolar cells. Bipolar cells connect the photoreceptors to ganglion cells (Marmor, 2015) These develop receptive fields across the retina which sees the world around us. “The use of high contrast, often showing the subject against a dense dark background (‘chiaroscuro’), was popular for a time in the Renaissance, following the lead of Caravaggio” (Fig 9.) (Marmor, 2015) The high contrast brings the subject of the painting to life. Figure 9:Saint John the Baptist (1604) by Caravaggio Figure 10: Sketch of Receptive Field Figure 11: Cone Sensitivity of the Eye The retina itself adjusts the brightness sensitivity at any moment in time through the cone photoreceptors that provide the vision. The difference of energy spread between a stimulus and cone sometimes leads to fail of transmission and activation of the cone, therefore resulting in a no response (Fig 11.). In order to readjust to the surrounding ambient lighting of the background the cones move the range of sensitivity up or down accordingly. It happens in mere seconds and the brain receives the signals of recognition (Marmor, 2015) Conclusion The eye has complex mechanisms at play when viewing artwork. Through the distinct features of colour constancy, colour perceiving by rods and cones,to perceiving depth and motion in static art portrays the intricate details behind the visual system’s functions. Illusions of varying types are perceived with a combined knowledge of colour, brightness, contrast, depth, motion and other minute factors that contribute to the overall effect. Artists have well understood the mechanism and dwell into more methods to entice the visual process. By doing so, ensuring that the constant development of artistic techniques draw more connections to neuroscience and vice versa. References A study of light; Contrasting Impressionism and Pointillism. (n.d.). Retrieved from Google arts and culture: https://artsandculture.google.com/usergallery/a-study-of-light-contrasting-impressionism-and-pointillism/EQJSx_R-eUu_Kg Chatterjee, A. (2011). Neurobiology of Sensation and Reward. In J. A. Gottfried., Neurobiology of Sensation and Reward. CRC Press/TaylorArt Illusions and the Visual System

## Complete Short Computer Task (FORD)

Complete Short Computer Task (FORD). I’m stuck on a Computer Science question and need an explanation.

Computer Applications for Business – Week 7 Assignment
MS Excel: Querying (Web)
Week 7 Assignment
Start with a new spreadsheet in Microsoft Excel online or installed version of Microsoft Excel with no template applied. A template is not allowed for assignment.

A local company would like to be able to search their inventory in an easy manner. They have given you data in table above, then:
Create the table above in excel.
oAdd two more rows of inventory data of your choice.
oFormat the column headings to be bold.
oIn Cell A14 put your name and GID number
Save workbook before filters as CS155Week7LastnameFirstName.
oEnsure you use your own lastname and firstname in filename.
Perform the following filters.
oAll inventory items with more than 10 in stock.
§Save as CS155Week7ALastnameFirstName
oAll inventory items from the manufacturer, Boles.
§Save as CS155Week7BLastnameFirstName
oAll inventory items under \$100.
§Save as CS155Week7CLastnameFirstName
oAll inventory items with 5 or less in stock and a list price of less than \$300.
§Save as CS155Week7DLastnameFirstName
Five files will be attached and submitted in one submission
File one –Saved before beginning extractions. Save as CS155Week7LastnameFirstName
File two—Saved after Filter A. Save as CS155Week7ALastnameFirstName
File three— Saved after Filter B. Save as CS155Week7BLastnameFirstName
File four– Saved after Filter C. Save as CS155Week7CLastnameFirstName
File five– Saved after Filter D. Save as CS155Week7DLastnameFirstName
Complete Short Computer Task (FORD)