CircuitsInstructions: For each circuit presented, you will construct the circuit using power-point shapes (resistors, wires, meters,…). In addition, based on the voltage values, you will calculate the total resistance and the total current for each circuit. The power-point file that you are to work on is attached to this page. Open it, perform the work, save it, and lastly upload it to the link provided. Refer back to the video in the previous module if you need a start. NOTE: When placing the ammeter in its place, you are measuring the current (coming out of) that would flow back through the battery.1. Two resistors in series: Construct the circuit on your breadboard for the two-resistor series circuit. Place an ammeter to measure the TOTAL current in the circuit.Measure the voltage across any of the two resistors. Drag the voltmeter to a convenient spot and take two wires to hook it up properly to measure the desired voltage. Place the value of the reading (what it should read ideally) in the space provided on the sheet.Use the wires provided. Save the red for the power input and then use whatever colors you prefer, or your TA prefers, for the meters and and return wire.2. Two resistors in parallel: Construct the circuit on your breadboard for the two-resistor parallel circuit. Place an ammeter to measure the TOTAL current in the circuit.Measure the voltage across any of the two resistors. Drag the voltmeter to a convenient spot and take two wires to hook it up properly to measure the desired voltage. Place the value of the reading (what it should read ideally) in the space provided on the sheet.Use the wires provided. Save the red for the power input and then use whatever colors you prefer, or your TA prefers, for the meters and and return wire.3. One resistor in series with a parallel combination: Construct the circuit of the single resistor in series with a parallel combination. Place the ammeter to measure the TOTAL current in the circuit.Measure the voltage across any of the three resistors. Drag the voltmeter to a convenient spot and take two wires to hook it up properly to measure the desired voltage. Place the value of the reading (what it should read ideally) in the space provided on the sheet.Use the wires provided. Save the red for the power input and then use whatever colors you prefer, or your TA prefers, for the meters and and return wire.
PHY 206 University of South Florida Circuit Resistor Diagrams Presentation
Nationstate Insurance Case Study
Read the Nationstate Case Study on pages 160-164 in the textbook. Answer Discussion Questions 1-2 at the end of the Case Study. Your responses must be complete, detailed and in APA format. See the sample assignment for expected format and length. The grading rubric is included below.
Nationstate Insurance Case Study
Looks worse than it is. Please go through instructions below carefully.one assignment isPROMPTFor this assignment, you will organize the main points from your social issue projects into a Google Slides, PowerPoint, Adobe Spark Page, Microsoft Sway page, Prezi, or a medium of your choosing. This is a way for everyone to see what you’ve been working on! All students must submit their presentation to earn at least a “B” in the course. To earn a “pass,” presentations must adhere to the prompt guidelines.If you are doing a slide show, you MUST include at least 10 slides covering the following information:background information about the issuediffering viewpoints about the issueyour stance/opinion on the issue (this would be a good place to discuss your essay commentary—present the material in a different way that teaches the class about your issue)important facts you deem essential to presenting the issue to your classmatesdescription of the creative project (how you came up with it, why you think it is a good representation of your stance on the issue, what the project actually IS); include your creative commentary in your slide showOptional: record your voice narrating the presentation!For an Adobe Spark or Microsoft Sway page, be sure to include all of the same information outlined above.Post your presentation to our Social Issue Presentation Padlet.Then, view/watch some of your peers’ presentations and comment on at least two of them for a “complete” score.ResourcesHere are some resources to help you with constructing your presentation:Google Slides tutorial (Links to an external site.)PowerPoint tutorial (Links to an external site.)Microsoft Sway tutorial (Links to an external site.)Adobe Spark Page tutorial (Links to an external site.)SamplesStandardized TestingMental Health StigmaSubmitting your PresentationTo submit to Padlet,Find your class title and click the plus sign under the appropriate column. This will pop up:2. Then, add your file by either selecting the “UP” arrow or the link icon.3. Then, for title, put your social issue. For “Write something,” add your name (first name and last initial is sufficient)4. Watch your presentation appear on the grid!5. Then, comment on at least 2 peers’ presentations by typing in the “Add Comment” box under their presentation. Comments must insightfully respond to the presentation and offer praise and thoughtful suggestions.Here is our Presentation Padlet:Intro to Social Issue Projectsand here is the link I want the same as the video https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0dyZ43ZH2M4&feature=emb_logoThe second one is Your second commentary will be a creative commentary. For the creative commentary, you can choose from different genres, such as formal commentary or parody, a commentary aimed at a specific social or age group, a visual such as a cartoon commentary (of your own making!), a twitter message, or a more literary commentary such as a poem. There are no limits to your creativity with this project. You can literally create anything you’d like, as long as your social issue and your stance are clear. The only thing I ask is that you CREATE SOMETHING. Simply taking an image or video off of Google will NOT suffice. There are lots of examples on Canvas to help you. Once done, submit to our Creative Commentaries Padlet (Links to an external site.) and to Canvas.Criteria:Clearly explores the social issueSocial issue and stance can be clearly identifiedHas some creativity! Have fun with this!PreviousNextCan the social issue you write about be “Facts About Climate Change”one assignment isPROMPTFor this assignment, you will organize the main points from your social issue projects into a Google Slides, PowerPoint, Adobe Spark Page, Microsoft Sway page, Prezi, or a medium of your choosing. This is a way for everyone to see what you’ve been working on! All students must submit their presentation to earn at least a “B” in the course. To earn a “pass,” presentations must adhere to the prompt guidelines.If you are doing a slide show, you MUST include at least 10 slides covering the following information:background information about the issuediffering viewpoints about the issueyour stance/opinion on the issue (this would be a good place to discuss your essay commentary—present the material in a different way that teaches the class about your issue)important facts you deem essential to presenting the issue to your classmatesdescription of the creative project (how you came up with it, why you think it is a good representation of your stance on the issue, what the project actually IS); include your creative commentary in your slide showOptional: record your voice narrating the presentation!For an Adobe Spark or Microsoft Sway page, be sure to include all of the same information outlined above.Post your presentation to our Social Issue Presentation Padlet.Then, view/watch some of your peers’ presentations and comment on at least two of them for a “complete” score.ResourcesHere are some resources to help you with constructing your presentation:Google Slides tutorial (Links to an external site.)PowerPoint tutorial (Links to an external site.)Microsoft Sway tutorial (Links to an external site.)Adobe Spark Page tutorial (Links to an external site.)SamplesStandardized TestingMental Health StigmaSubmitting your PresentationTo submit to Padlet,Find your class title and click the plus sign under the appropriate column. This will pop up:2. Then, add your file by either selecting the “UP” arrow or the link icon.3. Then, for title, put your social issue. For “Write something,” add your name (first name and last initial is sufficient)4. Watch your presentation appear on the grid!5. Then, comment on at least 2 peers’ presentations by typing in the “Add Comment” box under their presentation. Comments must insightfully respond to the presentation and offer praise and thoughtful suggestions.Here is our Presentation Padlet:Intro to Social Issue Projectsand here is the link I want the same as the video https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0dyZ43ZH2M4&feature=emb_logoThe second one is Your second commentary will be a creative commentary. For the creative commentary, you can choose from different genres, such as formal commentary or parody, a commentary aimed at a specific social or age group, a visual such as a cartoon commentary (of your own making!), a twitter message, or a more literary commentary such as a poem. There are no limits to your creativity with this project. You can literally create anything you’d like, as long as your social issue and your stance are clear. The only thing I ask is that you CREATE SOMETHING. Simply taking an image or video off of Google will NOT suffice. There are lots of examples on Canvas to help you. Once done, submit to our Creative Commentaries Padlet (Links to an external site.) and to Canvas.Criteria:Clearly explores the social issueSocial issue and stance can be clearly identifiedHas some creativity! Have fun with this!PreviousNextCan the social issue you write about be “Facts About Climate Change”
Colonial Terrorism Who Really Invented Terrorism Powerpoint Presentation
ITPM 615 American InterContinental University Making the Most of Funds Paper
ITPM 615 American InterContinental University Making the Most of Funds Paper.
Your company has assigned you to work on a project plan for a new internal support system. This system will be expected to track financial aspects of your company’s existing and proposed projects.In a 5 page proposal to the corporate management, complete the following:Explain how balance sheets, income statements, and cash flow statements would be used as inputs to diagnose the performance of a project and determine shareholder value.Note that your proposal would form the basis for developing an automated tracking support system.The balanced scorecard is a conceptual framework that incorporates operational and financial measurements of an organization. Explain how the balanced score card concept could be used in analyzing project cost performance.Deepen your discussion by illustrating with examples.For assistance with your assignment, please use your text, Web resources, and all course materials.
ITPM 615 American InterContinental University Making the Most of Funds Paper
Religious Teachings: Carl Barth – Church Dogmatic Research Paper
nursing essay writing service Introduction Church Dogmatic refers to the works of Carl Barth on various doctrines of God. Theology has received a massive attention from researchers since the inception of formal learning. For a long time, various individuals have been concerned with the ability to understand God. God works in a special way. It has been in the interest of many scholars to create a clear understanding of the values of God. It is also their concern to help explain how human beings should relate to God.1 Carl Barth was one of the scholars who dedicated his entire live in trying to explain how this relationship works by coming up with doctrines to help clarify the issue. Theologians in the current society have increasingly found the work of this scholar highly valuable. The work of Pope Pius has had a huge impact on the current practice of many theologians, as his principles were found to be very relevant. Although there were times when his views were nearly forgotten, current scholars have revived them with a huge impact. The works of this scholar are not only relevant to the Catholics but also to other religions. According to many contemporary scholars, the works of Carl Barth are important to both the Catholics and Protestants2. This is because of the focus of the scholar. The focus of his works is on Jesus Christ. He strongly believes that all religious matters start with Jesus. He observes that for an individual to understand Christianity, he or she must have an understanding of Jesus. Lack of proper understanding of Jesus would be a clear indicator that the individual lacks knowledge of the Christian religion. The second focus is on ethics. This scholar sums the teachings of Jesus as Ethics. Since Jesus knew that God works in an ethical way, he observed all religious principles. Jesus’ teachings were based on acting ethically. When he was leaving the earth, he left only one commandment to be followed by all. The commandment was that people should love one another. This was meant to ensure that societies maintain ethics. When people develop love towards others, they maintain high ethical standards. Therefore, all other commandments would be automatically followed. This study seeks to unearth the assertiveness of the church as taught by Carl Barth. Thesis Statement Barth’s work was based on two fundamental factors, which are ethics and Jesus Christ. The work of this scholar is relevant to both the protestant and Catholic churches. This study is focused on analyzing his work and determining its relevance in the contemporary work. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Scholars in the contemporary world can utilize the views of Barth to bring about unity and understanding in society. Church wrangles are not good for Christians. Church leaders fight in the public implying that they serve their own interests. The views of Barth, particularly on ethics, can help in ending wrangles. Need for Research Theology is one of the most developed fields of study. It is through the guidance of the spiritual leaders that the peace can be maintained in the society. According to this scholar, religion plays a very important role in society3. Some societies have been associated with certain acts because of the kind of religion they practice.4 Therefore, a sound religious understanding based on the teachings of Jesus can help maintain cohesion in the society. According to the report by this scholar, as the number of theologians increase around the world, evil deeds also increase5. Many people around the world are intolerant to the behavior of others. The results are deaths and other atrocities committed against the innocent. The churches today are no longer speaking in the same language. What one church upholds is exactly the doctrine the other church abhors. This has led to huge confusion in our current churches as leaders publicly disagree even on some fundamental principles. For instance, for a long time, Catholic priests have not been marrying. This has been one of the most important fundamental principles of this church. However, some of the catholic leaders have come out to oppose this principle. This brings about a lot of confusion to church members who trust and believe in their leaders6. The Bible talks about homosexuality, especially the cases of Sodom and Gomorrah. However, some leaders of the church support this behavior right inside the church. This brings a lot of confusion. There is need for proper guidance in the church. The society should be guided by religious values regarding what should be done and what should be avoided7. All these relate to ethics and the teachings of Jesus. Jesus gave a bar on how followers should behave. We will write a custom Research Paper on Religious Teachings: Carl Barth – Church Dogmatic specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This is what we need to emulate. Ethics and the teachings of Jesus have been brought out in the scholarly works of Carl Barth. It was therefore very important to undertake research in order to avoid current confusions and bring harmony in our current society8. It is important to shed more light on some of the fundamental issues in the church. Some church leaders are taking advantage of the confusion to introduce some habits that are bringing even further confusion. Discussion Carl Barth’s teachings were based on two main principles that closely guided his research work. This scholar was concerned about bringing a clear understanding of the forces around the world, which made people behave in a certain manner. He evaluated the relevance of people’s behavior in relation to the teachings of Jesus and the Bible’s message9. Carl Barth went against some of the principles of renowned scholars. In his first volume, he discussed the doctrine of Gog’s word. He tried to give the revelation of God. In God’s word, there was power. The word of God sets out to members of the church to help them in understanding the best practices in life. In the current society, it is very important to follow the word of God. Failing to follow his word may lead human beings into many sufferings. In his second volume of the doctrines of the word of God, the scholar brings out incantation of God’s word10. He explores the role and nature of the scripture. The scripture is the word of God because men of God wrote it after being inspired by God himself. In fact, Barth says that the authors of all the books in the Bible were writing the message given to them by God. A clear point is the Book of Revelation. In this book, God himself revealed to John the activities that would take place before the world would end11. The message in this book may be a little more challenging to understand because unlike other books talking about history, this book talks about the future. It would only be through God himself that God’s servant, John, could understand the future. In Exodus 20, God talks directly to Moses giving him the Ten Commandments. It is a clear demonstration that the Bible is the word of God. Given this fact, how then should we approach the bible? Some scholars have argued that there are some little contradictions between the old and the New Testament12. Of point to note is the ‘eye for an eye’ law that existed in the Mosaic Law. This was quite contrary to the teachings of Jesus. Jesus teaches his disciples that they should forgive seventy by seven times when wronged by an individual. Not sure if you can write a paper on Religious Teachings: Carl Barth – Church Dogmatic by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More How then would the same bible encourage forgiveness while there is a law that demands that the punishment should be meeting evil with an equal evil? However, Barth dispels these contradictions in his work saying that the followers should follow the teachings of Jesus13. This scholar says that when such contradictions arise in any parts of the bible, the guiding light should be ethics. The bible is based on ethics. Before acting in any given manner, the guiding light should be the ethics. In fact, this scholar argues that the bible has no contradiction at all unless one looks at it from a facial value. The bible records that during different times, there were different situations that demanded different actions. Barth argues that those different moments called for different actions from people. When God gave the Israelites commandments in the wilderness and other laws, it was supposed to help them to manage the challenges in the wilderness. This scholar notes that God gave the Israelites the power to kill their enemies. However, the commandments state that we should not kill. The message is clear and therefore it should not be interpreted differently. When he said that we should not kill, he was helping us to appreciate the fact that we should live as protectors of one another in society14. Procedure of the Study This study focuses on the works of Carl Barth. Carl Birth wrote a number of volumes of books, each with different approach. In this study, the researcher has focused on two main principles that Carl Barth held in his teachings. The study will analytically evaluate the teachings of Carl Barth on Jesus and ethics and determine how they lead to the generation of other principles. This scholar talks about the word of God, creation, and reconciliation among other principles. However, they all revolve around the two principles of Jesus’ teachings and ethics. This study will therefore relate the two main principles and the doctrines that this scholar bases his teachings on. Barth’s View of Trinity Barth’s work was considered revolutionary, given the then held beliefs. Barth’s work was a huge shift from what existed before. Many have considered the work of this scholar a little controversial15. It has been very challenging to understand the arguments of this scholar concerning trinity. By the time Barth started his work, trinity was not a new thing in the theological field. Several scholars had discussed it and many had given their view on the same. The work of Barth shows that he did not change the perception but gave it a new position. He gave trinity a front position in his work dubbed church dogmatic. His modalism approach has particularly received massive criticism from various fronts. His perception towards the use of the word ‘person’ has been a shift from what had been the norm for a long time. He dismissed tritheism as a heresy and baseless reasoning that could not hold in the current society16. Barth argued that God is one, and therefore he should be referred to as a mode of being. This way, he argues that people will eliminate any misunderstanding among themselves, Christian scholars, and even the leaders. Comparing Baths Findings and the Contemporary Thought of Knowledge Bath’s findings have proven to be very relevant in the contemporary world. In the current society, many theological scholars have found relevance in the teachings of Carl Birth. Carl Birth emphasized on two main issues for his readers. The first one was Jesus. This scholar says that Jesus’ teachings should be the basis of learning for the current scholars. He says that Jesus taught the word of God with an open mind. He holds that when understanding the teachings of Jesus, one should have an open mind. Religion should not be considered a burden17. It is not meant to punish the believers by imposing retrogressive rules on the faithful. The teachings of Jesus and religion for that matter are meant to help people live in peace. Religion explains how people should relate with one another to ensure peaceful coexistence. For this reason therefore, the current society should be weary of the religion that is oppressive. Religion that dictates oppressive rules on its followers should be avoided at all costs18. The religion should help people live peacefully and happily. In this regard, religion should not deny people happiness. The second basis of Carl Barth’s work is on ethics. Ethics is the core of the religion according to the teachings of Barth. Religion and ethics are inseparable. Barth argues that religion teaches one to behave ethically19. In all the teachings of this scholar, he has emphasized the need for all societal members, especially the leaders, to maintain ethics in all their actions. It is important that a spiritual leader base his teachings on the ethical grounds other than on some of the Mosaic laws that have become archaic20. Some laws that were given to Moses during their journey to the Promised Land may not apply in the current world. It would therefore be important to ensure that ethics and religion are viewed as one. Conclusion Carl Birth was one of the greatest theologians in the twentieth century. His work has widely been considered very useful in the contemporary world. This theologian dedicated his life to writing books and other articles on various aspects of religion. Church dogmatic is a comprehensive work done by this scholar about the church and its relevance to the society. This scholar based his work on two factors. The first factor was Jesus Christ. On this front, he held that everything starts with Jesus. The foundation would start with Jesus and then other factors would come afterwards. Jesus is the rock upon which Christian religion is based. One may not understand Christianity without understanding Jesus himself. By understanding Jesus, one would be in a position to understand his principles and therefore the principles of Christianity. Ethics, according to this scholar, is not separable from religion. It is important to appreciate the fact that religion is an attempt to shape the habit of people. The scholar holds that a careful analysis of the teachings of Jesus is based on ethics. He gave a lot of priority on ethical behavior, and never allowed any of his disciples to be swayed otherwise. A society that respects religion and maintains ethics is the one that would easily be prosperous and very peaceful. It is important that as a Christian, and based on the teachings of Carl Barth, one should strive to understand the teachings of Jesus and relate them to ethics. As discussed above, there should be an effort to ensure that ethics and religion are blended. It would be baseless to maintain a religious lifestyle without observing religious standards. In the society, the two are inseparable and therefore should be treated as one. This way, one would be in a position to lead a successful Christian life. Bibliography Baker, Benson. Crucial Moments: The 12 Most Important Events in Black Adventism. Hagerstown: Review and Herald, 2005. Cranfield, Christe. The Gospel According to St. Mark: An Introduction and Commentary. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1963. Dowd, Samuel. Reading Mark: A Literary and Theological Commentary. Macon: Smyth
Art Illusions and the Visual System
Art Illusions and the Visual System. Introduction Over time art has been redefined through a scope of various methods and techniques. It is the combined understanding of the visual system and how certain perceptive points can be altered to create artistic illusions. This report outline seeks to explain the techniques artists use to trick the visual process and the factors that determine how the visual system functions. Intersection of Art and Science “Study the science of art. Study the art of science. Develop your senses – learn how to see. Realise that everything connects to everything else.” — Leonardo da Vinci (Green, 2018) History has seen many draw parallels between art and science. Nearly opposite in nature, Art is the imaginative flow of the conscious while science is the methodical outlook on reality. Leonardo da Vinci is one of those artists who has mastered the trick; in order to illustrate the world on canvas, there is a need to first understand it (Green, 2018). It can be said that the conception of art is the result of the artist’s subjective expression, however this expression is also dependent on the observer’s own subjective preference (Gudeim, 2019). In other words, is art a deceptive medium of expression? Does art fabricate the real world? Even though the relationship between an artist’s painting and the real world are held on by loose threads, the issue does not disregard a perspective on reality through a visual stance (Gudeim, 2019) Recent researches have shown that the “brain constantly rewires itself based on how people experience the world from one moment to the next”(O’Brien, 2014). It is an intriguing observation when people stand transfixed before a painting, when Mona Lisa’s smile makes hundreds of people fly cross country to see its magic and when some would be absorbed by the intricacies of a Van Gogh painting, while others would shrug it off meaningless. The objectives at play are the visual experiences an observer goes through while they perceive the artwork. How do we SEE Art? The starting point of vision is the eye. The eye includes the retina and other functional features that transmit signals to the brain to interpret vision. The retina comprises of rods and cones, while the optic nerve has fibres that contribute to the overall composition (Fig 1.) (Marmor, 2015). Researchers argue that the process of seeing is a result of our unique interpretation of ambiguous sensory information. To confirm this statement, the sole existence of a visual illusion where assumptions are made based on tricks and bias present in perception, even though the observer is completely aware of what is happening supports the argument. (Gregory, 1997,Gregory, 1998,Eagleman, 2001 as cited in Rodrigo Quian Quiroga, 2011). When visual information is received, it is transmitted through neural firing patterns in the retina to be further processed by the cerebral cortex (Kandel E. R., 2000). The reason why art is so attractive is because it delivers a subjective personal experience to those who observe art (Rodrigo Quian Quiroga, 2011) Figure 1: The Components of the Eye To further understand, there are laws that define the relationship between Art and the Visual system. All art that is visually perceived follows the principles of the visual system (Zeki S, 1994) – Law 1: An image of the visual world is not impressed upon the retina, rather it is assembled together in the visual cortex. Responsible for various visual phenomena’s including visual motion (Zeki S, 1994) – Law 2: The functional specialization of the visual cortex is to absorb the visual scene and process it in geographically separate parts of the visual cortex (Zeki S, 1994) – Law 3: The attributes within the visual cortex process the information individually in the cerebral cortex responsible for vision. The processing disintegrates components of form,color,motion and depth (Zeki S, 1994) Research shows that no theory can be based on aesthetics without an understanding of its neural underpinnings (Zeki, 1999 as cited in Chatterjee, 2011). It was suggestive that the nervous system and artists have similar points of interest. The nervous system decomposes visual information into different components such as color, luminance and motion (Zeki, 1999). In respect to this, several artists are known to isolate these attributes such as Alexander Calder who articulated motion, Georges Seurat who emphasized colour and luminance. Artistic Techniques to “trick the eye” Using the fundamental knowledge of vision, artists have learned the art of manipulation. There are several techniques used to ‘trick the eye’ and have been identified as signature patterns of the artists themselves. Through analysing the works of Claude Monet, Salvador Dali,Georges Seurat and Bridget Riley will provide an insight into the artist’s flare for deception and how they are perceived. Monet and the Illusory effect of colour and depth perception During the change of the 20th century, Monet had painted over 40 different versions of a scenery; this was the Waterloo Bridge over the Thames river (Fig 2.) (Valich-Rochester, 2018). The main highlight of this painting drifted away from the subject of focus itself. Monet’s focused on the details of the background instead. Research derived explains the complexity of the visual system through highlighting the key distinct features in Monet’s process and intricacies of his work (Valich-Rochester, 2018). Figure 2:The Waterloo Bridge (1903) by Claude Monet The visual system processes colour through a pathway of absorbing the wavelengths of light which is then interpreted by the brain. When the eye perceives colour, it does so through three types of cones present in the retina. S-cones (blue) are sensitive to shorter wavelengths, M-cones (green) are sensitive to medium wavelengths and L-cones (red) are most sensitive to longer wavelengths (Fig 3.) (Valich-Rochester, 2018). Simple in composition, yet these three types of cones help form the perspective of complex combinations of colour. Figure 4: Signal Transmission of the Waterloo Bridge Figure 3: Colour Perception of The Waterloo Bridge Once the retina receives information it is then transmitted through signals to the visual cortex (Fig 4.) This lies in the back of the brain, while signals are sent back and forth, other parts of the brain involved in memory, attention and experience help deconstruct the information. The brain then integrates the information with sensory information from the eyes into categories of line, shape and depth, therefore constructing it into objects and scenes (Williams, n.d. as cited in Valich-Rochester, 2018). Based on the understanding, what are the tricks Monet uses? One method of deception Monet applies is the three-dimensional effect on a two-dimensional canvas. The visual process in this case is similar (Tadin, 2018). “Our eyes are curved, but essentially a three-dimensional world gets projected—upside down—to a flat retina” says Duje Tadin (Tadin, 2018). To correctly process the image, the brain turns it right side up and creates connections. However, there is a third element missing from the equation. Monet “tricks” the observer by providing the missing third element as light, shadow and contrast. These produce the illusion of the bridge as a three-dimensional object (Tadin, 2018). Along with that, the background of smokestacks is given more importance of work as Monet details elements farther away to be small and faded or blurry to imply a sense of depth. Self-conscious may know that the painting is an illusion, yet it is perceived to be in a three-dimensional form as it is the closest relation to the real world in itself. At first glance, the brain picks up the form of the bridge, the river beneath and the smokestacks much before the finer details are noticed such as Monet’s individual brushstrokes of colour (Tadin, 2018). “The goal of our visual perception is not to give us an accurate picture of the environment around us but to give us the most useful picture, and the most useful and the most accurate are not always the same.” (Tadin, 2018). When viewing the painting, illumination plays an important role in altering the perception. This happens due to the combination created when the eye views the art. It captures the illumination falling on the point of interest as well as the intrinsic characteristics of the object itself. In terms of light in the Waterloo Bridge painting, Monet uses a mixture of pigments that have varying properties such as; brightness, hue and intensity. Here the principles of additive and subtractive colour mixing are used. Monet’s clever execution of placing colours next to each other without fully blending them makes the observer see the illusion. Same colour will tend to appear differently when placed next to different colours (Williams, n.d.). This method has been adapted by several artists to creating a depth of field effect in two dimensional artworks. “A lot of the motion in Monet’s paintings comes from the fact he used equal luminescence,” (Livingstone, 2002) Salvador Dali and Paranoiac-critical effect Salvador Dali, a renowned Spanish surrealist artist had aimed to blur the distinction between the real and the imagined (Susana Martinez-Conde, 2015). Dali introduced illusions into his artwork to further challenge his observer’s perspective to see beyond the surface of paint. Components like brightness, contrast, colour, shading and eye movements contribute to affect what the observer sees. Dali noted that what is visually interpreted of reality is moreover based on the habits of the mind than the eye. He understood that we create an ordered or disordered world from intermittent and incomplete retinal information processed by our mind’s experiences, desires and apprehensions (Martinez-Conde S., 2012). The Gestalt laws were conceptualized in the early 20th century and one of the principles of closure states our perception will group individual elements as a whole (rather than consider them as separate from each other) if they seem to complete an entity (Martinez-Conde S., 2012). The ability of the brain to reconnect sparse links helps understand the ‘paranoiac-critical method’ invented by the artist Salvador Dali. Paranoia provides a striking example of an illusory contour resulting from filling-in processes (Martinez-Conde S., 2012). Shown as an example is a sketch by Leonardo Da Vinci (Fig 5.) Figure 5: Bust over Pedestal by Leonardo Da Vinci Figure 6: Thirst by Salvador Dali While prominently portrayed a bust over a pedestal, the above part of the sketch depicts small figures on horses. Even without a face, a face is perceived immediately. As facial recognition is a dominant perceptual function the brain fills in the missing information thus giving the observer a complete output from the minimal input (Cox D, 2004). Dali’s own interpretation is seen in Thirst (Fig 6.). An ink blotched painted on paper. The initial objective was to depict two figures from the renaissance period in terms of clothing where one figure is seen to serve wine to the other. With the lack of communication through the medium, the observer still pictures the complete idea. Dali experimented with this method to further create one thing to be another. His goal was to achieve images that could not be analysed or diminished by rational logic (Martinez-Conde S., 2012). Georges Seurat and Spatial colour mixing Pointillism is a famous technique first founded and mastered by French artist Georges Seurat. It is a technique where small dots of “pure” colours are used to create an overall effect of “blended” colours when viewed from an appropriate distance (I R Schwab, 2003). In theory the technique is used to “increase the luminosity to achieve an optical blending at the retina level” (I R Schwab, 2003). First demonstrated by Georges Seurat in his famous 1884 painting “A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of the Grand Jatte” (Fig 7.) Figure 7: A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of the Grand Jatte (1884) by Georges Seurat The concept of receptive fields provides the basis of the technique of pointillism. When the painting is viewed at a certain distance, a coloured dot considered ‘pure’ will trigger a cone or group of cones therefore contributing to a centre surround receptive field (I R Schwab, 2003). As distance increases, dots will trigger the receptive field with more colour combinations. In the chance that the colours transmitted are complimentary, the result of the neural signal will portray them as achromatic dull intermediate colour (I R Schwab, 2003). As the technique is highly mechanical, detailed, and rigid, Pointillism originated as an analytical study of optical colour theory where works produced often appear to be flat, static and lifeless (A study of light; Contrasting Impressionism and Pointillism, n.d.). Pointillists are known to take advantage of the visual system’s two-stream processing (Conway, 2007). Instead of directly painting a green tree, artists tend to paint coloured dots of green, yellow, red and blues which compose the overall tree form and colour depicting a sense of shimmer or colour change when perceived from a distance. “As with the other impressionists, the pointillists’ technique works because the part of our visual system that sees color is not adept at locating items in space” (Conway, 2007) “Some say they see poetry in my paintings, I see only science” – Georges Seurat (Kate, 2018) Pointillist works are often denoted as bright in overview. This is because the colours used by artists are pure in brightness and luminesce. Bridget Riley and perceived motion in static art Geometry has always played a part in artist works. In the case of creating motion for a static work, simple geometric patters are used to illustrate the illusion. However, more than the art, it is the function of the eye. Research analysis explain that the illusion that is being observed promotes retinal shifts. These are caused by small involuntary eye movements that the observer makes when trying to find a point of fixation on the perceived artwork (Frouke Hermens, 2012). Further studies have looked into details of eye movements and inferred a prominent role of small rapid position shifts called microsaccades to be responsible for the illusory effect of motion (Frouke Hermens, 2012). Three research experiments were conducted where participants eye movements were recorded as they perceived variants of Bridget Riley’s Fall painting (Fig 8.), a black and white composition of undulating lines. Figure 8: Fall by Bridget Riley The painting was manipulated to differ the strength of induced motion and record the corresponding changes of the eye movements (Frouke Hermens, 2012). Research found other sources of instability in retinal imaging other than the microsaccades. It’s important to consider the oculomotor drift as a potential factor that affects the perspective (Frouke Hermens, 2012). In order to breakdown how the observer sees motion in static art, the explanation focuses on three main categories of fixational eye movements (Martinez-Conde S, 2006, Martinez-Conde S M. S., 2009, Rolfs, 2009) The microsaccades are the movements of the eye when it attemts to fixate over a large amplitude usually less than 1 deg of visual angle and high velocity (Otero-Millan J, 2008). The phenomenon of microsaccades occurs in both eyes simultaneously (Otero-Millan J, 2008), the properties are fairly like saccadic eye movements as well. The presence of slow oculomotor drift relate to larger movements of the eye with velocities that are much smaller than the microsaccades (Otero-Millan J, 2008) (Frouke Hermens, 2012). There are another set of movements referred to as a ‘tremor’ which are small amplitude movements that rapidly happening in each eye at a time (Otero-Millan J, 2008) (Frouke Hermens, 2012). During the first step there is displacement of the eyes where the projected image is shifted across the retina due to the alternating pattern of black and white undulating lines. The visual system processes and interprets the shifts as motion instead of changes in direction of eye movements (Zanker J M, 2004 as cited in Frouke Hermens, 2012). How does the observer perceive all the techniques used by artists to trick the eye? Research says when an observer looks at a painting, simultaneously there are two different pathways of viewing it. The first pathway is a black and white perspective, or better known as the negative and positive spaces, the second pathway is colour (Livingstone, 2002) (Dingfelder, 2010). The visual stimulus starts at the retina and is then transmitted through the visual system. Here the brain segregates the input information of a painting’s colour and brightness. Both those processing points are well separated, like sight and sound (Livingstone, 2002). The visual system adheres to the colour blind aspect which is called the “where” stream and is a common attribute human beings have with mammals. The “where” stream allows us to navigate our environment and surroundings, to locate things in space and to track any movements we perceive. The “what” stream is the component that allows the observer to process colour information. It is the sole key to helping determine what the object is (Livingstone, 2002). It can be generalized that artists also use “equal value” of the streams to confound the brain’s perspective (Livingstone, 2002). The retina is responsible for decoding the visual information with the help of layered neurons to produce a simplified language of understanding visual objects (Fig10.) (Marmor, 2015).However, there is a misjudgement produced while decoding the visual object caused by the observer’s brain properties that concentrate on what is important to recognise while also placing a limit and constraint of perception that ultimately leads to the illusory effect of illusions. The basis of retinal coding is the ability to recognise contrast. The process of this begins at the level of the photoreceptor cells and the bipolar cells. Bipolar cells connect the photoreceptors to ganglion cells (Marmor, 2015) These develop receptive fields across the retina which sees the world around us. “The use of high contrast, often showing the subject against a dense dark background (‘chiaroscuro’), was popular for a time in the Renaissance, following the lead of Caravaggio” (Fig 9.) (Marmor, 2015) The high contrast brings the subject of the painting to life. Figure 9:Saint John the Baptist (1604) by Caravaggio Figure 10: Sketch of Receptive Field Figure 11: Cone Sensitivity of the Eye The retina itself adjusts the brightness sensitivity at any moment in time through the cone photoreceptors that provide the vision. The difference of energy spread between a stimulus and cone sometimes leads to fail of transmission and activation of the cone, therefore resulting in a no response (Fig 11.). In order to readjust to the surrounding ambient lighting of the background the cones move the range of sensitivity up or down accordingly. It happens in mere seconds and the brain receives the signals of recognition (Marmor, 2015) Conclusion The eye has complex mechanisms at play when viewing artwork. Through the distinct features of colour constancy, colour perceiving by rods and cones,to perceiving depth and motion in static art portrays the intricate details behind the visual system’s functions. Illusions of varying types are perceived with a combined knowledge of colour, brightness, contrast, depth, motion and other minute factors that contribute to the overall effect. Artists have well understood the mechanism and dwell into more methods to entice the visual process. By doing so, ensuring that the constant development of artistic techniques draw more connections to neuroscience and vice versa. References A study of light; Contrasting Impressionism and Pointillism. (n.d.). Retrieved from Google arts and culture: https://artsandculture.google.com/usergallery/a-study-of-light-contrasting-impressionism-and-pointillism/EQJSx_R-eUu_Kg Chatterjee, A. (2011). Neurobiology of Sensation and Reward. In J. A. Gottfried., Neurobiology of Sensation and Reward. CRC Press/TaylorArt Illusions and the Visual System
Complete Short Computer Task (FORD)
Complete Short Computer Task (FORD). I’m stuck on a Computer Science question and need an explanation.
Computer Applications for Business – Week 7 Assignment
MS Excel: Querying (Web)
Week 7 Assignment
Start with a new spreadsheet in Microsoft Excel online or installed version of Microsoft Excel with no template applied. A template is not allowed for assignment.
A local company would like to be able to search their inventory in an easy manner. They have given you data in table above, then:
Create the table above in excel.
oAdd two more rows of inventory data of your choice.
oFormat the column headings to be bold.
oIn Cell A14 put your name and GID number
Save workbook before filters as CS155Week7LastnameFirstName.
oEnsure you use your own lastname and firstname in filename.
Perform the following filters.
oAll inventory items with more than 10 in stock.
§Save as CS155Week7ALastnameFirstName
oAll inventory items from the manufacturer, Boles.
§Save as CS155Week7BLastnameFirstName
oAll inventory items under $100.
§Save as CS155Week7CLastnameFirstName
oAll inventory items with 5 or less in stock and a list price of less than $300.
§Save as CS155Week7DLastnameFirstName
Five files will be attached and submitted in one submission
File one –Saved before beginning extractions. Save as CS155Week7LastnameFirstName
File two—Saved after Filter A. Save as CS155Week7ALastnameFirstName
File three— Saved after Filter B. Save as CS155Week7BLastnameFirstName
File four– Saved after Filter C. Save as CS155Week7CLastnameFirstName
File five– Saved after Filter D. Save as CS155Week7DLastnameFirstName
Complete Short Computer Task (FORD)