Gerry Ann Juchniewicz Phobias and Addictions Through Conditioning Conditioning can be used to develop or eliminate emotional difficulties in subjects. There are two types of conditioning that can and have been distinguished between. These two types are classified as operant and classical. Phobias can and have been purposely developed by using classical conditioning in subjects using fear tactics. Addictions can be developed or removed by using operant conditioning in subjects.
Despite operant and classical conditioning being used to develop phobias and addictions, extinction can be used in both to remove the current conditionings. The operant and classical conditioning are two types of behavioral conditioning. Conditioning is actually a type of learning. First, one must distinguish between the two types to gain essential understanding when discussing how they can be used. Classical conditioning, as described by Ivan Pavlov, is where an unnatural stimulus can cause a natural reaction or reflex.
His study introduced a bell when food was presented to a dog to produce the saliva reflex [ (Kowalski, 2009) ]. Later he used the bell without presenting the food and still received the salivation reflex [ (Kowalski, 2009) ]. The dog had learned to associate the sound of the bell with meal time. In essence, classical conditioning or learning is learning based on an outside stimulus. Operant conditioning, as described by Edward Thorndike, is where a spontaneous event leads to a desired result. Thorndike put a hungry cat in a latched box with food in its sight [ (Kowalski, 2009)
The fear of intimacy
The fear of intimacy.
Research Paper Instructions
You will write an 8 page Research Paper on a major topic approved by your instructor and found within your course textbooks. You will choose a topic and augment your research by using at least 8 professional references in addition to the textbook and the Bible. Papers will be graded on the basis of content, clarity, flow, use of resources, interpretations, and conclusions. Citations are expected to be used liberally. See the assignment rubric and the requirements below to assess grading priorities before beginning this assignment.
- 8 pages (does not include title page, abstract page, and reference page).
- 12-point, Times New Roman font.
- Written in current APA format.
- Written in 3rd person point of view.
- Address a topic that is applicable to the course textbooks and the field of marriage and family counseling.
- Topic must be approved by your instructor.
- Note: Personal testimonies are not an acceptable topic. This paper must address a topic or issue that can be academically researched.
- Title page, abstract, and reference page are required, all adhering to current APA format.
- Must have a minimum of 8 outside sources and also include references to the textbook and the Bible.
- Note: A total of 10 sources are needed. Outside sources may be peer-reviewed journal articles or books written on the topic.
- References must be properly cited in the body of the paper, as well as on the reference page, using current APA format.
- Refer to the Final Research Paper Submission Grading Rubric for additional detailed requirements.
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