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Philosophy: Plato’s Republic versus Aristotle’s Politics Essay

Table of Contents Introduction Plato versus Aristotle: The Purpose of Individuals Plato versus Aristotle: Their Political Perspectives Conclusion Works Cited Introduction Plato was a great philosopher as well as a teacher whose most renowned student, Aristotle, holds differing views. Plato’s Republic endeavors to create an “ideal state” typified by the ruling of the Philosopher-Kings while Aristotle’s Politics sticks to reality, a regime of identifying the partly suitable assertions of democrats, oligarchs, and aristocracy. This essay explains the differing perspectives of Aristotle’s Politics and Plato’s Republic. Probably, a disparity that comes up is that Politics is entirely different in construction as compared to The Republic. Whereas Politics is held up very slackly by the theme, Republic is a merged text. Plato’s Republic, in an extremely organized way, depicts an ideal society with the use of the Socratic Method. On the other hand, Aristotle’s Politics merely embraces the voices of Aristotle, but the content is not systematized with a conclusion in mind. Therefore, argumentatively, Plato’s Republic is objective while Aristotle’s Politics is subjective. Plato versus Aristotle: The Purpose of Individuals As aforementioned, Plato’s “ideal state” is typified by the ruling of the Philosopher-Kings as it is anchored in four virtues, viz. “intelligence, bravery, moderation and fairness” (Plato 309). Intelligence causes the republic to be wise, bravery causes it to be brave, moderation signifies the perception that everyone distinguishes his or her task, while fairness signifies the concord that results where everybody is actively involved in accomplishing his or her task and does not interfere with that of different individuals. The final point is a significant one because his comprehension of the state is that it develops since it accomplishes particular functional requirements (Plato 261). The evident requirements in this case are shelter, clothing, and food (that supports nourishment). Plato insists that, only the city can offer all of the requirements because every person in it has a particular responsibility, which he or she carries out. The relationship with one another, as Plato suggests, is the reason for which the republic is established. The city can then draw together the craftsmen, the farmers, the poor, and the rich in an equal measure (Plato 391). Plato’s “ideal state” operates similar to organisms whereby each performs its day-to-day task in a bid to excel. This aspect underscores why Plato holds that a unique class of Philosopher-Kings (guardians) is best suited to rule the “ideal state” (city). Plato’s perception that each person has a dissimilar but important accountability in the “ideal state” informs his consideration of who should rule it. Since the majority of men are merely interested with outcomes and effects and are normally unfair, just a few are worthy enough to rule the “ideal state”. However, fairness and desirable quality alone are not sufficient. The Philosopher-Kings (who rule) have to be physically strong, cherish wisdom and understanding, and be unreceptive to outside occurrences (Plato 439). The Philosopher-Kings also exist by a detached set of regulations as they can possess no private possessions, reside in an encampment, and guard the city against interlopers. Plato as well turns off the partition amid the private and the public and he contends for common kids and wives for the guardians in a bid to create a society amongst the rulers of the city. In addition, women take part in works meant for men like defending the city and putting food on the table. Ultimately, the city seeks to maintain oneness as opposed to nurturing different talents, which are inherent in its dwellers. On his part, Aristotle does not differ that the distinctiveness in ability is the causal factor of an ideal city, as he affirms that not only is a city constituted of many people, but also of people who vary in kind (Aristotle 276). Whereas Plato considers that by nature a number of people are more suitable than others are for particular jobs, Aristotle differs by affirming that any individual has the capacity to rule, on condition that he or she observes the law in addition to being well educated. In addition, even if individuals may be different from each other, every one has a responsibility in assisting to define the society. Specifically, the reason behind being a resident in a society is the capacity to rule as well as be ruled. The excellent regimes, as Aristotle claims, are the ones where residents have the capacity and yearning to follow their own preferences, which is achieved by offering the majority the capability to rule. Furthermore, Aristotle considers that common kids and wives could in fact weaken the stability of the state. The idea of common property referred to as communism by Aristotle, in reality ruptures the harmony of the city. Instead of splitting the private and public sectors, Aristotle affirms that the partition is very important by posing a question as to what could occur if a person diminished a many-articulated harmony to an agreement to one rhythm (Aristotle 308). Plato versus Aristotle: Their Political Perspectives The variation of the views of Plato and Aristotle concerning the nature of people and the city determines their political perspectives and the “most excellent” regime. In the case of Plato, the Philosopher-Kings are the only people that qualify to rule since they have exceptional abilities in addition to knowledge. Only the Philosopher-Kings are competent to rule due to their intelligence, bravery, moderation, and adherence to fairness. Plato equates Philosopher-Kings to physicians. When individuals are unwell, they go to people that can treat them, viz. physicians, for they are trained and qualified to handle such cases of illness. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Likewise, when people require governance, they should permit those who can govern to perform their task. Plato differentiates four kinds of government. In his view of timarchy, battle and the military take over and a win is the only outcome. For the case of oligarchies, wealth and the attainment of wealth propels the rulers. According to the third kind of regime, viz. democracy, there exists no control whatsoever and aspirations are recognized to be the same. Finally, in a dictatorship, the rulers obtain every authority for themselves and articulate to the public that which is in their best interest (Plato 307). In other words, the public’s needs are secondary to a dictator. Aristotle cannot be misidentified for a liberal, although he however questions a number of the postulations underlying in Plato’s Republic. Most significantly, Aristotle’s Politics has more of a pluralist comprehension of government in view of the fact that Aristotle asserts that individuals having perfect education and compliance to the ruling are fit to rule. These individuals as well team up to rule in the masses (majority), something that frightens Plato and symbolizes mob rule. In accordance with Aristotle, several people and not a single person ought to rule for the reason that anybody can rule suitably when edified by the rules and many decrees jointly and in a better capacity when judged against one person ruling alone (Aristotle 110). Aristotle’s view of aristocracy (virtue) is comparable and rests in disagreement to Plato. Whereas Plato considers that the worthy are few and that virtue is innate, Aristotle believes that virtue as well as fairness can be educated to individuals. According to Aristotle, the city is in a number of approaches more comprehensive than the Plato’s. Finally, Aristotle differs with Plato in view of change. Aristotle affirms that laws at times have to be altered, and that art cannot be ideal always. Conclusion According to Plato, a strong state is vital to maintain order and defend the city, money is looked disapprovingly upon and the cause of much evil and family for the Philosopher-Kings is wiped out. Plato is concerned about multitude rule and doubtful of any thought that offers the ruling authority to common individuals. Aristotle differs on these concerns and is more prepared to provide common individuals with the capacity to rule. Aristotle is not as opposed to change as Plato, and eventually he believes that with the appropriate laws and education, the masses can nurture the capability to rule. Even if Plato and Aristotle were “ancient” authors, their rows and differences are still appropriate in modern political discourse. Were they existing nowadays, they could be shocked to discover that what they disagreed concerning state leadership still arouses sentiments in the contemporary times. Since Plato considers the search for knowledge and fairness to be everlasting, he might not be shocked if he were to rise from the depths of the earth. Works Cited Aristotle. Politics, Trans. Ernest Barker. Oxford: Oxford World’s Classics, 2009. Print. Plato. The Republic of Plato, Trans. Robin Waterfield. Oxford: Oxford World’s Classics, 2008. Print.
Table of Contents Introduction Causes of E-Government Failure Case Study Questions Conclusion Reference List Introduction In e-government projects, the requirements postulated in the project planning and design are often different from the reality faced during project implementation which creates gaps between the requirements of the project and the reality of implementation of public projects. The design-reality gap analysis compares the project design requirements with the actual situation just before implementation along seven different ITPOMSO dimensions, rated on a scale of zero to ten. This comparison helps to identify the factors underlying the project failure as larger design-reality gaps increase the likelihood of project failure during its implementation. The design-reality analysis involves the evaluation of each dimension with respect to the prevailing organizational reality just prior to implementation. In addition, it looks into the requirements and assumptions of the e-government design implementation like in the case study involving a single personnel information system. In this particular case study, the large gap scores of the dimension increased the likelihood of e-government project failure. Causes of E-Government Failure Large design-reality gaps existed in ‘A single personnel information system for Southern Africa government’ case study (Design- Reality Gap Case No. 4, 2003). The evaluation of ITOPOMSO seven dimensions showed a disparity between the organizational reality prior to implementation and the requirements/assumptions of the design thus helping to determine the major causes that contributed to project failure. In this particular case study, the gaps that existed between the design assumptions and the current realities were large contributing to the project failure. In considering the information dimension, information, the gap score was seven out of possible 10. This indicates that the information requirements of the e-government design were slightly different from the multi-storage system previously used. The design assumed a single strategic storage system that would serve all government ministries. However, in reality, the information was decentralized to each department during implementation. In addition, contrary the design assumption that the system should be able to provide a complete and accurate personal data, most of the personal information obtained from the system was insufficient and not entirely accurate. This generated a gap score of seven indicating a slight variation in the information used in reality from the information requirements of the e-government design. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The technology used during the implementation was also different from the requirements of the design. Considering the technology dimension with regard to the case study, design technology requirements involved use of new soft wares and hard wares but in reality, a manual information system was used instead. The gap score for this dimension was seven representing some degree of variation between organizational reality and the project design. In the work processes dimension, “the comparison of the processes needed for the successful implementation of the design and the actual organizational reality prior to the implementation of the project produced a gap score of seven” (Design- Reality Gap Case No. 4). The design system introduced new security procedures to prevent alteration of personal records of senior executives. However, in reality the data entry clerks amended most of the personnel records. Another assumption by the design recognized electronic signatures but in reality, electronic signatures were not recognized as legal producing a gap rating of seven. The real objectives and values held by the shareholders for effective implementation of the project were different when compared to those assumed by the design. The design assumed that all key shareholders shared the same objectives regarding implementation of the project. However, only officials from National IT unit (NITU) and office of the civil service (OCS) shared common objectives. The officials of the relevant ministries objected the sharing of information as proposed in the project design. This produced a gap rating of seven. According to Design- Reality Gap Case No. 4 “the staffing numbers and relevant skills requirements of the design for successful implementation of e-government design were different from the reality prior to implementation.” The design required many trained NITU personnel to facilitate the implementation. However, in reality large personnel with the relevant skills was not available. The design also assumed that a five-day training program was sufficient to get skilled personnel for the implementation. However, the training needs were so variable in reality and could not be met by the workshop training. The design assumed changes in the formal management systems and structures with some duties delegated to individual ministries and departments but with no changes in formal structures. However, formal changes did change in reality prior to the implementation. In addition, the time allocation and budgetary expenditure proposed in the design were different from the actual expenditure set aside and time required for implementation. We will write a custom Essay on E-Government Project specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Case Study Questions A significant overall design-reality gap means the project is likely to fail. To avoid project failure, as the head of Office of Civil service (OCS), I would recommend steps to minimize this gap. To achieve this, I would use two approaches. Firstly, I would make substantial changes to the design to suit the requirements in reality (Brown 2009, 143). This is through addressing each particular dimension to reduce the gap in the specific dimensions and the overall gap. Alternatively, depending on the dimension with the highest gaps, I can change the reality to suit the requirements or assumptions of the design. The project ‘A single personnel Information system for southern African government’ was unsuccessful. “The design-reality gaps for staffing and skills were high at eight while for the other dimensions i.e. information, technology, processes, objectives and management systems and structures had a gap rating of seven” (Design- Reality Gap Case No. 4). The other resources dimension had the least gap rating of four. The larger the overall gap, the higher the likelihood that the project will be unsuccessful. The assessment of the seven dimensions produces a design-reality gap of 42 indicating that the project is likely to fail unless techniques to reduce the design-reality gaps are implemented. To reduce the risk of e-government project failure, I would recommend that hybrid staff with knowledge of government operations and skills in information system management. These individuals will act as a link between the e-government project developers and the government officials intended to use the application (Martin 2009, p.62). The developers have limited knowledge of government practices while the ministry officials are knowledgeable of government practices but had little IT skills. Thus, hybrid staff could have enhanced participation by all stakeholders and reduced the design-reality gaps. Conclusion The analysis of the design-reality gaps helps in the determination of the likelihood of an e-government project becoming successful or unsuccessful. The gap analysis of individual ITPOMSO dimensions compares the projections of the design to the realities. In order to reduce the likelihood of project failure, techniques to either change reality to suit the design requirements or assumptions or change the design to fit the reality are necessary. In the case study, the overall rating of 42 implies that the project is at a risk of failure unless actions to reduce the large design-reality gaps are put in place. Not sure if you can write a paper on E-Government Project by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Reference List Brown, T., 2009. Change by Design: How Design Thinking Transforms Organizations And Inspires Innovation. New York: HarperCollins Publishers. Design- Reality Gap Case No. 4., 2003. A Single Personnel Information System for a Southern African Government. Available at: Martin, R., 2009. The Design of Business: Why Thinking is the Next Competitive Advantage. Boston: Harvard Business School Publishing Inc.

Literary Essay on “Cathedral” by Raymond Carver

Literary Essay on “Cathedral” by Raymond Carver.

Write an essay in which you identify a significant idea about duality expressed in Carver’s short story “Cathedral”. The essay will follow the guidelines for academic writing and include an introduction with thesis, 3 body paragraphs with proofs, and a conclusion (total of 5 developed paragraphs). The essay will demonstrate correct MLA format and documentation (in-text citations and references in the end). Base the essay ONLY on your analysis of this short story and in-class discussions, NO other sources allowed. The thesis statement needs to express a specific idea about Duality, not just a restatement of the essay topic. You can focus writing on the story’s particular use of fictional elements and literary devices (USE LITERARY TERMS). It is expected that the reading of Carver’s story will be influenced by the context of texts and ideas and approaches we have studied this semester (in Oedipus the King, there was a blind prophet named Tiresias, you could write a connection paragraph to connect with the blind man in this short story). A one-page outline is required, outline form is included at the end of this document.
Literary Essay on “Cathedral” by Raymond Carver

Industrial Relations: Conflict and Cooperation Report (Assessment)

online assignment help There is no doubt that both conflict and cooperation are part and parcel of employment relationships. There are different forms of industrial conflicts. These include: Overt (boycotts, pickets, sabotages, strikes, bans, etc); covert (absenteeism, work to rule, theft, go-slow, indifference, etc); individual or collective conflicts; and proactive conflicts. There are several reasons suggested to explain why industrial conflicts occur. In many cases, industrial conflicts are caused by lack of employment security, moribund managerial control and poor remunerations. In addition, an industrial conflict may emerge when the interests of the employer and his/her employees collide. For example, this may happen when the employer wields control and demand enhanced productivity from his/her workers. On the other hand, employees may expect an increased remuneration to compensate for their efforts. As a result, an industrial conflict may occur when employees’ earnings are not increased to reflect their efforts. It is thus imperative that employers provide their workers with excellent working environment, increased participation, job security, good management strategies and better earnings in order to avert an industrial conflict. The state plays an integral role in industrial relations. The characteristics of workplace industrial relations are directly affected by adjustments in the character of state interventions in the labor market. The state intervenes in the labour market by imposing restrictions on managerial prerogatives as well as protecting the reproduction of labourforce. In the last three decades, the Australian government adopted a corporatist regime as an intervention strategy in the labour market to foster social partnerships between the labour unions, state and employers. During this period, economic concessions (such as wage reductions) were done by the state. On the other hand, business organizations gained from subdued industrial conflicts as well as low inflation. However, the corporatism accord came to an end when the Howard administration took helm in 1996. The new government modified state policies in order to diminish the role of the state in the economy. Some of the policy changes included privatization of some sections of the public sector (e.g. abolition of Public Service Board), marketisation of state services and reduction in state expenditure. Although the federal government adopted managerialism and marketisation strategies from mid 1980, it still plays a vital role in the labour market to date. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The basic role of management is to merge, distribute and utilize resources to realize the objectives of the organization. Business organizations employ different management control strategies. Some of these management control strategies are: Direct control: examples include tight supervision and industrial discretion. Responsible autonomy: employees are granted autonomy and status at work. Other forms of controls include: technical control; personalized control; commitment-based control; and bureaucratic control. There are a number of factors that influence the choice of management control strategy. Some of these factors include: state regulations; market forces; and employee acceptance/resistance. An organization may choose to adopt a management control strategy for a particular group of workers based on several factors. These include: The need to sustain good working relations with workers: For example, eliminating union workplace may hurt existing relations with workers. Cultural factors: The choice of the management control strategy is determined by the cultural factors both at the organizational and national level. Labour market and product market conditions: This entails competition based on quality, price and innovation and surplus or shortages of labour. State regulations: the state play an important role in the determination of the management control strategy to be adopted by an organization.

Solve the problem

Solve the problem.

Solve This ProblemProblem 1: The weekly salary of all customer service workers of a company has had mean of $400 with standard deviation $48.6. In contract negotiation, the company claims that a new incentive scheme has increased the average weekly earnings for all workers. A union representation takes a random sample of 15 workers and finds that their weekly earning have an average of $421.35.(a) Test the company claims at 5% level of significance. Sketch the distribution of test statistic under null and alternative hypothesis showing rejection region.(b) Find 95% CI for the population mean of weekly salary and P-values. Based on CI and P-value, would you able to have same conclusion that obtained in (a)?Problem2 : The past records of a supermarket show that its customers spend an average of $95 per visit at this store. Recently the management of the store initiated a promotional campaign according to which each customer receives points based on the total money spent at the store, and these points can be used to buy products at the store. The management expects that as a result of this campaign, the customers should be encouraged to spend more money at the store. To check whether this is true, the manager of the store took a sample of 14 customers who visited the store. The following data give the money (in dollars) spent by these customers at this supermarket during their visits.109 136 107 116 101 109 110 94 101 97 104 83 67 120Assume that the money spent by all customers at this supermarket has a normal distribution. Using a 5% significance level, can you conclude that the mean amount of money spent by all customers at this supermarket after the campaign was started is more than $95?Problem 3: According to the analysis of Federal Reserve statistics and other government data, American households with credit card debts owed an average of $15,706 on their credit cards in August 2015 (www.nerdwallet.com). A recent random sample of 500 American households with credit card debts produced a mean credit card debt of $16,377 with a standard deviation of $3800. Do these data provide significant evidence at a 1% significance level to conclude that the current mean credit card debt of American households with credit card debts is higher than $15,706? Use both the p-value approach and the critical-value approach.
Solve the problem

Paper for analyzing and visualizing data The problem to solve.The data sources to pull from.The tool that will be used (R)Note high level graphics that will be used to solve the problem and how they

The data sources to pull from. The tool that will be used (R)Note high level graphics that will be used to solve the problem and how they will be used. On Saturday, teams will reconvene and complete the following: There must be a through data plan this includes:Where the data is online How you know the data is accurate and the plan for ensuring accuracy. An import of the data into the selected tool. A paper that includes:The data plan mentioned above The problem- note the description and why it’s a problem and how you are going to make a recommendation with the data presented. The analysis of why the data will solve the issue. Graphical representation and formulas.  The screenshots of the formulas in the tool must be present. A summary of the consideration and evaluation of resultsThis includes your teams’ final analysis of the problem and the resolution.