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PhI 210 Strayer Conflicting Viewpoints Concerning the Use of Marijuana Essay

PhI 210 Strayer Conflicting Viewpoints Concerning the Use of Marijuana Essay.

I’m working on a philosophy multi-part question and need support to help me study.

Conflicting Viewpoints Essay: Part 2 (Part 1 is Attached)OverviewWhen looking for information about a particular issue, how often do you try to resist biases toward your own point of view?This assignment asks you to engage in this aspect of critical thinking. Pick up where I left off in Part I. The story I created is fictional and is not a real story. Pretend you are in the situation that I have created and take the assignment from there. InstructionsWrite a 3–4 page paper in which you:State your position on the topic you selected in the Week 3 assignment, Conflicting Viewpoints Essay: Part 1.Identify three premises (reasons) from Pros & Cons of Controversial Issues that support your position, and explain why you selected these specific reasons.Explain your answers to the “believing” questions about the three premises opposing your position from Pros & Cons of Controversial Issues.Examine at least two types of biases that you likely experienced as you evaluated the premises for and against your position.Discuss the effects of your own enculturation or group identification that may have influenced your biases.Discuss whether your thinking about the topic has changed after playing the “Believing Game,” even if your position on the issue has stayed the same.The paper should follow guidelines for clear and organized writing:Include an introductory paragraph and concluding paragraph.Address the main ideas in body paragraphs with a topic sentence and supporting sentences.Adhere to standard rules of English grammar, punctuation, mechanics, and spelling.Use four sources to support your writing. Choose sources that are credible, relevant, and appropriate. Cite each source listed on your source page at least one time within your assignment.
PhI 210 Strayer Conflicting Viewpoints Concerning the Use of Marijuana Essay

Perception and Outrage of the Social Media Platforms Discussion

Perception and Outrage of the Social Media Platforms Discussion.

I’m working on a communications exercise and need a sample draft to help me learn.…This directly links to perception, perception change, addiction to social media and the number of “likes” we get, and how our perception can change after we hear new information that might be counter to our beliefs. Please describe an issue that you had strong feelings about, perhaps even engaged in fallacy of argument, but that you have since changed your mind about after you did more research, heard the viewpoints of others (i.e., engaged in ethical listening and understanding) or realized you had not read the article and only responded based on the title of an article, etc.
Perception and Outrage of the Social Media Platforms Discussion

Evaluation of Ontological Arguments and Theories

cheap assignment writing service Ontological Commitment The Ontolgical Argument deals with the nature of being; of what exists and what kind of things exist in the universe. Onto (being) and Logia (spoken or written discourse) from Greek. It is apart of Metaphysics which looks at the fundamental structures of what exists and the general features of existence. There are various concepts and forms of arguments that relate to the nature of being and what exists. An Ontological argument may ask questions like; what kinds of things exist, what kinds of things don’t exist and how can you truly say something exists, in mind or reality or both? Meta-ontology gives us the methods and nature of ontology interpreting the significance of ontological questions, the issues in Ontological commitments are addressed in Meta-ontology. So, what exists according to a given theory and follows its ontological commitments. “On its face, the notion of ontological commitment for theories is a simple matter. Theories have truth conditions. These truth conditions tell us how the world must be in order for the theory to be true; they make demands on the world. Sometimes, perhaps always, they demand of the world that certain entities or kinds of entity exist. The ontological commitments of a theory, then, are just the entities or kinds of entity that must exist in order for the theory to be true. End of story (compare Rayo 2007: 428).”[i] (Bricker, 2016). The main issues start to happen when you try to identify the truth conditions of a theory or ontological commitment. Because the truth conditions vary across theories and ontological commitments change. This causes the issue of how do we determine an existence or nature of being as a truth condition, to give us a valid and sound Ontological argument. Therefore, there is a need for a method or test that can determine the Ontological commitments of a given theory. Even these tests and theories for Ontological commitments are still subjected to disputes, because even a neutral method or test is subjected to the same issues as before; how do we determine what is the neutral ground to test an Ontological commitment. Around the mid twentieth century, philosopher Willard Van Orman Quine (1908-2000), was inspired by progresses in formal logic, developed a new method for addressing questions in ontology, which became the standard in metaphysics. Quine presents this in his paper “On What there is” (1948); “A curious thing about the ontological problem is its simplicity. It can be put in three AngloSaxon monosyllables: ‘What is there?’ It can be answered, moreover, in a word— ‘Everything’—and everyone will accept this answer as true. However, this is merely to say that there is what there is. There remains room for disagreement over cases; and so the issue has stayed alive down the centuries.”[ii] (Quine, 1953). In this paper Quine gives the example of two philosophers McX and I, that have different views over ontology. Quine goes on to say, McX maintains that there is something which I says there is not. McX can then maintain by his own point of view that their difference of opinion is because I refuses to acknowledge certain entities. Then I can maintain that there are no entities in which McX alleges to exist. It does not matter whether I finds McX wrong in his formulation, it is unimportant because I is committed to thinking his ontology is wrong anyway. Therefore, when I tries to formulate the difference of opinion, there is a predicament, because I cannot admit that there are some things McX acknowledges and I do not, because in doing so would be admitting there are such things therefore contradicting the rejection of them. According to Quine, if this reasoning were sound in any ontological dispute the negative opponent has the disadvantage of not being able to admit his opponent disagrees with him. Which Quine describes as ‘the old platonic riddle of nonbeing’, which is ‘Nonbeing must in some sense be, what is it that there is not?’, sometimes referred to as Platos Beard. Quine explains this by using the example of Pegasus; “If Pegasus were not, McX argues, we should not be talking about anything when we use the word; therefore it would be nonsense to say even that Pegasus is not. Thinking to show thus that the denial of Pegasus cannot be coherently maintained, he concludes that Pegasus is.”[iii] (Quine, 1953). This creates the confusion that even if McX cannot convince himself that anywhere in space time a Pegasus exists, and claims the Pegasus is only an idea in man’s mind. But we can argue that there is an entity of the mental Pegasus idea, even though this not what we are referring to when we deny the existence of Pegasus. Quine then goes to explain the subtler minds come out with theories like Pegasus, and are less misguided then McX’s, and therefore more difficult to eradicate. He gives one these minds named Wyman, according to Quine Wyman claims the Pegasus being is an actualised possible, so when we say that there is no such thing, we are saying that the Pegasus does not have the attribute of actuality. That we would be saying something about an entity whose being is unquestioned. In Quines view though, Wyman is a philosopher who has contributed in ruining the word ‘exist’, he says that he limits the word ‘existence’ to ‘actuality’, which preserves the illusion of an ontological agreement between himself and us reject the rest of his ‘bloated universe’. He claims that Wyman destroyed what we mean by ‘exist’, therefore his way of coping with this is to give Wyman the word ‘exist’ and instead use the word ‘is’. According to Quine this isn’t even the worst of it, in his opinion Wyman’s possibles is a breeding ground for disorder, and he gives us this example; “Take, for instance, the possible fat man in that doorway; and, again, the possible bald man in that doorway. Are they the same possible man, or two possible men? How do we decide? How many possible men are there in that doorway? Are there more possible thin ones than fat ones? How many of them are alike? Or would their being alike make them one? Are no two possible things alike? Is this the same as saying that it is impossible for two things to be alike? Or, finally, is the concept of identity simply inapplicable to unactualized possibles? But what sense can be found in talking of entities which cannot meaningfully be said to be identical with themselves and distinct from one another?”[iv] (Quine, 1953). He goes on to say these elements cannot be changed or reformed and feels it would be better to just be done with it. Quines Slogan “No entity without Identity” means that if something exists there must be facts as to what it is identical to and what it is not identical to for example, the British philosopher Alan Watts, Alan exists because there is such a person as Alan Watts, and there facts as to what he is identical to and what he is not. He is identical to his notable work The way of Zen (1957) who interpreted and popularised Eastern philosophy for a Western audience. Alan Watts is not identical to New Zealand’s current prime minister. If it was vague and there were no facts who he was identical to and he could be identical to the prime minister, then according to Quine’s theory we should be sceptical of his existence. According to Quine we shouldn’t believe there are any unactualised possibles because there are no precise answers to identity questions. Finding one’s ontological commitment, Quine’s method; we know that Quine rejects the idea that there are non-existent entities like the Pegasus or the possible fat man in the doorway. However he still accepts that both sentences are true; the Pegasus does not exist and the possible fat man in the doorway does not exist. According to Quine just because these are true and meaningful, this does not commit us to believing in these. Because they lack being and they must be meaningful even when they do not name anything. In order to do this according to Quine we need to use a procedure Quine calls regimentation. This means we need to represent the sentences in first order predicate logic, then it will be clear what the ontological commitments are. For example, replacing Pegasus with ‘P’ and possible fat man with ‘M’; ¬∃x (x=p) ¬∃x (x=m) These are still meaningful, but now we can see in this structure they do not claim the existence or being of these things. Although the negation signs claims the nonexistence of both. Quine also addresses the idea that the words themselves must mean something in order for the sentence to be meaningful, by emphasising that we shouldn’t confuse idea that words like ‘Pegasus’ must mean something with the idea that they name something. Quine uses the view from the logician and philosopher Bertrand Russel (1872-1970), he suggested that names are actually descriptions in disguise. So Quine considers that ‘Pegasus’ means the same as ‘winged horse that was captured by Bellerophon. Using symbols to stand in for the predicates this is expressed like this; ¬ ∃x (((Wx ∧ Hx) ∧ Cx) ∧ ∀y (((Wy ∧ Hy) ∧ Cy) ⊃ y=x)) ( x is winged and x is a horse and x is a horse and x was captured by Bellerophon, and for any y, if y is a horse and y was captured by Bellerophon, then y is identical to x) The sentence is still meaningful but does not claim the existence of a winged horse, but rather denies the existence. Quines method for determining one’s ontological commitments; Decide which sentences you take to be true. Regiment the sentences by symbolising them in the language of first-order logic. Commit yourself to all and only those entities needed to stand in as the values of bound variables in order to make the sentences true.[v] “To be assumed as an entity is, purely and simply, to be reckoned as the value of a variable… The variables of quantification, ‘something’, ‘nothing’, ‘everything’, range over our whole ontology, whatever it may be; and we are convicted of a particular ontological presupposition if, and only if, the alleged presupposition has to be reckoned among the entities over which our variables range in order to render one of our affirmations true.” (Quine, Introduction to ontology, 2014) [i] Bricker, Phillip, “Ontological Commitment”, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Winter 2016 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL = . [ii] Orman, Quine, “On what there is”, Semantics Scholar, Review of Metaphysics (1948). Reprinted in 1953 From a Logical Point of View. Harvard University Press. [iii] Orman, Quine, “On what there is”, Semantics Scholar, Review of Metaphysics (1948). Reprinted in 1953 From a Logical Point of View. Harvard University Press. [iv] Orman, Quine, “On what there is”, Semantics Scholar, Review of Metaphysics (1948). Reprinted in 1953 From a Logical Point of View. Harvard University Press. [v] Ney, A. (2014). Introduction to ontology. In A. Ney, Metaphysics an introduction (pp. 30-37). Oxon: Routledge. Bibliography Bricker, P. (2016, December 2). Ontological Commitment. Retrieved from Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Musgrave, A. (1993). Berkley: idea-ism becomes idealism. In A. Musgrave, Common sense, Science and Scepticism. New York: Press Syndicate of the University of Cambridge. Ney, A. (2014). Introduction to ontology. In A. Ney, Metaphysics an introduction (pp. 30-37). Oxon: Routledge. Quine, W. V. (1953). On what there is. Retrieved from Semantics Scholar: Quine, W. V. (2014). Introduction to ontology. In A. Ney, Metaphysics an introduction (pp. 40-41). Oxon: Routledge. Shaffer, Jerome. “Existence, Predication, and the Ontological Argument.” Mind, New Series, 71, no. 283 (1962): 307-25. Sober, E. (2009). The ontological argument. In E. Sober, Core Questions in Philosophy a text with readings fifth edition (pp. 84-91). New Jersey, Upper Saddle River, United States of America: Pearson Prentice Hall. Webe, D. Z. (2019, March 22). 2 – Intro to Ontology: On What There Is. Dunedin, Otago, New Zealand.

The Main Constraints To Economic Growth Economics Essay

There are different constraints to economic growth in any country. These constraints differ from one country to another according to different economic situations in these countries. The following are the main constraints that usually affect developing countries as well as developed ones. 1. Lack of Savings The Harod Domar model suggests the levels of savings are important for determining levels of investment and hence the rate of economic growth. If there is a lack of savings, it limits investment and therefore, there is little prospect of economic development. However, sometimes the level of savings is misused on unproductive investment projects. The important thing is not level of savings but the economic management of investment resources. Also, low savings may be countered by foreign investment 2. Corruption This can cause foreign aid to be siphoned off into the bank accounts of politicians. It means that resources for development will not be used in their entirety for economic development. In some cases the % of corruption can be very high. However, this has not stopped some countries from developing e.g. China. Corruption is endemic in the world. It is a major problem in China, but hasn’t stopped growth. Also, corruption may just take a % of investment, therefore there are still funds being used for investment. So unless stopping corruption, the economic growth in any country can not easily attained. 3. Human Capital Lack of human capital is a constraint on growth. To diversify the economy and move towards industrialisation it is necessary to have skilled labour. The World Bank says human capital accounts for about 65% of economic development. Therefore, it can be a very significant constraint to growth. In many cases attempts to industrialise the economy suffered from lack of human capital. However, in many industries competitiveness can be achieved through low wage costs, as in China. Therefore, for labour intensive industries low wage costs can be more important than labour productivity. 4. Poor Macroeconomic Conditions The fundamental problem behind the poor macroeconomic situation has been high and unsustainable fiscal deficits. High inflation and unstable exchange rates have made business decision-making and planning difficult. All this factors have reduced private sector investment, thus jeopardizing future economic growth. 5. Inefficient Tax and Incentive System Although tax and incentives systems are broadly competitive, the tax system is geared towards revenue collection rather than towards supporting economic growth. The incentive system is complex, non-transparent, non-automatic and discretionary. It favours new international investments and does not consider existing domestic investors. This puts existing businesses at a disadvantage if they want to re-invest to modernise. The approval of incentives and allocation of land is slow and uncertain. Incentives once granted are not guaranteed, and the incentive regime is unpredictable because of policy reversals. 6. Poor Infrastructure A country’s landlocked status is a major disadvantage to businesses as it increases the costs to importers and exporters relative to regional competitors. The weakness of the transport infrastructure includes poor access to ports, limited air links and freight capacity, limited rail capacity and poor condition of roads serving manufacturing, mining, tourism and rural producing areas. In addition, the problems with utilities (water, electricity and communication) affect production in the country because they are not only unreliable but also inefficient and expensive and hence slow economic growth. 7. Poor Private and Public Co-operation and Dialogue When there has been weak co-operation and consultation between the private and public sectors due to a lack of a recognised, representative and legal institution that would serve as a liaison between the two sides, such as a Business Council. This gap definitely is a main constrain to economic growth. As is the case in any new planning scheme there must be some advantages and disadvantages. Sustaining a fast economic growth is not an exemption; the following table summarises the main merits and demerits that affect any country’s ability of achieving faster economic growth. The advantages and disadvantages of economic growth are fiercely debated by economists, environmentalists and other commentators. In this note we consider some of the economic and social costs and benefits from expanding levels of production and consumption. In particular we focus on the idea of sustainable growth. Table1: Metris and Demerits of Economic Growth Advantages Disadvantages Improvements in living standards Inflation risks Rising Employment: The environment degradation The accelerator effect of growth on capital investment Inequalities of income and wealth Greater business confidence Regional disparities The “fiscal dividend” to the government (more money to finance spending projects). Potential environmental benefits Designed by the Author, 2010

another quicky physics question

another quicky physics question.

Two uniform solid spheres have the same mass, but one has twice the radius of the other. The ratio of the larger sphere’s moment of inertia to that of the smaller sphere isSelect one:a. 1/2b. 4c. 2d. 8/5e. 4/5
another quicky physics question

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