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PHI 103 CU Wk 1 Time Outs Suitable Methods Of Discipline Essay

PHI 103 CU Wk 1 Time Outs Suitable Methods Of Discipline Essay.

In the Week 1 Presenting Arguments assignment, you objectively and neutrally evaluated reasoning on each side of your question from non-scholarly sources. For this assignment, you will objectively and neutrally evaluate and present the reasoning from scholarly sources on the same question.(Question Are Time Outs Suitable Methods of Discipline for Child Upbringing?) I attached a sample paper Conduct research from scholarly sources on each side of your issue and write a paper that includes the following:Introduction (approximately 100 words)Explain your topic and state the specific question that you are addressing.Presentation of an ArgumentDescribe the scholarly source on one side of the issue.Summarize the key points made. (approximately 100 words)Present what you see as the main argument from that source in standard form with the premises listed above the conclusion. (approximately 100 words)Evaluate the quality of the reasoning in this source.You may address questions such as how adequately the article supports the premises with research and how strongly the premises of the argument support the truth of the conclusion. (approximately 200 words)Presentation of an Opposing ArgumentDescribe the scholarly source on the other side of the issue.Summarize the key points made. (approximately 100 words)Present what you see as the main argument from that source in standard form, with the premises listed above the conclusion. (approximately 100 words)Evaluate the quality of the reasoning in this source.You may address questions such as how adequately the article supports the premises with research and how strongly the premises of the argument support the truth of the conclusion. (approximately 200 words)Evaluation of Arguments in Non-Scholarly and Scholarly Sources (approximately 200 words)Discuss the differences in the quality of the reasoning or in the degree of support in the sources that you analyzedSome specific types of questions you might address here include: Who is the target audience? What types of motives may be influencing these authors? Discuss any logical fallacies in any of the sources.Conclusion (approximately 50 words)Reflect on how this activity might influence how you conduct research in the future.
PHI 103 CU Wk 1 Time Outs Suitable Methods Of Discipline Essay

Using Stories to build Relationships. I’m studying for my Management class and don’t understand how to answer this. Can you help me study?

Using Stories to Build Relationships
Introduction
This portfolio work project will give you practice with professional writing expectations, as well as motivating and persuading others by telling a story.
Scenario
You have learned about the tools that leaders have available to them to use as a way to engage and motivate others and to build trust and collaborative relationships. Storytelling is one of the tools.
Your Role
You have just been assigned to lead a team that has an established history with your organization. Due to some serious issues in the past, you are concerned about building relationships with the team members and creating a working environment of mutual trust and collaboration.
Requirements
For this assignment you will chose one of the following 3 options:
Option A: Your Own Story
For this option, choose a real situation from your own work experience where a team of people needed to work together in order to get something done. For whatever reason, the group failed to succeed. Now that you will be working as the new leader of the team, you would like to take steps to prevent the same thing from happening again.
Option B: Case Study – NASA Challenger Disaster
For this option, use this chapter:

Snarski, R. D. (2017). Communicating clearly in the information age: A guide to easy and effective writing for employees, students, writers and anyone who uses the written word. Tampa, FL: Author.

Chapter 1, “The Global Importance of Effective Communication [PDF].”

The reading asserts that NASA engineers knew there was a problem in the shuttle that could cause a disaster, yet the shuttle launched. As a new team leader at NASA, you want to take steps to build trust among the members of the team and develop relationships that will result in better collaboration and engagement, so a disaster like this doesn’t happen again.
Option C: Case Study – British Petroleum (BP) Oil Spill
For this option, use this case study:

Reuters. (2011, February 17). Gulf oil spill could have been prevented by BP workers who weren’t consulted: Report. Huffington Post. Retrieved from https://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/02/17/oil-spil…

The Gulf oil spill article asserts that there were some at BP who knew in advance that there was a problem that could lead to a disaster. As the new team leader for a team at BP, you want to take steps to build trust among the members of the team and develop relationships that will result in better collaboration and engagement to prevent similar disasters in the future.
Assignment Instructions
For whichever case you chose, complete the following:
Write a professional paper that analyzes the tools leaders can use to build trust and collaboration and explains why you believe storytelling is one effective tool for you to use to lead your team. In your paper, complete the following:

Analyze the tools leaders can use to build trust and relationships, foster collaboration, and help employees feel engaged with their work.

Identify the specific tools.
Explain how each tool can be used.
Explain the benefits of each tool.

Explain ways in which leaders use storytelling to build trust and relationships.

Provide some examples of times when using storytelling would be effective.
Tell a story to your team. Create a section of your paper where you craft a story to your team which informs them about the past situation, yet inspires them to excellence in the future.

Craft a story that:

Describes the past situation and what went wrong. Where did the breakdown in trust happen?
Discusses what you have learned from that situation about trust, relationships, communication, collaboration, and any other aspects.
Describes your plan for building trust among the team members.
Is well organized and appropriate for your intended audience.

When you create this paper you should have a single file that is organized with subheadings and is easy to read and follow. It should include, at minimum, an introduction, sections on collaboration and trust, a section on storytelling and how it is effect, and then a section that actually tells the story that you, as a leader, would tell your team.
If you wish, instead of writing the story portion of this paper, you can create a video or audio recording of it using Capella-supported Kaltura or providing your instructor with a YouTube link. When using Kaltura for your recording, you may record a video or use audio only if you do not have a camera on your computer. Refer to the MBA Program Resources for Kaltura to prepare for this option.
Deliverable Format

Professional paper of 3–5 pages.
Include supporting resources.
If you chose to record your story using Kaltura or YouTube upload, it should not exceed 5 minutes and you should put a note saying you have attached an audio/video file in the appropriate section of your paper.

Submit your paper to SafeAssign as a draft to check your use of source material and see if you have any errors in your citations to correct. Note: In many assignments throughout your program you will use SafeAssign to check your work in this way.
Using Stories to build Relationships

CRJS 2002 Walden University Diversionary Strategies & Armed Robbery Discussion.

I’m working on a social science case study and need support to help me study.

How the juvenile justice system views the classification of age in relation to delinquent behavior varies, sometimes based on circumstance and jurisdiction or on legal rights. These factors affect how a juvenile will enter or avoid the criminal justice system and the strategies employed to handle juveniles.In this Assignment, you classify an offense for a juvenile and determine strategies for handling a juvenile in the criminal justice system by considering the various options available, including options that do not involve criminal charges or incarceration.To prepare:Read the Week 4 case study found in the Criminal Justice Case Studies: Juvenile Delinquency and Justice document.Aspects of the Assignment require you to apply your learning to this case study.Review the Elements of an Intake Report document for a model.Part 1In 500 to 750 words, address the following. The audience for your writing is professional (e.g., probation officer, judge).Determine a classification for the type of offense described in the case study.Recommend a short-term and a long-term strategy to address the offense, which may include a placement recommendation (e.g., halfway house, nonprofit institution, social services, family “replacement,” or incarceration).Develop an intake plan for the offender in the form of an intake report that would be submitted to a juvenile court judge.Where applicable, support your responses by referring to the Learning Resources.Part 2In 500 to 750 words, respond to the following. Recall that this portion of your document is your analysis and reflection, the audience for which is your Instructor only.Describe the developmental needs in juveniles that align with the prevention, intervention, or rehabilitation strategies that you used in your report.Describe the factors that affected your placement recommendation (e.g., halfway house, nonprofit institution, social services, family “replacement,” or incarceration).Explain how you measure successful interventions for juveniles.
CRJS 2002 Walden University Diversionary Strategies & Armed Robbery Discussion

The Yellow Wallpaper essay

Paper details

Read the 11 short paragraphs on page 320 (5th editon) of “The Yellow Wallpaper” that begin with “He is very careful and loving . . .” and end with “he hates to have me write a word.” (These paragraphs are found on pages 307 and 314 in the 6th and 7th editions, respectively.) In this passage, the narrator describes how her husband treats her and her feelings about her room.

Both the descriptions of her husband and her roomóespecially the wallpaperóindicate how the narrator is feeling emotionally. In a well-organized essay, analyze how the narrator’s description of the setting is linked to both her emotional state and her feelings about her husband. You may wish to consider such literary elements as imagery, tone, and point of view. To support your argument, you’ll need to use direct quotations from the passage, so make sure to have your text available before you begin writing.
PLEASE read the instructions file (you need to read this in order to write the paper) to read as well as additional instructions to follow on that file. In addition to the instructions document, I would like you to include a very Strong thesis please, and reference the thesis again (reword) in the conclusion paragraph. Direct text support in the body paragraphs helps 🙂

This is only for writers that have read the “The Yellow Wallpaper,” otherwise you won’t be able to write the essay. Allow a different writer to do it, if you have not read this story.

week 11 response

python assignment help week 11 response. I don’t understand this Nursing question and need help to study.

Hi Cynthia, Thank you for your comprehensive and enlightening posting. I’d like to expand on your post and highlight that in the wake of a natural disaster such as a hurricane or flood, public health practitioners are typically concerned about environmental issues and their associations to health. These usually include outdoor air quality, and habitability of homes (indoor air pollution, mold, poor heating and sanitation, structural challenges, electrical and fire hazards, etc.).
What are at least three other environmental issues and considerations and why would they have or pose a significant interest to environmental and occupational health during public health emergencies (either from a preparedness, response or recovery perspective)? I appreciate your thoughts and reflection.
week 11 response

Sexual Harassment at the Workplace Opinion Essay

Skaine (1996) defines sexual harassment as “unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature…when submission or rejection of this conduct explicitly affects an individual’s employment, unreasonably interferes with an individual’s work performance or creates an intimidating, hostile or offensive work environment ” (p. 11). The two types of sexual harassment identified by the law are quid pro quo and hostile environment. Quid pro quo refers to a condition where an employee is forced to provide sexual favors to an individual at a higher job rank in exchange of benefits at the workplace. On the other hand, hostile environment refers to a state where employees are harassed by offensive sexual behavior or any other act or state that intimidates a person sexually at the workplace (Geffner

Study of Dogs as Carriers of Leishmania

Characterization of Leishmania major in dogs as a reservoir of the parasite, in Shiraz, southern Iran Summary Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) with diverse clinical manifestations is prevalent and remains a major public health problem in Iran and its incidence has been increased over the last decade. The primary hosts of Leishmania are sylvatic mammals of several orders (Rodentia, Marsupialia, Carnivora, etc.). A PCR assay using a of species-specific pair of primers followed by sequencing the positive samples were employed in order to identify Leishmania major as the causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniosis in two dogs having skin lesions. Considering the roles of various animal species as reservoirs of the parasite, here, we have introduced dogs as rare species of animals to function as a reservoir for parasite, in Shiraz. Introduction Leishmaniasis is a spectrum of diseases caused by infection with different species of the protozoan parasite Leishmania. It is a serious public health problem and affects over 12 million people in many parts of the world (WHO, 1990). Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is caused by L. tropica, L.aethiopicaand L. major in the old world, and by L. mexicana, L. guyanensis, L.amazonensis and L. braziliensis in the new world (Alvar et al.,2012; Reithinger et al.,2007). Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) occurs in many areas of Iran, having been reported in 17 of the 30 provinces (Nadim, 2000; Yaghoobi-Ershadi et al., 2004) in which,L. major and L. tropica are the primary agents of zoonotic cutaneous leishmniasis (ZCL) and anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL), respectively (Nadim and Seyedi-Rashti, 1971). One of the endemic foci of leishmaniasis in Iran is Shiraz, southwest area. The number of reported CL cases has increased in recent years: from 2000 to 2003, a total of 3975 cases were officially reported from Shiraz (600 cases from a rural area of southern Shiraz, with an annual mean population of 36 987 in 40 villages) (Razmjou et al., 2009). In surrounded Shiraz, Meriones libycus was confirmed as the main reservoir host of ZCL in Arsanjan and Neiriz city (Rassi et al., 2001; Rassi et al., 2006). Domestic dogs known to be the main VL and CL reservoir, they are regularly investigated in endemic areas to prevent, principally, severe and often fatal VL in humans (Grimaldi and Tesh, 1993). CL can be very difficult to treat, long-lasting and disfiguring. CL is characterized by the development of an ulcerative skin lesion, which contains numerous parasites. Although the clinical features of CL can vary because of different causative species, a classical lesion starts as a papule or nodule at the site of parasite inoculation and slowly expands (Reithinger et al., 2007). Despite the significant contribution of a variety of molecular methods for identifying Leishmania, these methods are time consuming and expensive for diagnosistic purposes. In contrast, a specific PCR-based method is appealing as it is rapid, sensitive, and specific, avoiding culturing of parasites, thus being suitable for Leishmaniasis surveillance programs that require efficient laboratorial response for rapid and effective actions (Rodriguez et al., 1994; Fernandes et al., 1996; Schallig and Oskam, 2002; Volpini et al., 2003; Marfurt et al., 2003). To help implement future control measures, it is imperative to determine the prevalence of the disease in the reservoir. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the epidemiological features of CL in Shiraz, to further identify the causative species of leishmaniasis in the clinical samples collected from dogs, using a species- specific PCR assay. Materials and Methods: Samples During September 2013, 3-5 ml EDTA-treated whole blood samples from 25 dogs –referred to the School of Vet Medicine, Shiraz- were collected by cephalic vein puncture. All members of the dogs were initiallyexamined clinically for the presence of ulcer or scar. The Samples were subsequently subjected by a PCR assay to identify whether any causative agent of Leishmania was confirmed. After samplecollection, a questionnaire was used to collectinformation regarding the age, gender, and species of each dog. Extraction of DNA from the clinical samples The whole blood samples were transferred into 1.5 ml micro tubes before being lysed in 250 µl of lysis buffer (containing 50 mMNaCl, 10 mM EDTA, 1% SDS 50 mMTris-HCL). The final concentrations for SDS and proteinase K were 5% and 200 µg ml-1, respectively. RNase was also added at the final concentration of 100 µg ml-1 (incubated with the solution at37 º C for 30 min.). The samples rotated in a hybridization oven at 56 º C and digested overnight. The samples were gently been mixed for 5 min. After centrifugation of the samples at 10000 rpm, the upper layers were collected in new micro tubes and equal volume of chloroform was then added and centrifuged for 1 min. The upper phase was removed and precipitated with 50 µl of 3 M sodium acetate (pH 6.0) and 500 µl cold Isopropanol (kept in -20 º C), followed by storage on ice for 1 hour. The specimens were subsequently centrifuged at 10000 rpm for 5 min at 4 º C. The Isopropanol layer was then removed following by washing the DNA pellet in 200 µl of 70% ethanol. After another centrifugation for 10 min. the ethanol phase was removed and the vacuum dried DNA was resuspended in 30 µl DNA free water. It was finally aliquoted and stored at -20 º C for further use. PCR assay PCR was performed using the primers 5- GGG TAG GGG CGTTCT GCG AA -3 and 5-CGC ACT ATT TTA CAC CAA CCC C -3, which target the amplification of the 120-bp conserved region of the LeishmaniakDNAminicircle of all Leishmania species. A reaction mixture was prepared that contained 50mmol/L KCl, 10mmol/ L Tris-HCl (pH, 8.0), 0.2 mmol/L each deoxyribonucleotide (Invitrogen), 1 mmol/L each primer, 1.25 U of Taq polymerase (Invitrogen), and 2.5 mL of DNA sample in a final volume of 25 mL. The PCR conditions were as follows: denaturation at 94ºC for 3 min, followed by 30 cycles of 94º C for 30 s, 55ºC for 30 s, and 94ºC for 45s, with a final extension of 72ºCfor 10 min. The amplification reactions were analyzed by 1% agarose gel electrophoresis, followed by ethidium bromide staining andvisualization under UV light (Indiani de Oliveira et al., 2003) DNA Sequencing The amplified genes were finally extracted from gels using QIAquick gel extraction kit (Bioneer, USA) as was described by the manufacturer. The pured products were finally subjected for sequencing (Macrogen, South Korea). Statistical analysis Fisher’s exact test was used to compare to the gender, clinical status and PCR findings. The differences were considered statistically significant when Pvalue was 0.05. The 95% confidence intervals (95% CI)of rates were calculated. Result PCR assay Table 1. Frequency of the skin lesions in both genders in dog Skin lesions Frequency(%) Genus Female Male P 10(40) 1 9 A 15(60) 8 7 Total 25 9 16 P: presence of skin lesions A: Absence of the skin lesions Table2. Frequency of the skin lesions in different breeds of dogs Species P A German sheferd 3 5 Dobernam 1 1 Terrier 2 1 Other 4 8 P: presence of skin lesions A: Absence of the skin lesions The PCR results showed, two positive cases (out of 25 dogs) which were belong to the male German shepherd, breed (one to two years old). No significant difference was found between the skin lesions and leshmaniasis (P=0.15). The infection rate was significantly higher in the male dogs (P=0.034). Frequency of the skin lesions in various age groups (under 1 year, 1-3 years and above 3 years) were respectively 3, 4 and 3. Frequency of the skin lesions in both of genders and different breeds of dogs showed in table 1 and 2. DNA sequencing The result of sequencing was recorded in the gene bank with the accession number of KM016967 (not released in the Gene bank, yet). Discussion CL is the most common form of leishmaniasis worldwide, representing 50–75% of all new cases. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the number of CL cases is around 1–1.5 million annually, and 90% of CL cases occur in seven countries; Afghanistan, Algeria, Brazil, Iran, Peru, SaudiArabia and Syria (Alvar et al.,2012; Reithinger et al.,2007). The current study was focused on the identification of cutaneous leishmaniasis in various breeds of dogs in Shiraz. Using a PCR assay, L.major was further confirmed in two dogs for the first time. Regardless to a non-significant difference between the presence of skin lesions and leishmaniasis which was possibility due to the low number of cases, conformation of L.major which is a main zoonotic species is considered as a potent reservoir to infect humans. Since German shepherd is mainly used as guard dogs keeping in the rural areas, such an infection may be closely associated with the human CL. Transmission of Leishmania parasites is anthroponotic (human to vector to human) in the Indian subcontinent and Asia is zoonotic (animal to vector to human), where dogs and rodents act as reservoir (Alvar et al. 2004; Postigo, 2010; Reithinger et al., 2007). Dogs have long been implicated as the main domestic reservoirs of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum, the etiological agent of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (Moreno and Alvar, 2002; Alvar et al., 2004), while, dogs play major role as reservoirs of different forms of leishmaniasis, worldwide. In a report from Egypt, dogs have been documented as L. major as the causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis (Morsy et al., 1987). The prevalence of infection among 1000 inhabitants of the three villages in rural areas of Shiraz was 23.2%using nested PCR. Prevalence of ulcers and scars were 7 and 16.2%, respectively. In this study, the L. major strain was identified in the majority of cases. The results of this epidemiological study indicated a high prevalence of leishmaniasis in rural areas of Shiraz (Razmjou et al., 2009). The prevalence of scars and active lesions was 2.5% and 1.6% respectively in the 3086 residents of Dehsorkh district and 6% and 4% respectively in the school children using RAPD PCR in Mobarakeh county, central Iran in 2003.Among rodents, 7 of 18 Nesokiaindica (39%) and 1 of 9 Merionespersicus (11%) were found to be infected with Leishmania major (Emamia et al., 2009). As it mentioned, the dog is not the only reservoir host of the etiological agent of ZCL, as such phlebotoumus papatasi was reported elsewhere from Iran. For instances, Ten (1.8%) out of 549 female P. papatasiwas found to be infected with L. major based on the PCR detection and sequencing of parasite ITS-rDNA in Natanz, Isfahan province in centre of Iran, in a focus of rural ZCL (Parvizi et al. 2010). In addition, rodents was also considered as the reservoirs of L.major in the central and south of Iran (Emamia et al., 2009, Rassi et al. 2006, Asgar et al., 2007) Based on mathematical models, insecticidal control of sandflies appears to represent a more effective way of reducing Leishmania infantum transmission than the present strategy of culling infected dogs in Latin America as well as being more acceptable to the human population. Since man is a dead-end host of most Leishmania species, treatment of existing human cases generally does not affect transmission. Interruption of the cycle by vector control may offer a cheaper, more practical solution to treatment and improved knowledge of the alternatives available could lead to preventative measures being undertaken in more leishmaniasis foci (Maroli and Khoury, 2004). In recent years, both cutaneous (CL) and zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL) have become increasingly prevalent in urban areas, including large Latin American cities. A similar trend has been recorded in all Mediterranean areas during the last decade. Where dogs are the unique domestic reservoir, a reduction in Leishmania transmission would be expected if we could combine an effective mass treatment of infected dogs with a protection of both healthy and infected dogs from the sandfly bites. Laboratory and field evaluations have shown that impregnated dog collars and topical application of insecticides could protect dogs from most sandfly bites by means of both anti-feeding and killing effect of the pirethorids used (Maroli and Khoury, 2004). Control measures for leishmaniasis are heavily dependent on chemotherapy. Currently employed drugs are associated with severe toxic side effects and increasing parasite drug resistance.This has forced researchers to think about other control measures, and in particular, the development and implementation of an effective vaccine (Croft et al., 2006; Sundar, 2001 ) Conclusion As a brief conclusion, result of our study showed that L.major was found in dogs which was for merely established as a main(rare) case of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Thus, we have introduced dogs as the main resorvior of parasite in Shiraz, south of Iran. Fig 1: Representing 1.5% agarose gel electrophoresis for detectionof various species of Leishmania. Lane 1: 100 bp ladder, Lane 2: 120bppositive sample. Lane 3: Negative control. References Alvar, J., I. D. Velez, C. Bern, M. Herrero, P. Desjeux, J. Cano, J. Jannin, and M. den Boer, 2012: Leishmaniasis worldwide and global estimates of its incidence. PLoS One 7, e35671. Alvar J., C. Canavate, R. Molina, J. Moreno, and J. Nieto, 2004: Canine leishmaniasis. Adv. Parasitol. 57, 1-88. Asgar Q., M. H. Motazedian, D. Mehrabani, A. Oryan, G. R. Hatam, S. M. Owji, and H. Paykari, 2007: Zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in Shiraz, Southern Iran: A molecular, isoenzyme and morphologic approach. J. Res. Med. Sci. 12, 7-15. Croft S. L., S. Sundar, and A. H. Fairlamb, 2006: Drug resistance in leishmaniasis. Clin. Microbiol. Rev.19, 111–126. Emamia M. M., M. Yazdib, and M. Nilforoushzadeh, 2009: Emergence of cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania major in a new focus of central Iran. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 103, 1257-1262. Fernandes, O., M. Bozza, J. M. Pascale, A. B. de Miranda, U. G. Lopes, and W. M. Degrave, 1996: An oligonucleotide probe derived from kDNA minirepeats is specific for Leishmania (Viannia). Mem. Inst. Oswaldo. Cruz 91, 279-284. Grimaldi, G., and R. B. Tesh, 1993: Leishmaniasis of the New Word: current concepts and implications for the future research. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 6, 230-250. Indiani de Oliveira C., A. ´Ba ´fica, F. Oliveira, C. B. F. Favali, T. Correa, L. A. R. Freitas, E. Nascimento, J. M. Costa, and A. Barral, 2003: Clinical Utility of Polymerase Chain Reaction–Based Detection of Leishmania in the Diagnosis of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis. Clin. Infect. Dis. 37, 149-153. Marfurt, J., A. Nasereddin, I. Niederwieser, C. L. Jaffe, H. P. Beck, and I. Felger, 2003: Identification and differentiation of Leishmania species in clinical samples by PCR amplification of the miniexon sequence and subsequent restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41, 3147-3153. Moreno, J., and J. Alvar, 2002: Canine leishmaniasis: epidemiological risk and the experimental model. Trends. Parasitol. 18, 399-405. Morsy T. A. , L. F. Schnur, F. M. Feinsod , A. M. Salem , M. M. Wahba , and S. M. el Said, 1987: Natural infections of Leishmania major in domestic dogs from Alexandria, Egypt. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 37, 49-52. Maroli M., and C. Khoury, 2004: Prevention and control of leishmaniasis vectors: current approaches. Parassitologia. 46, 211-215. Nadim, A, 2000: Leishmaniasis. In: Azizi F, editor. Epidemiology and Control of Prevalent Diseases in Iran, Endocrine and metabolism research center. Tehran: Academic Press 524-534. Nadim, A., and M. A. Seyedi-Rashti, 1971: A brief review of the epidemiology of various types of leishmaniasis in Iran. Acta. Med. Iran. 15, 99-106. Postigo J. A., 2010: Leishmaniasis in the World Health Organization Eastern Mediterranean Region. Inter. J. Antimicrob. Agents 36, 62-65. Parvizi P., N. Baghban, E. Alaee Novin, and A. Absavaran, 2010: Detection, identification and molecular typing of Leishmania major in Phlebotomuspapatasi from a focus of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in central of Iran. Exp. Parasitol. 124 , 232-237. Reithinger, R, J. C. Dujardin, H. Louzir, C. Pirmez, B. Alexander, and S. Brooker, 2007: Cutaneous leishmaniasis. Lancet. Infect. Dis. 7, 581–596. Razmjou, S, H. Hejazy , M. H. Motazedian, M. Baghaei, M. Emamy., and M. Kalantary, 2009: A new focus of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in Shiraz, Iran. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 103, 727-730. Rassi, Y, M. Jalali, E. Javadian, and M. H. Moatazedian, 2001: Confirmation of Meriones libycus (Rodentia; Gerbillidae) as the Main Reservoir Host of Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Arsanjan, Fars Province, South of Iran (1999-2000). Iranian J. Publ. Health 30, 143-144. Rassi, Y, E. Javadian, M. Amin, S. Rafizadeh, H. Vatandoost, and H. Motazedian, 2006: Meriones libycus is the main reservoir of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in south Islamic Republic of Iran. East. Mediterr. Health J. 12, 474-477. Rodriguez, N., B. Guzman, A. Rodas, H. Takiff, B. R. Bloom, and J. Convit, 1994: Diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis and species discrimination of parasites by PCR and hybridization. J. Clin. Microbiol. 32, 2246-2252. Schallig, H.D., and L. Oskam, 2002: Molecular biological applications in the diagnosis and control of leishmaniasis and parasite identification. Trop. Med. Int. Health. 7, 641-651. Sundar S., 2001: Drug resistance in Indian visceral leishmaniasis. Trop. Med. Int. Health 6, 849-854. Volpini, A.C., V. M. Passos, G. C. Oliveira, and A. J. Romanha, 2003: PCR-RFLP to identify Leishamania (Viannia) braziliensis and L.(Leishmania) amazonensis causing American cutaneous leishmaniasis. Acta Trop. 90, 31-37. WHO, 1990. Expert Committee. Control of the leishmaniasis. WHOTech. Rep. Ser., 793. Yaghoobi-Ershadi, M. R., R. Jafari, and A. A. Hanafi-Bojd, 2004: A new epidemic focus of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in central Iran. Ann. Saudi Med. 24, 98-101.

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