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Pharma Purdue and the Opioid Crisis

Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp The first step of our decision making model is to determine all the facts in the case being studied and judged. This paper will dive into the issue currently at hand with Purdue Pharma, a privately held drug company and their lawsuit with the state of Oklahoma, which was taken to court in March of this year, among many others. Purdue Pharma is known for their most famous product, OxyContin, which is a prescription painkiller. Purdue Pharma was founded in 1892 by doctors John Purdue Gray and and George Frederick Bingham. It was in 1952 that the company was sold to brothers Raymond and Mortimer Sackler, whose descendants are owners of said company to this day (Wikipedia). Purdue Pharma is renowned as being the pioneer in developing medication to reduce pain, something we know today to be simple painkillers we can pick up at a convenience. In 1995, Purdue Pharma’s most popular and groundbreaking drug OxyContin was released to the world. With this came a push for the company to have doctors aggressively praise the pill as being a safe choice to take on a 12 hour cycle. This marketing tactic worked as the people were convinced the drug was safe to consume frequently and allowed this to become one of Purdue Pharma’s biggest products. Unfortunately, the business’ choice to aggressively market the product as safe would hurt the general public due to a highly addictive and dangerous ingredient: oxycodone. OxyContin contains oxycodone as its only active ingredient. When released in 1995, it was lauded as being a “breakthrough, long lasting narcotic” that would help patients dealing with an intense pain (Keefe). The drug was a huge market success for the company making well over thirty five billion dollars in revenue. However, oxycodone is a dangerous additive to be using as it is similar in chemical structure to “heroin, which is up to twice as powerful as morphine” (Keefe). Many doctors are averse to prescribing opioids likes these as they are highly addictive. To counter this precedent, Purdue Pharma hired out doctors and paid for research in an attempt to convince the public that the opioid crisis was no more than a myth and that their drug would be able to treat them for many conditions. With this marketing pushed on the public, millions of people to date have purchased OxyContin believing it to be a safe choice to treat their conditions. See also: Challenges and Developments of the Opiod Epidemic From 1999 onwards, there have been over 200,000 deaths attributed to overdoses involving OxyContin. In fact, in 2017 there were 74,000 deaths caused by drug overdose with 40,000 of them being caused by opioids. It should also be noted that those who get hooked to opioids are likely to find themselves taking solace in other drugs including heroin. Today, multiple states have taken action against Purdue Pharma for their false marketing and downplaying of the addictive nature of OxyContin. Nearly 1,600 lawsuits have been filed against the company and Oklahoma is one of the first to be taken to court in March of 2019. Attorney General Mike Hunter filed in June of 2017 alleging that Purdue helped to ignite the opioid crisis (Bebinger). He sought 20 billion dollars in damages to the state. Although this case ended with Purdue Pharma paying 270 million to the state for funds of research and treatment in the state, they are still selling the harmful drug. The second step of the decision making model is to determine the dimensions of right and wrong concerning those involved. First, we should ask whether it was right or wrong for Purdue Pharma to market their product as being a safe and non addictive product when they clearly knew it wasn’t. We have to decide whether this was an immoral action or not. Another dimension we should delve into is if it was justifiable for Mike Hunter to claim Purdue Pharma was at an entire fault for the opioid crisis within Oklahoma. We should consider that there may be factors outside of just this drug that caused it. Finally, we should consider the ethics of the doctors who were paid off by Purdue Pharma and if it was moral for them to take pay in exchange for not considering their patients’ health. We must look at what may be right or wrong within cases in order to assess biases properly. For the third step of the decision making model, we must assess every stakeholder. Stakeholder Their Stake in the Case General Attorney Mike Hunter They would like to see justice brought to the people of Oklahoma. With reparations from the company, they could work on rebuilding and nursing the people affected by this crisis. Purdue Pharma They would like to continue marketing and selling OxyContin. Without this drug, their company would assuredly go under with all the bad press and their other products might fail to come off shelves. Consumers/Patients They are now aware of the harm being brought by these drugs and would like to see alternatives. It isn’t right for them to not have known what was going on with their drugs being given to them. Workers of Purdue Pharma They would like to continue working. They have their own lives to attend to and need a salary to fund it. Opioid Addicts They are the ones hurt the most by this crisis. The reparations that would be paid out should go to these people as they try to build their lives once more and research will let them know action is being taken to prevent and treat this awful addiction. Family of Opioid Addicts (alive or deceased) They would like to see justice brought for their family members who have fallen victim to addiction. For those deceased, they should receive some compensation in some form and want to see the crisis being handled to prevent others from hurting in the same way. Doctors They want to supply their patients with the best medication for their health and having not to sell OxyContin would of course aid in this. It would alleviate the guilt of selling a harmful product in some sense as well. In this step, it is important to also assess my own bias. I have not been affected by the opioid crisis in anyway as my family nor I have been addicted to any kind of painkiller or drug. In the fourth step of our decision making model, we must delineate and create alternative courses of action. These solutions should be feasible ways to solve our case. The first possible solution/outcome is that Purdue Pharma chooses not to comply in any way and continues the same practices with OxyContin. This would mean they continue to pay off doctors and push their marketing scheme. Another possible solution/outcome is that Purdue Pharma is forced to openly admit on their products that it can be addictive and that consumers should be cautious. This means each product will be labeled accordingly to their level of potential danger. Finally, Purdue Pharma could continue to sell their product but not be allowed to persuade doctors with monetary gain to promote the product. This means doctors will no longer be forced to tell customers that the product is safe when they are aware it isn’t. In the fifth step of our decision making model, we must assess how the stakeholders would respond to each alternative presented. Stakeholder Responses General Attorney Mike Hunter Act 1: Without any action taken, the crisis will simply worsen overtime and Hunter will not be able to combat for the sake of Oklahoma. Act 2: They will be okay with this situation as now the public will likely take note of their products and Hunter can focus on helping those already affected instead of prevention. Act 3: Same as Act 2 as doctors now prevent people from getting a hold of the drugs and misusing it. Hunter will be able to take funds and funnel it into research to aiding patients who have already succumb to addiction. Purdue Pharma Act 1: They continue to sell their products without interference. They are able to have doctors vouch for their product as they pay them off. Act 2: They are forced to label their products. Most likely their products will take a dip in purchase as people are put off from purchasing it, meaning their revenue falls. Act 3: Without doctor push, people are less likely than before to use OxyContin for pain relief meaning again their revenue would drop. Consumers/Patients Act 1: They would still be receiving products that are harmful to them and addictive. This would be good in the short term for pain but long term leads to a longer opioid crisis. Act 2: With labeled products, consumers are able to make an educated decision on whether or not they’d like to purchase this supposedly addictive product. Informed consumer is best! Act 3: Patients will no longer be persuaded by doctors to consume this product. Less people will fall victim to the facade and be able to avoid becoming addicted. Workers of Purdue Pharma Act 1: They will continue to work in the same way as the revenue of the company is not hurt so they can continue to fund workers. Act 2 and 3: These outcomes are roughly the same. With a decrease in revenue for the company, it is likely they will need to lay off workers to circumvent the loss. Opioid Addicts Act 1: They can continue to consume the opioids without warning or awareness from others. This will prolong the crisis. Act 2: With warning labels, people are more likely to become educated on their addiction and attempt to seek help. Act 3: Doctors will likely take more action to recognize those who abused opioids and give them alternatives and the aid they need to get over it rather than allow them to have it. Family of Opioid Addicts (alive or deceased) Act 1: No justice is served to their family member was a victim of the crisis. Act 2 and 3: Justice is brought for the family as they see other people are kept from falling victim to the crisis as a result of labeling and doctors no longer vouching for the drug. Doctors Act 1: They continue their practice of accepting pay from Purdue Pharma and push the harmful drug on people. Act 2: They are unaffected by this mostly as people on their own become aware of the harm of the drugs. Act 3: They no longer receive pay but are able to instruct people on the dangers of the drug. Removes guilt and allows them to put the life of the patient as the main priority. The sixth step of the decision making model is to seek guidance. In doing so, we are able to assess our solutions and possibly create more for our case. In this case, we have a company choosing to hide the addictive nature of a product from their consumers through heavy marketing. I would first inquire researchers of the active drug, oxycodone. I would like to see them publicly explain, to myself as well, how harmful this makes OxyContin to consume on a regular day to day basis. They can confirm public destress over the product and show how Purdue Pharma has had a large hand in the opioid crisis plaguing states all over the country, namely Oklahoma. I would also ask doctors who have treated opioid addicts and ask them how effective labeling of products is in preventing abuse further was. I would like to see how much of an impact treatment can make for victims as well as how labels caution people from using the drugs. This will allow me to confirm my decision in this case and decide whether or not Purdue Pharma should follow through. The final step in the decision making model is to make a decision and then ultimately decide whether the accused have been ethical. In this case, I have found Purdue Pharma to be truly unethical in their choice to market the product OxyContin as a nonaddictive drug. Their immoral decision has lead to a large opioid crisis in the state of Oklahoma as well as plenty of others and has cost many their lives. I would like to see alternatives 2 and 3 brought to fruition where Purdue Pharma can no longer pay off doctors to promote their product and they must label their products as containing highly addictive ingredients. With this choice of using both solutions, we should be able to prevent the continuation of the opioid crisis with and funnel more care into researching ways to help those already affected. The consumer has a right to be informed of the harm in what they are consuming and that is what this mix of solutions strives for. With this, Purdue Pharma will be doing what they should have done from the start which was ensuring the safety of any and all customers. Works Cited Bebinger, Martha. “Purdue Pharma Agrees To $270 Million Opioid Settlement With Oklahoma.” NPR, NPR, 26 Mar. 2019, Bernstein, Lenny. “Oklahoma Judge Refuses to Delay First Trial of Responsibility for Opioid Crisis.” The Washington Post, WP Company, 8 Mar. 2019, Keefe, Patrick Radden. “The Family That Built an Empire of Pain.” The New Yorker, The New Yorker, 28 Feb. 2019, “Purdue Pharma.” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 22 May 2019, Scholl, Lawrence. “Drug and Opioid-Involved Overdose Deaths – United States, 2013–2017 | MMWR.” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 4 Jan. 2019, Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp

Groupthink Concept and High-Quality Decision Making Compare and Contrast Essay

Table of Contents Groupthink Concept High-Quality Decision Making Differences between Groupthink and High-Quality Decision Making Bibliography Footnotes Groupthink Concept Groupthink refers to a psychological phenomenon happening within a cluster of persons under which the aspiration for conventionality within this cluster results in a biased outcome in the decisions made. The main underlying assumption towards belonging to this cluster is the need to minimize conflict through blind conformity. Thus, an individual caught up in a groupthink phenomenon is blindly loyal to a set of thoughts or actions for fear of being controversial as a result of exercising independent thinking. The often dysfunctional dynamics within such a group generates what is commonly referred to as an “illusion of invulnerability”1. Actually, the groupthink psychology makes persons belonging to this group to belief in universality of their decisions as right without accommodating the opponents’ abilities, which are often underrated. In the worst case, groupthink orientation in the decision making process may generate actions that are dehumanizing those perceived as belonging to the opponent quarter. High-Quality Decision Making The process of high-quality decision making is dependent on heuristic since it provides assumptions, integration of options, and rational control. Decision environment often experience dynamics and swings which create short and long term effect on chances of survival for two alternatives to solve a problem. When faced with a decision problem that requires critical assessments, high-quality decision making process resorts to analytical tools that ensure competitive positioning advantage and rationality. Each option is assigned to a quadrant with predetermined response strategies and ‘follow-ups’ upon each decision made2. Differences between Groupthink and High-Quality Decision Making High-quality decision making functions on the presence of rationality and verifiable facts, irrespective of the position or situation that the decision making agents are in. Unlike groupthink decision making process, high-quality decision making incorporates a series of perspectives through which the final decision is identified via a qualitative analysis. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Therefore, high-quality decision making relies heavily on the pillar of alternatives through research and knowledge of the situation or problem. On the other hand, groupthink (‘ingroup’) decision making process only accommodate the views of a cluster of individuals who belong to similar orientation and cannot exercise independent thinking. Decision making through groupthink is very biased since the underlying determinants of the decision matrix is loyalty and “illusion of vulnerability”3. Since high-quality decision making process operates on the periphery of rationality parameter, the final verdict can be described as reliable and accommodate variant views. Given that different aspects of decision making such as assumptions, integration of options, and rational control are integrated, most of visible or invisible biases are dampened as the effects of social presence elevate the decision science. Unfortunately, the groupthink phenomenon has structural faults which prevent the benefits of reliability and social effects since it is characterized by a context of provocative situation. Besides, groupthink decision process is characterized by internal or external pressures for a consensus which may generate accord-seeking propensities. Unlike high-quality decision, groupthink creates a false illusion which is inherently dysfunctional4. An example of groupthink is the decision biases that led to an attack on Pearl Harbor by the Japanese in the year 1941. Persons entrusted with the responsibility of rational decision making allowed shared rationalizations and illusions to shadow their judgment on the need for precautions. However, the attack could have been avoided had the decision makers embraced the components of high-quality decision making. Bibliography Fiske, Susan, and Shelley Taylor. Social Cognition: From Brains to Culture. California, Los Angeles: Sage Publications, 2013. We will write a custom Critical Writing on Groupthink Concept and High-Quality Decision Making specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Schafer, Mark, and Scott Crichlow. Groupthink vs. High-Quality Decision Making in International Relations. New York, NY: Columbia University Press, 2010. Footnotes 1 Mark Schafer and Scott Crichlow, Groupthink vs. High-Quality Decision Making in International Relations (New York, NY: Columbia University Press, 2010), 51. 2 Susan, Fiske, and Shelley Taylor, Social Cognition: From Brains to Culture (California, Los Angeles: Sage Publications, 2013), 23-29. 3 Mark Schafer and Scott Crichlow, Groupthink vs. High-Quality Decision Making in International Relations (New York, NY: Columbia University Press, 2010), 51. 4 Mark Schafer and Scott Crichlow, Groupthink vs. High-Quality Decision Making in International Relations (New York, NY: Columbia University Press, 2010), 51.

The Effects Of Electronic Waste Management Environmental Sciences Essay

nursing essay writing service Electronic waste known as E-waste is one of the growing and emerging problem in this world. E-waste consists of many components as toxic substances which have adverse affects on human health and environment if not properly handled. Developing countries have several dumping of e-waste that assumes the importance of management. This concise paper provides EPR legislation to reduce the hazards of E-waste, managing the concerning problems, recycling operations and NGOs participation to combat it. It also focuses on the emerging issues and their strategic solutions. Introduction Waste of electrical and electronic material was considered as cost factor in past. Easiest and cheapest way of disposal was selected to put at the nearest distance. At national level the practices of disposal are not allowed in many courtiers. Waste of the municipal solid consists in electronic and electrical equipments. Waste management has been developed for the all institutions involved in the end of life management of electronic management. Waste of electronics and electrical equipments increases the mass of the toxic inputs into local waste streams. If the volume of the E-waste exceeds to that of processed in manufacturing of products from the mining operations, then no matter it will be an ore located on the globe. On the one hands this E-waste is used as raw material to shape new products while on the other hand it has very harmful potential impacts on the ecosystem. An analyst looks the end of life processes as well as the chain values that are sorting, logistics and collection strategies. Many strategies were taken in hands for the treatments of this E-waste like incineration and landfill. Previously the reuse, recycling and remanufacturing of the E-waste is strongly recommended to reduce the volume of these E-waste. Recycling is also emphasized that is linked with the improper disposal of materials. The loop of the industrial waste can be closed by recycling of these waste materials as to sustain the economy of that particular industry. In industrialized countries recycling has become a common practice in the end of life processes. Recycling strategies also differ in yielding the standard quality products. Several features are taken into account to recycle the E-waste for useful purposes. An important feature of recycling process is to handle the situations arising during processes as handling of hazards materials, safety and health care of workers, rates of recycling and levels of recycled material. It is observed that a long scale progress of recycling of E-waste is achieved in industrialized countries like U.S, Asia and Europe. Extended producer responsibility is a main policy to tackle this kind of issue. EPR plays main role for the producers to incorporate the end of life facets to design new products. It is important to provide the necessary incentives to all those involved in making the regulatory policies. This can be supported by the study of two Norwegian scientists those who revealed the crucial role of regulatory policies. They put the facts of their survey and survey participants answered that main green technological changes occur from the environmental regulations in EU. Fig 1: Showing the main driving forces for green technology changes EPR feasibility has been shown in Asia and Europe. At earlier stages of infancy in last decade E-waste started in Switzerland in 1992 and it became widespread in other countries due to pressure of environmental authorities. Environmental Effects of E-waste E-waste has many toxic substances which are dangerous at high level if not handled properly. Why are these risks and dangers produced? These are the concerning issues and need the attention of analysts and industrialists to minimize the dangers. On the industrialist end the equipments and feasible machinery is not provided to workers at workplace. There are concerns of workers that their analysts do not guide them in proper way to recycle the E-waste and complete the disposal processes. Serious repercussions arise due to proximity to those places where E-waste materials are recycled or burnt. Grey goods have very toxic chemicals as compared to white and brown goods. For example a computer has very toxic chemicals like mercury, beryllium, cadmium, PVC and Phosphorous compounds. Central nervous system, Reproductive system and Urinary system are badly affected by the lead absorption in human body. Mercury also affects the CNS, Reproductive system and Urinary system of humans. If it is mixed in water used for living animals and on transportation of the water into water living animals can become the cause of death of those animals. Cadmium and Poly cyclic aromatic hydrocarbons affect the human body organs specially kidneys, lungs, skin and bladder respectively. E-waste has caused serious consequences to environment and human health. For example location near to recycling and burnt places of e-waste has many components of e-waste which directly affect the living of that area. When recycling plants are installed near rivers, it is found that river water is contaminated by the e-waste components and water livings are badly harmed by these e-waste materials. Extended Producer Responsibility EPR is a new tool of market and focuses on the background and responsibility of the producer. WEEE recycling regulation after the necessary analysis and evaluation of EPR with new approaches is provided. Question arise that why we need the regulatory action. E-waste is a big challenge in 21st century. Initial study of industrial ecology reveals that cycle economy is the big source to make contribution to sustainable development of economy. The growth in new electronic products needs new large resources and E-waste is increasing the inputs into local stream flows. We address the two basic needs of the closing the material loops and treatment of the hazards materials. These features are addressed by applying the regulatory actions. An analysis of existing economic or market incentives is required in order to come to a conclusion where regulations necessary and where market forces already achieve favorable results (Costanza et al. 1997). As the growth rate of the new products increase we require to recycle the E-waste with the same extent as shown in the figure. Volume of E-waste New Product Fig 2: Showing the proportionality between Volume of E-waste and New E products To answer the issues concerning the new product growth and recycling of E-waste EPR is new technology with better results in marketplace. “An environmental protection strategy to reach an environmental objective of a decreased total environmental impact from a product, by making the manufacturer of the product responsible for the entire life-cycle of the product and especially for the take-back, recycling and final disposal of the product.” (Lindquist et al. 1990). EPR is considered as an approach to take the E-waste to industries for the purpose of re-engineering of the material to improve the mechanism of processes and products. Goals of the EPR: Major contribution of EPR is in environment and industrial zone. Hazardous materials are treated appropriately to reflect sound E-waste hazardous components to be disposed to provide the safety and health standards to workers. Closing of material loops is possible by recycling of E-waste which is base on the rate of recycling and material reapplication levels. The environment must meet the reward design including the avoidance of hazardous material and materials to be cycled optimized in general design. In economic goals it is ensured that fair allocation of burdens for the stakeholders and producers must count all the economic areas. Always keep in mind to avoid financial burdens which are not supporting the environmental cause. The EPR must be clear, transparent and feasible in controlling the monitoring of the systems. The EPR policies must be implemented in order to amend the incentives to create the favorable consequences for the system. We have studied the EPR importance to achieve the specified goals. Now we have to evaluate and make analysis of EPR policies. The evaluation process of EPR policies for the achievement of goals is dependent on both qualitative and quantitative analysis. It is observed that environmental effectiveness through the implementation of the regulatory policies does not yield required results until it is not controlled in a viable way. It is estimated that incentives to collect the E-waste and recycling is totally according to the EPR or take the alternative approaches to complete the process like collection and recycling. There are many practical problems which are related to EPR. For example it becomes difficult to allocate actual cost of recovery after a decade. Many products are so comprehensive for their disposal that increases the global market. The product is changed in many hands and it becomes difficult to decide that when and where the end of life stage is reached. It is not clear that who is responsible for the collection and recovery of the product when product is exported in other countries. What stands out most is that, even when practical problems are solved, doubts remain about the effectiveness of EPR in its current form because it mainly leads to global low-quality solutions. Alternatively, the application of high-level recovery in many cases reduces the eco-footprint through substitution. (Hischler, 2005). EPR in current form has many impacts on the E-waste flows and it has promoted many low level recycling processes. Therefore high rate of recovery for which a local industry is optimal is set to achieve in less budget. Industries following theses approaches may benefit their owners and countries where they are installed. Governments are the responsible to provide the legal and financial incentives to promote the business. It is now required to present the estimates of the production, recycled and import export. Region/country Production in million tons per year Land filling storage in million tons Recycling in million tons Export in million tons per/year Import in million tons per/year EU-25 7 1.5 3.43 1.9 —– USA 6.6 5.1 0.12 1.4 —— China 3.2 3.7 1.5 —- 2.10 Japan 3.1 0.5 1.84 0.63 —- West Africa 0.06 0.44 0.18 — 054 India 0.35 0.84 0.35 —- 0.85 Total 20.31 12.08 5.85 3.76 3.49 Table 1: Global E-waste production, disposal, recycling and import/export estimates in 2005 This data in table tell us about the emerging powers of the world in industrial zone. Many other countries like Canada and South America continent are not included in it. In Europe alone the production is 7 million tons per year. China has made rapid progress in production as it equals its production to Japan. China is the second country in land filling after the USA and E-waste recycling is in largest volume in EU followed by Japan. All of above discussion finds the lack of the awareness of our citizens about E-waste and EPR. The E-waste management depends upon the active role of local or city governments and attitudes of the citizens. Producers, stakeholders and consumers also play role to shape the development. It will be very disappointing to keep the citizens away from the management deeds to take benefits of EPR policy. It hardly required involving the common people in process of recycling of electronic goods. Consumers must be informed about the goods by labeling the consumer’s requirements for those items. Consumers are educated to use only those products which utilize the modern emerging technologies. For example halogen free, lead free and from the authenticated retailers or manufacturers. Different training programs for the training of the citizen must be arranged to make them aware of the impacts of the E-waste and on their health and possible ways to minimize its hazardous affects. Due to these training programs our consumers are able to purchase the environmental friendly products and maintain the environmental operational processes of the products via careful disposal. On the hand suppliers provide only those items to manufacturers which are containing the friendly components in materials. Manufacturers can reduce the impacts of their products by making a compatible design products, raw material choices and manufacturing and delivery processes. To get rd of free riders check and balance of system must be ensured. Economic Viability: The EPR policy has given us knowledge to boost up the economy of that particular manufacture ring company by recycling process of E-waste. It can be achieved by direct reuse of the E-waste. The processes of the parts cannibalization and remanufacturing do a lot for the owner of the company. Main advantage of these processes is shown as it recovers more value than just materials. The value of the discarded products is used when the equipments and parts are left mostly in their original forms. The price of the product includes the administrative labor and logistic charges. In this way 90% of the total original cost is recuperated. New labor is cheaper to the costs of the collecting, disassembling cleaning, repainting and controlling of E-waste material. However this remanufacturing process takes less work and yields high level recovery as compared to start new product from scratch. Remanufacturing can be as efficient as virgin production and assembly, if not better. Practice proves that even cheap (€15/piece) and somewhat complicated electrical motors can be refurbished and adapted for 50% of the new price (Comperen, 2006). Parts manufacturing with less work and high value, this condition is more advantageous. If other cost of disassembling is kept low then reuse is very profitable for many companies. Ecological Viability: The high level closed loop recovery is also environmental friendly as we have studied in our discussion. There is clear evidence from the studies mentioned that high-level closed-loop recovery is also more environmentally-friendly then most present practices as energy efficiency improves compared to virgin production (Krikke

Development the Wearable Robot Technology in Construction Industry

Development the Wearable Robot Technology in Construction Industry. Introduction The use of robotics in construction has been characterized by rapid technological advances in recent years. Various types of robots depending on different needs and purposes have been developed and among them, the research on wearable robots have shown some promising advances with diverse functions. Wearable robots are often referred as exoskeleton, which is used to amplify the power of the human body in many aspects. According to Pons JL, a wearable robot is “a mechatronic system that is designed around the shape and function of the human body, with segments and joints corresponding to those of the person it is externally coupled with”. 1 The purpose of this review is to offer an overview of the past and current research and project for wearable technology. The review will focus on the technical aspect of wearable technology, analyze questions such as why is wearable technology ideal for labour-intensive industries like the construction industry, and how does wearable technology enhance human capabilities and increase work productivity. By using a qualitative case study methodology the review, studying on existing projects such as and prototypes under development, the review will identify issues and problems that will the major focus for future research in the field of wearable robot technology. History The technology of wearable robotics was first developed in the 1960s. The Hardiman, a full-body robotic exoskeleton was designed to amplify the wearer’s muscular strength. However, this robot never made it past the prototyping phase because of the uncontrollable motion, lack of stability and issues of the power supply. Due to the technical limitations and inefficient knowledge at the time, the first functional exoskeleton was not ready for the market until the beginning of the 21st century. 2The use of exoskeleton in medical applications also played a crucial role in the development of wearable robotics. the device was then widely used in hospitals and rehabilitation centers as a form of therapy in order to help paralyzed patients with movement disorders caused by spinal cord injury and stroke gain mobility in daily life. In recent years, the research on wearable robotic technology has become popular in many countries around the world along with the major developments in military and medical applications, while the usage in construction is still rare in the current industry. The Significance of Wearable Robots in Construction Due to the rapid development of technology, many researchers believe labour jobs such as those in the construction industry will be gradually replaced by robots in the next decade. Therefore, it is important to find a way to bring people back to site in order to keep human skills and ability involved in the process of construction. Exoskeletons can be seen as a type of sustainable solution to this issue since they “empower human beings rather than aiming at their substitution.” 3 The significance of utilizing wearable robots in the construction industry-besides the impact on productivity at work, is the significant improvement on the physical health and safety of workers by enhancing their capabilities. 3 Since the development of Hardiman in 1960s, the technology on wearable robots has evolved drastically. The very first generation of wearable robots is functioned through a kinematic approach by using position command from the human body and limbs, which results in challenges in balance and motion. The second generation used direct contact between human and the wearable device as the interface, transmitting signals to the device through forces. The third generation integrated both kinematic and dynamic interfaces used in the older generations into a new system, associated with the highest system in the human brain-central nervous system.3 Because of this, the most recent generation of wearable robots has a higher performance compared to other types of robots such as unmanned ground vehicles used in construction sites. The major difference between these two types of robots is that they rely on different systems. Wearable robots like exoskeleton are manipulated directly with human muscle, and human muscle uses highly specialized control systems to perform complicated tasks. While workers manipulate a large-scale device from a distance or indirectly has less flexibility performance in controlling the algorithms. Case study: Use of wearable robot technology in construction. Wearable robots can be categorized by the locations on the human body, such as full body, upper limb, and lower limb. A paper was written by research students from Korea University introduced two case studies deal with the application of supernumerary robotic limb (SRL), a wearable robot that provides the user with addition robot arms. The paper identified two common cases in the construction process of a building. The first case includes paneling and ceiling works – works that demand two people in order to achieve the best result and maximum efficiency. 4 The process of ceiling work is complex and requires a high degree of precision. The researchers from Nagoya University in Japan examined similar topics on the benefits of wearable robots in the process of fitting ceiling panels, their research begins by listing the multiple phases in ceiling work, then identify the most complex phases which are the phase of holding the ceiling panel with both hands and place it in a proper plane and position, and the phase of supporting the panel il the drilling work is finished. 5 One of the most important criteria is thus the ability to support ceiling panels and to maintain stability. Stability is maintained through maintaining contact force and the point between the end-effector and the panel to be installed. In order to come up with a design that meets the requirements, the research students from Korea University designed specific experiment on the position change in relation to the contact force for both workers and workers wearing SRL. The result shows that the position change for workers is maximum 170mm, while it is less than 20mm for SRL with end-effector. 4 The second case examined by researchers from Korea University focused on the ability to move and hold materials that are heavy or difficult to hold by one hand. With the use of SRL in dealing with a weight issue, it helps the worker free one hand, thus the worker is able to do other tasks with the freed hand. The experiment designed to test the feasibility of this wearable robot used in construction is similar to the experiment for the first case, the main intent is to test the ability to balance an object by placing a flat panel on SRL. The result of this experiment is also satisfactory; the input angle of 30 degrees was reduced to 5 degrees. From the result, the use of a wearable robot in ceiling work appears to be effective. The process of ceiling work can be completed by one worker with the assistance of SRL. 4 Case Study: Robo-Mate In order to lighten the load for industry and ease the burden of manual handling tasks for workers, researchers from 12 European organizations decided to initiate the Robo-Mate project. The ultimate objective of Robo-Mate is “putting together an intelligent, easy-to-manoeuvre, wearable exoskeleton for manual-handling work” 5 The paper on the concept and design of the Robo-Mate exoskeleton was presented at the CLAWAR conference in London. One of the module designs that presented apart from the common arm module was the trunk module. The trunk module rests on the hip of the user, connects to two segments: thigh segment and torso segment. 5 The module is designed to reduce the compression forces in the lower back of the worker by applying a supporting torque at the hip, thus applying pressure on both the thigh segment and torso segment. This module has a number of passive joints which provides freedom for the worker to move around. Including all actuators, joints and power supply, the weight is around 12.5kg in total, certainly not the most lightweight model due to the high demand for mobility and flexibility. In the combination with other arm modules, the trunk module is able to achieve a wide range of use in the construction industry. 5 Power Types of Wearable Robots And Usages Different power types of arm modules have different functions and compatible works. Wearable robots can be categorized into active robots and passive robots based on power type. Active robots are powered using electricity or hydraulic actuators. Because of a large amount of power it provides, this type of wearable robots is suitable for the tasks of heavy-weight handling process such as metal work. The POSCO Technical Research Laboratories from South Korea examined the benefits of using an upper-limb exoskeleton robot in the steel manufactural industry in the aspect of refractory construction. Refractory operations take place in furnaces and kilns which have limited interior working space, and involve some complicated and unstructured tasks. These tasks require the intervention of human intelligence. Therefore the use of an exoskeleton robot for this type of work is ideal and similar to the other robots, it reduces the physical fatigue of workers from heavy workloads. 7 Passive robots do not have an external power source or internal battery. Instead, they utilize resilient components such as spring and elastic components to transfer the heavy loads to the ground. Passive robots are appropriate for tasks including relatively small and light-weight components, such as installing ceiling panels. The researchers from Nagoya University in Japan designed a prototype that uses springs as the passive system. The highlight of the design is the use of both tension and compression springs, which provides an upward resultant force that is used to reduce the load on the the robotic arm due to the weight of the ceiling panel. Due to the low energy consumption, the control method using a passive system is considered to be a more sustainable approach compare to active robots. 6 References Pons JL. Wearable robots: biomechatronic exoskeletons. John WileyDevelopment the Wearable Robot Technology in Construction Industry

Reflections About Some Syndicate Group Work Nursing Essay

Group is a collection of individuals in which members accept a common task, become interdependent in their performance and interact with one another to promote its accomplishment. (Harold H.kelley and J.W Thibaut). Good range of individuals who contribute in different ways, clear goals, good coordination, balance between the task and the process, supportive atmosphere makes an effective group. In the start of the course, we all were assigned groups and asked to do the assignment work for organizational behavior module with designated our group. Now, in this assignment I am going to present all the experiences I had, working with my group. Stages of group development: The changes over the time during the development process of my syndicate group can be explained by Tuckman’s (1965) five stage model and Gersick’s (1988) punctuated equilibrium model. Tuckmans’s five stage model: According to Tuckman, the evolution of every group has five common stages (Exhibit 1). My group has also undergone all this five stages in the following way: Forming stage: During this stage we had lot of uncertainty and anxiety. This may be due to unfamiliarity between us. Though we know the purpose of our group we are very much uncertain about group’s structure and leadership. After we had our first meeting, we got to know each other and started thinking as a part of group. We introduced each other, asked questions about academic background, interests, culture etc to analyze each person’s abilities. Storming stage: After issues associated with being in a new group are resolved, we entered storming stage. At this stage we had many conflicts. There are many disagreements concerning leadership in the group. Among five members of our group, two people always use to keep silent and just support the ideas given by one of our group members. This probably may be due to the reason that all those three people belong to the same nationality and remaining two, I and other girl belong to same nationality which made us to divide in to two subgroups. This was the main drawback of our group which led to many conflicts. After a lot of discussion we resolved our conflicts and finalized with common idea. Norming stage: During this stage we developed relationships with our group members and demonstrated cohesiveness. We finally decided the topics to deal in the assignment and shared the work accordingly. Now my group has clear structure and identity .We came to know each other well and agreed the conduct of the other group members. Performing: This is the stage where the ideas discussed should be kept in to action. As per the work divided, everyone has to do their part of work. But we had many conflicts here also. One of my group member jus wrote two paragraphs on the topic assigned to him and also that is very irrelevant to the topic. Other girl in the group just copied everything from the books and websites, which is considered as plagiarism. This bothered me a lot and finally I and one of my group member sat together, collected all the data shared by group members, arranged the required information and created the final report. Though we shared the work equally we couldn’t come up with the required level of performance. This may be due to lack of proper leadership and improper group formation. Adjourning stage: At last the submission deadline had arrived. After organizing all the information properly and checking it thrice for any mistakes we finally submitted the report. When we were asked to mark on the peer review form, I said to mark according to the work done but my entire group members argued to mark 100% for every group member and they did so. Now it is the time for disbanding. Though we had many conflicts, we gained some learning experience and developed good relationships with group members. Exhibit 1: Five stage model. Source: Robbins and Judge(2009), Organizational Behavior Punctuated equilibrium model: As per this model (Exhibit 2), our group also went through many transitions between inertia and activity. During the first phase we had set our group objectives and group direction. We understood the given task and planned to differentiate between United states and India in the part 2 of the assignment (inertia). After that, we had many changes in our thoughts, many new ideas were accepted and we decided to change some of the things which we had set earlier. We then choose to differentiate between United States and Japan because we thought there is lot of difference in their work place environment, so that there will be lot of scope to differentiate between those countries (transition). In the next phase we continued with the new changes and finally completed the given assignment (activity). Exhibit 2: Punctuated equilibrium model. Source: Robbins and Judge (2009) ” Organizational Behavior” Mc Garth’s (1964) Model of team effectiveness: Mc Grath’s model is based on the input-process-output sequence (Exhibit 3). He explains how certain inputs leads to different processes in the team, which finally leads to specific outcomes. According to him, input processes include individual level factors, team level factors and environmental level factors. In our group the individual level factors include individual characteristics of my group members. My group posses skills such as creativity, good research skills, good academic style of writing which had impact on our team effectiveness. Not only positive characteristics but also negative characteristics such as irresponsibility and poor English language skills possessed by some of our group members had impact on our team effectiveness and made by team ineffective to some extent. Exhibit 3: Mc Garth’s (1964) Model of team effectiveness Source: Jex and Britt, ” Organisational Psycology” Team effective factors include the way our group is structured. Our group, consisting of 5 people had set certain norms and values which everyone has to follow. However, some people did not follow the norms to full extent and roles are not delegated to particular members. There is lack of clarity regarding the goals and specific tasks were not agreed. Our group has distributive leadership. Environmental factors include group task characteristics, reward structure and level of environmental stress. Personally, I feel the task given to us is not much challenging and did not made use of appropriate strategies to be used by team. This might be the main reason for social loafing to occur in our team. It be better if the assessment of the group assignment is based on individual performance rather than group performance, because this makes every individual feel responsible and to contribute fully to the given task. During the process of our assignment we had environmental stresses like heavy work load and time pressure which lead to team’s decision making processes. All these input factors lead to the groups interaction process which covers open communication, participation, task orientation, conflicts, reflexivity, leadership, support for innovation and collective learning. The most crucial aspects during team interaction process are the level of interpersonal harmony within the team and the performance strategies adopted by our team. The team interaction process eventually leads to output which measures the level of performance and other outcomes such as group cohesiveness, attitude change, member satisfaction etc. As a member of my group I am not much satisfied with my group performance because of the negative inputs mentioned above. IMOI (Input-mediators-output-input) model: A number of models were developed based on Input-process-output (IPO) framework. Recent research developed and alternative model to this which is Input-mediators-output-input model (IMOI). P is substituted with M which explains variability and viability in the team performance. Another I show that there is cyclical casual feedback. The stages in this model can be diagrammed as shown in Exhibit 4. As per this model, our group also gone through this three stages. In the forming phase we tried to develop trust on other group members. We planned accordingly by gathering information and developing strategy to perform the task. During functioning phase we tried to manage diversity and conflicts. We adapted to the given conditions and shared the workload. We also learnt many things both from the team’s best member and team’s dissenting member. IMOI(Input-mediators-output-input) Model FORMING PHASE(IM) FUNCTIONING PHASE(MO) TRUSTING Potency Safety BONDING Managing diversity Managing conflicts Team completes one episode in the development cycle and begins a new cycle. PLANNING Gathering information Developing strategy ADAPTING Performance in routine Vs novel conditions Helping and workload sharing STRUCTURING Shared mental models Transactive memory LEARNING Learning from dissenting team member Learning from team’s best member Exhibit 3:IMOI model, Source: Annual review of psychology. Steiner’s (1972) model: This model is helpful in determining the team performance. According to Steiner (1972) actual productivity of the team is the difference between potential productivity and process losses. I expected all our group members to work at least 80% on the task assigned to them. But two members in our group are very irresponsible about their work and dint even do 30% of the work. This resulted in process losses. The reasons for this may be lack of co-ordination among our group members and motivation problems. According to new research, process gains can increase potential performance by new ways of motivating, to make them feel responsible and by coordinating all the group members. Reflections based on syndicate group feedback According to the syndicate group survey feedback given to us, many of our group characteristics can be explained. We can know how our group transformed from week 3 to week 6 in comparison to the other groups in the class. The results of the feedback can be shown in the exhibit 5a and 5 b Exhibit 5a: Team mean given as per syndicate group feedback. Team mean week 3 week 6 climate for innovation 4.2 4 participation 4.7 3.8 clarity of objectives 4.5 3.9 reflexivity 4.2 3.6 interdependence 4.1 3.7 autonomy 3.9 3.5 boundedness 4.5 3.9 role clarity 3.2 4.1 team satisfaction 3.6 3.4 Exhibit 5b: Class mean given as per syndicate group feedback. Class mean week 3 week 6 climate for innovation 3.7 3.6 participation 4 4 clarity of objectives 4.1 4 reflexivity 3.4 3.5 interdependence 3.7 3.6 autonomy 3.6 3.5 boundedness 4.1 4.2 role clarity 3.5 3.8 team satisfaction 3.6 3.6 Overall performance of the group has been decreased from week 3 to week 6. In the beginning there is clarity of objectives in our group but later on as the group process continued some members of our group disagreed with the team’s objectives. The climate for innovation decreased just a little bit but the participation of the team members in the tasks required to complete the group’s goals, discuss tasks and objectives, make plans and set schedules has been decreased from 4.7 to 3.8 during week6. This might be due to increase in the work load because of other assignments and lack of skills to participate in the tasks required to complete. Our group members showed more interest in their own syndicate group, which they had for optional modules, neglecting this group. Reflexivity of the team objectives has also been decreased which shows that our group is not much committed to achieving the objectives of the group. We rarely reflected up on group performance and how it could be improved. There is lot of interdependence during week3 but it decreased when it reached to week 6. The autonomy to choose the objectives and to achieve them decreased as well. During week 3 we liked each other and there is good bonding between us but as the group process progressed we lost trust, many conflicts developed and this lead to reduction in the boundedness during week6. The only one parameter which increased sharply from week 3 to week 6 is role clarity. In the beginning the roles of our team members are not clear but after we attended several meetings and shared the work, each individual in the group started playing different roles. There is common leadership. When it comes to the team satisfaction, I am not completely satisfied with my team and also the overall group member’s team satisfaction decreased from week 3 to week 6. I think the main reason for decrease in the team satisfaction may be the composition of the group which contained 2 Indians and 3 Chinese. Conflicts: We had many conflicts during the process of our group development. The conflict process comprise of five stages which can be seen in the Exhibit 6. Exhibit 6: Conflict process, Source: Robbins and Judge(2009), ” Organizational Behavior” At stage 1, the conditions leads to incompatibility in our group are lack of proper communication and personality differences. Sometimes there is too little communication and some other time there is too much communication which increased potential for conflict. I think personality differences among our group members also raised conflicts. Two of our group members are highly authoritative and two are very silent. One girl in our group cannot control her emotions, when we said that she plagiarized her part of work, she answered us in a very rude way by shouting and throwing down the books in her hand. During stage 2 of cognition and personalization everyone in our group are emotionally involved. Because of conflicts there is frustration, anxiety, tension and hostility among our group members. These negative emotions made us to reduce trust in each other. Stage 3 is of intensions to handle the conflicts. During this stage we experienced more assertiveness rather than competiveness. Overall our group experienced all the intensions such as competing, collaborating, avoiding, accommodating and compromising in different conflict situations. Stage 4, which is about behavior that includes the reaction to the conflicts. There are misunderstandings and disagreements among us and the way people in our group responded to the conflicts made to reduce the interpersonal relationships among us. Stage 5 is outcome; I personally think ,there is a dysfunctional outcome in our group,which hindered the performance of our group. Task conflict: We had conflicts in how to do the tasks, implement whose ideas and differences of opinion of group. As per the syndicate group survey feedback given to us during week 3 our team mean was 2.2 which increased to 2.4 at week 6. By the time we reached week 6 we had many meetings and during the meetings we had many issues which lead to conflicts. Relationship conflict: We experienced problems arising from the tension between group members, conflict from different personalities and emotional conflicts. During week 3 the team mean was 1.7 which is even lesser than the class mean of 1.9. Till week 3 we had only 3 meetings (one meeting was attended only by 3 members), so we dint know each other completely at that time when they asked to fill the questionnaire. But when we came to week 6, we understood each other and because of personality differences our team mean increased to 2.6. Conclusion: Overall I personally feel that my team performance is not good and I am not satisfied with my team members. The reasons for this may be improper group composition which is made up of 3 Chinese and 2 Indians, opposing arguments between group members, domination of one member, non contribution of one member and lack of trust and helpfulness. However, I gained some learning experiences by being a part of this team.