Week 3: MethodsDeveloping computer programs is all about telling the computer what to do. So far in this course, you have been exploring the specific Java statements that provide the foundation for telling the computer what to do. But, one Java statement can only do so much. The power comes when you put these statements together into a sequence of steps. These are called methods, and developing methods is a critical skill for object-oriented programmers.As you step through the design of a computer program, abstracting the essence of what the computer needs to do, you are creating the outline for the methods that will eventually be implemented to actually carry out your task in Java. These methods are the meat of your Java program. They can be used, and reused, to provide great overall power to a program.This week, you harness the power of methods in Java. You will evaluate the concept of succinctness in developing computer languages and programs, and you will step through a series of exercises that will extend your Java programming abilities by developing your skills in method design and implementation.ObjectivesStudents will:Apply abstraction to analyze a taskApply the concept of method abstraction in software developmentDesign and implement methods using stepwise refinementDiscussion: Succinct CodeYou use the concepts of abstraction and encapsulation every day. You may call it “understanding the bigger picture” or “seeing the forest for the trees.” It helps you manage the complexity of your tasks without getting bogged down in the details. Think about the ways in which you apply abstraction to your tasks or decisions. Think about the ways you apply encapsulation to your tasks and organizing your work. In the context of computer programming, abstraction requires you to eliminate detail from an object to identify its defining characteristics—the things that make the object “tick.”Give an example that describes how you have used abstraction as a strategy and how it was beneficial to you. Be as specific as possible about the strategy and why you feel it worked well. How was encapsulation applied in your strategy?Next, describe a situation in which abstraction or encapsulation may not yield the best results. After all, boiling a group of things down to their defining, component attributes may overlook unique and special characteristics of that group’s members, and this could lead to a less-than-ideal process or decision. Once again, be specific about your method and the results.By Day 2Post your response.
Ashford Week 3 Abstraction and Encapsulation Strategy in Computer Programming Discussion
Final word count: 3 pagesFor much of the semester the class has been practicing “reading with the grain,” which involves taking the author’s argument and agreeing, expanding and working with it. We have also been practicing “reading against the grain,” which could be characterized as not just disagreeing with an author but actively working against an author by trying to find weaknesses in an argument or by providing alternative or even exaggerated readings. In some ways both of these activities are forms of rhetorical analysis in which you look at how an author has put together an argument in order to engage you.The most recent essay that class has read is Coates’ “The Case for Reparations,” which some could say reads against the grain of a particular American history.Question 6 from the reader asks:Coates’s language can appear extreme. He describes the “tyranny” of “the acquisitive warlords of the South” (para 13), condemns America’s 250-year “war upon black families and black people” (para. 71), and refers to the “plunder” of black bodies and labor over a dozen times. He also draws extensively on scholarship, quoting historians, sociologists, and law professors throughout the essay. Write a paper analyzing Coates’s style: Do you find his language engaging or off-putting? How does he deploy evidence? Is it convincing? How might opponents of reparations object to his arguments, and how might he respond?Please respond to each aspect of the above prompt questions in your essay and create a thesis driven response by asking “why” and then presenting an argument (though don’t literally ask “why”).Remember you are being asked to critique how an author makes an argument. You are not being asked to write an essay in which you explain if the author is right or wrong or if you agree with reparations. Although, you may consider offering an opinion of that in the essay’s conclusion.As an additional challenge, I would also like to characterize this argument essay as an academic essay, which means the structure of the essay should mirror that of the more familiar college level essays (analysis, expository, etc.) and incorporate an introduction and thesis and body paragraphs for support.This essay should have:An introduction that provides context, background and the importance of the issueA clear multi-point thesisTopic sentences that relate to the thesisBody paragraphs which explore your point of view on the issueAt least two quotes from separate sources that are properly embedded and cited and provide meaningful engagement with the issueReferences to one scholarly text and one essay from the course text book for a total of two works citedAwareness of counter claims and arguments or concernsProvide a conclusion which restates the thesis and explores on-going concernsBe substantially free of spelling and grammatical errorA work cited pageAdditional Guidelines:MLA formattingCreate an original titleEffectively quote, paraphrase, and summarize sources using MLA 8thIf applicable a works cited page and in-text citations using MLA 8thRevise, edit, and proofread for the conventions of college level standard
Ta Nehisi Coates Convincing Words Against Hate & Racism Argumentative Essay
Exhaust System For The LJMU
The FS event is held every year at Silverstone in the UK. The event was set up by the Institute of Mechanical Engineers (IMechE). Universities from around the world come to Silverstone to enter their cars in the event. Each team that enters FS is solely made up of students. There are a number of different classes which the car can be entered. These are Class 1, Class 1A and Class 2. LJMU is entering in to Class 1. Class 1 consists of a number of different events which can be broken down in to two categories, Static Events and Dynamic Events. The Static Events include, a presentation, Engineering Design and Cost Analysis. The Dynamic Events include an acceleration test, a skip-pad test, an autocross race and an Endurance race which includes a fuel economy test. The final exhaust design will be used in the 2011 LJMU FS car. For the exhaust to be used it must fully comply with the FS rules and regulations. The LJMU FS car is a group project and so it will be vital to the success of the exhaust system and the final car that communication is maintained. Formula Student 2010 LJMU competed in its first FS Class 1 event in 2010 and finished in 21st place. This was a great achievement for the university. Feedback was given to the university after the event from the FS judges. The feedback received was useful and has given areas of improvements for the car. One of the pieces of feedback was criticising the fact that the exhaust system didn’t have a Lambda sensor to measure the levels of oxygen the in exhaust gas. This will be one area of improvement for FS 2011. Time Management To complete this project within the strict time limits a Gantt chart has been created. This can be seen in APPENDIX REFERENCE. Within the time 4 stages will be completed. There are analysis, design, verification and manufacture. FS Rules and Regulations To successfully create an exhaust system a number of rules need to be met. The rules and regulations were written by the Formula Society of Automotive Engineers (FSAE). These rules are in place to maintain a level playing field throughout the teams and to also ensure that safety standards are kept. The FS rules can be interpreted in different ways and so create different and interesting designs. To summarise a few rules, the exhaust has to exist within an area of 450 mm behind the centreline of the rear axle and 600 mm above the ground, the driver must be protected against heat and fumes and the sound must not exceed 100dBA. The engine size is also limited by FS rules. The rules state that an engine no bigger than 610cc can be used for the competition. The used for the engine must also pass through a 20mm restrictor. The full list of rules and break down which are relevant to this project can be found in ARTICLE 10: Exhaust System and Noise Control seen in APPENDIX REFERENCE. Design Restrictions As the exhaust will get very hot during running it is important that the exhaust pipes don’t come in to contact or come too close to other engine peripherals such as electrical cables and fuel line. The driver will also be protected by a firewall in case of a fire or excess heat from the engine. As the fuels system, intake system and other peripherals have yet to be decided assumptions must be made in the routing of the exhaust system. The decision has been made to mount the engine front facing. This will mean that the exhaust ports are facing towards the front of the car and the intake ports are facing the back of the car. This decision has been made to simplify the design of the drive train to minimalize power lost and reduce the risk of failure. The design is also impacted by 20mm restrictor on the air intake which will also affect the exhaust system. Ricardo WAVE Ricardo WAVE Build will be used to fully model the exhaust system. Ricardo WAVE is an ISO 1D/3D engine and gas dynamics simulation package. WAVE is used in a number of different industry sectors all involved in simulating engine performance. It used from creating an initial design to the modifying an existing design without having to manufacture any components. WAVE only produces theoretical engine performance data and will need to be verified with experimental data. Ricardo WAVE is a sponsor in the FS event and so all FS teams have access to the software. Learning Ricardo WAVE Within the WAVE help file there is a list of tutorials which cover setting up and running an engine model. The tutorials range from beginner to advanced. The beginner spark ignition (SI) tutorial takes the user through the initial setup of an in-line, 4-cylinder 1.6L engine. Two WAVE tutorials have been completed these are the Introductory SI Tutorial and the Intermediate Concentric Silencer Tutorial. Going through the tutorials helped to give an idea of the different parameters that would need to be collected from the Honda CBR600RR engine. The tutorials also guide the user through the analysis of the model and how a change in the design affects output. Engine Selection The engine selection is partly governed by the FS rules and regulations as stated earlier. Due to the restrictions a decision was made to go for a reliable, powerful engine which is light weight. This lead to the Honda CBR600RR-4. The Honda is a 600cc performance motorcycle engine and so its power to weight ratio is high, which makes it perfect for the FS car. LJMU have used this engine for the past 2 years. The specification of the Honda CBR600-3 will be referenced to as the engine specification has not changed between 2003 and 2004. The CBR600RR engine is an 16-valve, in-line four cylinders, four stroke, with double overhead camshafts (DOHC) (Coombs, 2006). The Engine uses Programmed Duel Storage (PGM-DS) fuel injectors, two per cylinder, one upper and one lower. The lower injectors are used to enhance reliability, above 5500rpm the upper injectors are triggered and are used to improve top end horsepower (Torrance, 2003). A full specification of the standard CBR600RR can be found in APPENDIX REFERENCE. There are a number of different modifications that will take place on the engine by the FS event in 2011 and so the specification is subject to change. Changes that are being considered are an optimal air induction system with the 20mm restrictor, design and manufacture of a shallower sump, reduction in number of gears and modification of ratios and developing an optimised engine map. All of these changes are aimed at increasing performance of the engine for the required characteristics of the competition. Literature Review To generate the best performance from an exhaust system knowledge of a 4 stroke SI Internal combustion (IC) engine is needed. Four-stroke spark ignition (SI) engines The four-stroke SI engine has four different strokes as seen in Figure 1, Four-stroke IC Engine (Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2007) The four strokes are Intake, Compression, Power and Exhaust. For each turn of the crankshaft two strokes occur. The Intake stroke, also known as the Induction stroke, starts from Top Dead Centre (TDC). In this stroke the piston moves down, the intake value opens causing the air and fuel mixture to be drawn in to the combustion chamber. The volume of the air/fuel mixture drawn in to the chamber is known as the volumetric efficiency. If there is too much air in the mixture then the fuel will burn quickly increasing the pressure in the chamber too quickly leading to mechanical losses and misfiring. This is known as a lean fuel mixture and can lead damage the engine. If there is too much fuel in the mixture then all of the fuel will not be burnt leading to inefficiencies as unburnt fuel will be expelled through the exhaust valve. This will also lower the temperature and pressure in the chamber. This is known as a rich fuel mixture. The Compression stroke follows the induction stroke. The compression stroke starts from Bottom Dead Centre (BDC). The intake valve shuts and the piston starts to move back up the chamber. Just before the piston hits TDC the spark plug fires causing ignition. The Power stroke is where the piston moves down the chamber due to the increase in pressure and temperature from combustion. When the piston hit BDC the exhaust valve opens. The Exhaust stroke forces the gasses out of the combustion chamber through the exhaust valve after the Power stroke. At the end of the exhaust stroke the exhaust valve closes and the cycle starts again. Any exhaust gasses left in the chamber will contaminate the next intake of fuel and will reduce the power output. As only one stroke generates any power (Power stroke), energy has to be stored in a flywheel to move the piston for the remaining three strokes. (Stone, 1999) Engine Thermodynamics An IC engine whether it is a 4 stroke or a 2 stroke is a non-cyclic process. However as the nitrogen in the fluid is virtually unchanged it can be argued that the process is cyclic. This makes calculating the thermodynamic efficiencies much easier as it can be compared to the Otto cycle. Performance To calculate the performance and effectiveness of the exhaust system a number of different parameters will need to be defined. Exhaust Design There are two main designs for exhaust systems, exhaust manifold and exhaust header. Both designs have different pros and cons depending on the different requirements. A standard exhaust manifold can be seen in Figure 2, Standard Exhaust Manifold (Monster Autoparts) This Exhaust is made from cast iron, and so it is perfect for production vehicles as casting is inexpensive if the cast is only used on a large scale. However for a one off production exhaust system it would be expensive. Exhaust headers Figure 3 on the other hand are comparatively inexpensive to produce a one off design as no mould needs to be created and the pipes can be simply bent and cut in to shape. Manifolds are also inefficient compared to exhaust headers. This is due to the air flow in a manifold. When the exhaust gas enters the manifold back pressure is built up. This back pressure restricts the flow for the next wave of exhaust gas. This means that the piston has to work harder to force the exhaust gas out of the cylinder leading to power loss. This back pressure can be reduced or eliminated using exhaust headers by taking advantage of the timing. This is known as exhaust pulsation. To fully understand pulsation it is important to explain the exhaust system shown in Figure 3. This design is a 4-2-1 exhaust. Different exhaust designs can be found in APPENDIX REFERENCE. As can be seen each exhaust port has its own header. Header pipes 1 and 2 join and header pipes 3 and 4 join. These joints are known as collectors which then form the secondary headers. The 2 secondary headers then move in to the final collector and form the downpipe. The firing order of the Honda CBR600 engine is 1-2-4-3 (Coombs, 2006). Improving Engine Performance To improve the performance of the engine pulsation can be used. Pulsation is where Exhaust Pulsation Exhaust Gas Turbochargers There are two different types of exhaust gas turbocharging. These are Pulse Turbocharging and Constant Pressure Turbocharging. Exhaust Gas Recirculation Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) is where a small portion of the exhaust gas (5-10%) is fed through a valve back in to the inlet manifold ready for the intake stroke. This helps to decrease emissions of NOx (nitric oxcide and nitrogen dioxide) as the amount of fresh fuel drawn in to the cylinder in replaced with exhaust gas. Between 5 and 10% of EGR is likely to halve the NOx emissions (Stone, 1999). EGR increases intake manifold pressure. The higher intake manifold pressure leads to a reduction in the charge cycle work and this lowers the fuel consumption. During EGR the peak combustion temperature is reduced due to the exhaust gas not being used during combustion which will cause less energy to be produced. (Bosch, 2007) EGR can cause misfire and partial burns to occur as the amount of fuel in the cylinder is reduced, causing a lean mixture. Data Collection Engine Geometry To create an accurate model in WAVE geometry from the CRB engine has to be collected. This was done in a number of different ways. A list of geometry needed for WAVE can be found here APPENDIX REFERENCE. A new head from a CRB engine was purchased and was used to collect the relevant information. A new head was purchased as the tests that were carried out on the head would require taking sections, which would destroy the head beyond repair. DIGITISING ARM VOLUME OF INTAKES AND EXHAUST PORTS Rolling Road Testing Exhaust Geometry
MGT 402 Saudi Electronic University Entrepreneurship and Small Business Questions
essay helper free MGT 402 Saudi Electronic University Entrepreneurship and Small Business Questions.
Assignment – 3 Students are supposed to read the Case 2- Able Planet from the textbook, page number:812 “How can a small company find capital to finance an innovative new product?” Textbook: (Scarborough, N.M. & Cornwall, J. (2012). Effective small business management: An Entrepreneurial approach (10th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Based on your understanding of the case and concepts, answer the following question in 200-350 words each. Assignment Questions: 1. Experts say that entrepreneurs who need between $100,000 and $3 million often face the greatest obstacles when raising capital for their businesses. Why? (1.5 marks) 2. How should Kevin Semcken raise the $1.5 million in capital that Able Planet needs? Be sure to consider sources of both debt and equity financing. (1.5 marks) 3. Write a short memo to Kevin Semcken explaining what he should do before he approaches potential lenders and investors to maximize his chances of getting the capital that Able Planet needs. (2 marks) Answer: 1. 2. 3.
MGT 402 Saudi Electronic University Entrepreneurship and Small Business Questions
LMS Questionnaire, week 3 assignment help
LMS Questionnaire, week 3 assignment help.
Please respond with 1 page report, 12 font times romans, citations,references.For this assignment,
review your submitted work completed in week 3 and submit a one page report on
whether you can ensure the results of your week 3 assignment will provide
validity and reliability. Modify your week 3 assignment to ensure it provides
validity and reliability. Support your response citing sources on validity and
reliability.Week 3 Assignment is below:
Good day! The school is aiming to
do some changes to the learning management system (LMS) to better serve yon all
and help achieve your satisfaction. The IT management would wish to know your
experience with the existing learning management system and any improvements
that you may perceive helpful for optimal system performance. By the need of
the survey, the management wishes to know your satisfactory rate and your
expectations level concerning the system. Your response will significantly help
in the modifications of the system thus the school requires you to be open and
honest while filling in the questionnaires. Kindly fill in as instructed. In
case you need any clarifications please contact us for clarity.
Guidelines: Kindly indicate your
degree of disagreement or agreement with every of the following statements
concerning the existing learning management system in the school. Put an X
label as you answer. Also leave a brief but precise comment where the question
obligates you to do so.
Q1. How many times in a week do you interact with
Q2. Do you successfully operate the system without
□ Yes □ No
If No, why?
Q3. Please choose your extent of agreement for the following
Or Sturdily Disagree
The system is user friendly.
The security level of the system is high.
The LMS meets my learning objectives.
The LMS properly supports mobile devices.
Q4. To what extent does the LMS meet your learning
Q5. How do you perceive your general experience
with the system?
□ Very satisfactory
□ Very Unsatisfactory
Q6. What do think we could do to make your
experience with the LMS better?
Name: (not compulsory) _______________
Age: ____ years
Email (optional): ______________.
the questionnaires have been given out to students to feel out, they will be
collected after 3 days where every student will be expected to have completed
filing his comments and views. The data will thus be checked for validity and
reliability based on the consistency of the measurements provided by the
students. The information that will be deemed reliable is the one that will
exhibit repetition and concurrency from many students. The results will also be
checked for validity, that is, face, content and criterion validity. (Forbrig,
et al, 2010) On the face value, the management will access if the questions are
representing construct as the responses depict. The content validity will be
performed to check if the every critical direction of the construct is taken
care of. Most critically, the results will be stored for future comparison with
repeated surveys where concurrent validity will be evaluated (Dias, et al,
2013). Content validity will occur where the use of same methods in the same
context and under same constraints will bare similar results. After analyzing
the data, the IT team will be given the propositions for the new system so that
they develop a system that meets users’ requirements.
‘Dias, S. B., Diniz, J. A., &
Hadjileontiadis, L. J. (2013). Towards an intelligent learning management
system under blended learning: Trends, profiles and modeling perspectives.
TC13 Human-Computer Interaction
Symposium, Forbrig, P., & IFIP World Computer Congress. (2010). Human-computer
interaction: Second IFIP TC 13 Symposium, HCIS 2010, held as part of WCC 2010,
Brisbane, Australia, September 20-23, 2010. Proceedings. Berlin: Springer.
LMS Questionnaire, week 3 assignment help
HIV Aids & Depression Among LGBT Research Presentation
HIV Aids & Depression Among LGBT Research Presentation.
In this assignment, you will develop two separate infographics (informative posters) to discuss two separate health issues relevant to the LGBT communities. Also, please make certain with this type of presentation you include graphics, visual aids etc. You want the final product to be informative and visually engaging to capture the audience’s attention. In each infographic you will discuss:What is the health problemWhich group(s) are most likely to be at riskWhat social/behavioral/health system determinants affect thisIdentify at least two potential interventions/activities the community, community health agency, community health nurse could offer to prevent and or support this health issueWhat resistance might be met in implementing the intervention/activityView these links on how to create infographics:http://blog.hubspot.com/blog/tabid/6307/bid/34223/5-Infographics-to-Teach-You-How-to-Easily-Create-Infographics-in-PowerPoint-TEMPLATES.aspxhttp://blog.hubspot.com/marketing/free-ppt-infographic-templates-designs-ht
HIV Aids & Depression Among LGBT Research Presentation