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Pestel Analysis For British Multinational Enterprises Economics Essay

Economic recession Is general slowdown of economic activity over a period of time that measured by Gross Product Domestic (GDP),recession is highly characterized by falling of investment spending, business decline, slow growth of new business high rate of unemployment. [i] Economic recession can be caused by widespread of drop in spending and investments, poor micro-economic policies, such as poor control of financial institutions such as banks, and other lender institutions as well as other economic variables During economic recession, many business profitability declines and other bankrupt due to lack markets for their products and services, many customers have inadequate money to buy these products and services. Economic recession also affect stock markets, where by share of the companies drops sharply and reduce confidence to investors Government revenues decline due to economic recession, hence government fails to provide social services and other future plans. Economic recession in one country can also affect others, in sense that recession has magnitude, many multinational companies operate more than one country, and hence impact in one county can have multiplier effects in other countries, many FDIs also will be affected E.g. economic recession which was hit USA in 2008/2009 which was contributed to united states housing bubble and subprime mortgage crisis, was affected not only in America but almost all over the world, many business affected with this recession, stock markets such as NYSE,LSTE, and other banks were bankrupted such as warner brothers. [ii] Impact of Economic Recession High rate of unemployment, recession can contribute to high rate of unemployment in sense that may company reduce number of staff in order to strive; in recession it leads to other problems, such as people who lack jobs may engage in criminals in order to survive. Recession may lead people to lack disposable income; and other fails to repay their loans hence many families are affected. Decline in productivity, where by many business profits falls, other firm’s bankruptcy, hence and affect the whole financial system. Recession has negative impact due to decline of growth domestic produces (GDP) where by its affect economic as well social life. Many new businesses collapse, and hence fails to repay their loans banks. Recession can led to decline in living standard due to the fact people depend on wage and salaries, this can have negative impact on stability of families and individuals health and well-being Multinational Corporation (MNC) or transnational corporation, is an enterprise that manages production or delivered service in more than one country, multination cooperation has been achieved due to advancement in information technologies as well globalization, British is one of country which have many multination companies such British petroleum Vodafone, Virgin, Rynair as which operate within and outside the country, they are interested to operate in emerging economies such as India, china, Africa and Brazil British companies usually engaged in international business Acquire new markets, British multinational usually going international in order to search new markets for their products and services, many large firms flock to china, India, brazil and Africa due to growing of consumer purchasing power. Increasing sales, firms expand international so as to increase its market share hence being able to compete. Acquiring resources, large firms decided to go globally because to find resources so as to continue producing and ensure production cost can be controlled hence to able to pass benefit to customers. Cheap labor, due to growing of stiff competition in the markets, large firms fight to reduce production cost in order to earn profit, this led companies looking overseas areas where cheap labor is available. Global Strategies, many firms consider engaged in international business as strategies in order to survive in a stiff competition Growing consumer pressure, tastes and preferences of consumer has changed dynamic, income increase; consumer can be able to purchase luxurious products and services, growing income to emerging economies influence many firms to set their operation and respond to these markets The external environment is an essential element for the business to operate international due to the fact business do depend on external environment because and changes can have multiplier effect toward business, if the country policies towards economy are good and there is peace and security business will prosper as well as economy PESLTEL for British Multinational Enterprises are; Political British MNE they are highly interested to operate in where there high democracy and freedom of speech, and where there is a less government intervention towards business unless it’s breaking the abiding laws. Multinational Enterprise, interested operates in a country which there is peace and security, and that countries have diplomatic relation with other countries. Tax policy is well structured and can be predicted, this give opportunity for business to incorporate into their business, in a country where taxation policy is highly uncertainty many British MNE are not interested to invest in these countries Multinational enterprises interested to know all regulatory bodies governing trade, local and international business such competition laws, employment laws, Business ownership laws, health and safety laws, foreign and local trade regulatory, fair competition bodies as well as environment protection laws main objectives is to make sure the business running smooth. Economic British Multination enterprises are interested in invest in a country where a GDP is heading toward good direction, this is good conducive environment for growth of business Also British MNE prefer to engage in international business in a countries which their economies are growing and their citizen has disposable income in sense that this will provide market as well as access to raw material. British MNE prefer to invest in countries which have national comparative advantage, such as huge population as well as huge market, good climatically condition availability of natural resources such gas, oil and minerals. British MNE also interested to invest in a country which has efficient money supply low interest rate British MNE are highly consider types of economic system, preferred capitalism where by supply and demand is controlled by markets Multinational Enterprises interested to operate in countries which are not prone to recession and depression, due to the fact these affect companies profitability.. Technological factor Advancement in Information and telecommunication technologies (ICT) and innovation contribute for multination enterprises to participate in international business, technologies such as internet, teleconferencing, where company headquarters can have two ways communication with scattered branches around the world. Transport Innovation, development of maritime technology and existence of many airline companies, contribute MNE to engage in international business Transportation innovation, Development of maritime technology and existence of many airline companies in transportation system lead easier to fly around the world at competitive fares and conduct business. Many international companies inject huge sum of capital in research and development to come up with a newer, better and innovative products due to increase of competition among international companies as well growing of consumer pressure due to increase in of income Social factors Multinational enterprises interested to operate in country which there is large population, hence be a market of the products and services provided by these multinational companies, many multinational companies interested to operate in china, India and most of African countries due to large population. Due to powerful economies of western countries and globalization, social culture and life style affects other societies, such as Africans and Asian societies adopt a western culture, and hence create opportunity for MNE to engage in international business Ansoff Matrix Model Source; tuitor2u.net Ansoff Matrix Model is one strategic tools objectives, and most well-known framework for deciding upon strategies for growth, the firms which attempts to grow depend on wither its market to a new or existing products or in a new or existing markets Market Penetration is when a firm decides to market existing products to its customer, the aim is to maintain or increase market share to the existing products to customers and increase usage of existing customers Strategies such as, competitive pricing strategy, advertising, sales promotion and also personal selling as well as aggressive promotional campaign and led market to be unattractive for competitors. Market Development, Is when firm decide to sell its existing product into new market, firm can implement this strategy by, by moving into new geographical areas such as exporting to a new country, new product dimension or packaging, new distribution channel or different pricing strategies which can attract new customer. Products Development, is the growth strategy where by firm introduce new products into existing markets, strategies such as upgrading which can appeal to existing markets Diversification, is the growth strategy where by firms decide to market new products to a new markets, diversification can relate or unrelated depending with company policies. Strategies to execute in recession period In period of Economic Recession many multinational enterprises should review their growth strategies, due recession which affect the prosperity their business, By using Ansoff Matrix Model as strategic tools for growth, Multinational Enterprise can adopt this in survive. The first strategy should be execute for multinational companies in a recession period is cut operation cost and reaming with core business in order to survive The appropriate strategy, which Multinational Enterprise can execute, is by market development strategy, where by firm can decide to shut down their operations in countries which affected with recession due to the fact recession affect purchasing power, hence people fails to buys products and services, firms can decide to operate in countries which economy is growing. Other Strategies which can be adopted by the Multinational enterprises is diversification strategy where by firms can decide to market new products to a new markets, a Multination company can decide to diversity their business and start new business e.g. electricity firm can decide to enter into hotel business but there is lot of risk to be considered before making decision to diversify Multinational Enterprises can decide to diversify their operation into new emerging market, and which are not affected with recession, countries such as china, India and Brazil. Globalization is the broadening set of interdependent relationships among people from different parts of a worlds that’s to be divided into nations, the growth of globalization has accelerated due to advancement in information and telecommunication technologies such as internet, teleconferencing, Enterprise resource planning (ERPs),Knowledge management (KM), Customer relationship Management (CRM). I do agree that the benefit of new technologies will off-set the in investment in R
writers choice. Paper details Securities violations are the subject of review and enforcement of the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), a federal agency. Two types of violations found in SEC cases are: (1) spoofing, and (2) insider trading. research further, either spoofing or insider trading SEC violations. Find and share a case example no more than 5 years old in SEC cases. – Briefly explain spoofing or insider trading (whichever one you have chosen) and why it is illegal (e.g., effect on business, society); – What is the specific statute and/or regulation violated by this conduct? – Identify the SEC case you have selected and provide a link to the case; writers choice

Bethel University the Prison Systems of The Progressive Era Discussion

Bethel University the Prison Systems of The Progressive Era Discussion.

In unit 1 we studied how prison systems have changed over time. We examined the Medical Model of incarceration and its demise. We extensively reviewed the troubling fact that the United States incarcerates a larger percentage of its population than any other country in the world. We also discussed how national priorities appear to be moving toward prevention of terrorism and greater public education, and away from simply incarcerating every offender. For this unit’s Complete assignment, write a comprehensive scholarly essay (minimum 1650 words) in which you analyze, explain, and apply these concepts in the context of a law enforcement organization. You must incorporate and cite, using correct APA citation format, at least four different scholarly research sources. Be sure your essay demonstrates a comprehensive understanding of the READ and ATTEND sections from this unit. In-line citations must be used in the body of your essay, and all research sources must be fully cited at the conclusion of your essay. Correct APA citation formats must be used.Your essay should analyze the prison systems of the Progressive era with the system of corrections in use after World War II. What are the major differences? What brought about the changes? Did society benefit from the changes? Your essay should discuss the Medical Model of incarceration. What was its purpose and why did it end? Your essay should include a full examination of the extremely high rate of incarceration in the United States. Why is the percentage of our population sentenced to correctional institutions so high? Is it possible to achieve compliance with laws and maintain social order without incarcerating so many people? Should “catch and release” be used for all non-violent criminal offenses? Finally, you should ponder what changes you would make at your institution if you were the correctional administrator.
Bethel University the Prison Systems of The Progressive Era Discussion

Earthquakes as a Cause of the Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Research Paper

i need help writing an essay Introduction Most of the natural disasters are associated with various risks such as aftershocks, stress, anxiety and depression as well as post traumatic stress disorder. An earthquake is among the many natural disasters that are associated with post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). It is a condition characterized by anxiety and is triggered by experiencing or even observing conditions that threaten or cause death to individuals. Such experiences and conditions trouble someone psychologically. Although earthquakes are serious natural disasters leading to serious conditions such as post traumatic stress disorder, research in the same area is in adequate especially involving a randomly chosen sample. This paper discusses earthquakes as a significant cause of the post traumatic stress disorder. Earthquake as a Cause of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder It is important to understand the meaning of an earthquake to be in a position to understand how it causes post traumatic stress disorder. It occurs due to shifting of the plates of the earth which causes violent shaking on the earth’s surface. Due to the impacts of the same, people are killed, injured, burnt by fires or even trapped in the collapsing buildings. Since the situation is usually psychologically disturbing, it triggers a reaction which ends up causing the post traumatic stress disorder. Dependent and Independent Variables of the Post Traumatic Stress Disorder As much as earthquakes cause traumatic stress disorder, studies of Xingli, Mingxin, Mingjing, Jiannong,

Development of Racial Equality Laws in the US

Case Law is a system that is created by the courts. Typically, laws established are created and enforced by a parliament which as we know as a legislation system (Icrl.co.uk, n.d.). Case law is divided into two types of legal systems the “civil code” system and the “common law” system. Common law is an example of the United States court system in which gives the courts the ability to create laws. In these cases, a law of the senior court can make changes and clarify the laws in which they feel. This often makes a preceding which later applies to other courts will be bounded to follow in their later cases. This idea of law can very tricky to citizens that may not stay up to date with the law marker changes. Civil code is a law system that follows its structure based off a written constitution that has specific codes and laws in place. In this system, authority is ultimately only granted to legislative enactments in which create the binding of these laws that all of the courts must follow. Even while administrative law is seen in many cases as being less codified, studies show that while there are differences administrative law can be seen in both models (Key Features of Common Law or Civil Law Systems, 2016). In these cases, it often is seen that administrative court judges use the common law system in frequent changes based on the senior leadership which is later forced upon many landmark supreme court cases against Affirmative Action and Employee-at-will. There isn’t a day that goes by that the topic of Affirmative Action isn’t discussed. Affirmative action has been looked at through the lenses of being viewed as Weak Affirmative action and Strong Affirmative action. Let’s take a look at Strong Affirmative Action, are often viewed as preretinal treatment this basis of ethnicity and race which creates discrimination against the underrepresented group (Beauchamp, 1998). Strong Affirmative action is looking at the scope of being for racial inequality in the world. We know that for years in our country that African American were the oppressed racial group throughout slavery. Yet even after the year 1865 when slavery was abolished. It wouldn’t be until decades later that Affirmative action was fought against in the rights of the African American people. Plessy v Ferguson was the case that started the path to what would later become and Affirmative Action movement. This case took place in 1892 in the state of Louisiana where a man by the name of Homer Plessy was asked to leave his seat middle cabin seat on a train for a white passenger. Often seen during this time as mention the courts is the common law system which would allow for the superiors to create laws at court level. In the south, those laws that had been created could be known as the Jim Crow laws. Jim Crow laws were typically applied in southern states in which had previously been the share of slavery in the country. While African Americans were supposed to be free under the thirteenth amendment these laws were the new form of slavery in the south. These laws pushed for discrimination of African American which would force to eat, live and be educated in different places as African Americans (uscourts.gov, n.d.). In the Plessy decision, Plessy was arrested for refusing to give up his seat to the other passenger. This case reign as a staple as making its way to be heard in the United States Supreme court by 1896. During the case the courts ruled against his case that supported the right of the fourteenth amendment that states: “All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the state wherein they reside. No state shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any state deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws” (law.corrnell.edu, n.d.). The Supreme court voted against by saying that the purpose of the amendment was a not put into place to make African American feel that they were equal to white socially in which that whites were the inferior. Due to the court’s decision many cases reigned over the years fighting against for support of the fourteenth amendment. After years there was a game-changing case as we know it today called Brown v Board of education. This name was given to five separate cases that all shared the common factor of segregation in public schools. It was in1952, that Board v Education was heard in the Supreme court presented by the infamous attorney John Marshall. John ultimately raised concerns on the injustice that African Americans in the south were facing. Yet his main topic for this case was the separation in school systems for African Americans and whites. This injustice was unequal and violated the “equal protection clause” found in the Fourteenth Amendment. After presenting social logical test that showed that segregated schools made African American children feel that they were inferior to white students. The case was heard for almost a year before in the summer of 1954 the judge agreed in Weak Affirmative Action that it was unequal that by not having it in place would create a will to increase the opportunities of disadvantaged African American people to attain social goods by getting the education they deserved in addition to not having an inferior mindset in the school system. While Affirmative Action is a staple in lots of earlier case something that has begun to present itself in the past decade is employment at will laws. Employment at will is the law set that means at any time your employer has the right to terminate you without any reasoning. At any point, the employer has the legal right to let you go and employees often have little to no legal against the termination. All employees should know that unless your employer indicates that they will only terminate you for good cause, the law presumes that you are an at will employee (Icrl.co.uk, n.d.). One of the recent federal cases that have made to the fifth circuit because this law has been Swindol v Aurora Flight Science Corp. This case, discusses an employee at Aurora Flight Science being terminated from his job for gun being found locked inside his vehicle. By having this firearm on the property was initially a violation to Aurora Flights policies and procedures. The company policy stated that it prohibits firearms on the premises. Interesting enough this business being located in the state of Mississippi where by state doesn’t prohibit employees from storing their firearms in a locked vehicle in any parking structure. Because of this, the employee made the claim that the company codified against the public policy. By public policy, he had the right to not only carry a firearm but to have it in his vehicle while on the company property which makes this termination a violation of public policy (Lawless, 2016). Due to the claims by the employee this case was moved for review by the Mississippi Supreme court, under which they determine that the public policy on guns was an exception to the employment-at-will policy that the company had in place. Court officials claimed Aurora Flight wrongfully charged the employee under the Mississippi state law. This case forced companies to take a deeper look into just how their termination of employees even under the employee at-will doctrine can be imposed by the local policies that are in place in their area. Although Aurora’s no guns policy was lawful, it was their human resources teams placed to know the policy at the local to know how they align with their policies (Lawless, 2016). An employee at the company shouldn’t have not been terminated just for having a gun in his locked vehicle in the parking structure. Yet in another case that has made the media erupt is a case of an employee at will that brings great same to the people that are for it. In Mississippi as well an African American news anchor was recently fired for choosing to wear her natural hair. She was told by multiple producers that by wearing her natural hair she was viewed as unprofessional. In many instance jobs are clear in the hiring process on not discriminating by color which means that African American people should be fired for wearing their hair in a natural state. Not in Brittany case after one irrational comment from one of her producers and warned not to do it again she was terminated from her job as a news anchor with little to no expectation. Even after filing a claim with the EEOC in 2017 Brittany’s case has still not been seen by any circuit in the state of Mississippi (Santi, 2019 ). This would providently assume that the court agrees with the news stations racial thoughts and that Brittany has no fight. In the final analysis, looking at both Affirmative Action and Employee at will we see comparisons on how these two relate to the world. Both these are actions in which typically force the common law system to be imposed. They are cases in which both are decided upon the court system on rather they are right or wrong. Even in cases like the Plessy decision or in the case of the journalist Brittany shows that the determining people in these situations don’t always make ethical decisions. Both of these typically over the last century have much to do with the racial and discrimination issues that we are facing in our country. Both Affirmative Action and Employee at will are two terms that are the basis of the court system and important in the legal rights of the people in this country under the constitution for those that are against what they stand for. References Beauchamp, T. L. (1998). In Defense of Affirmative Action. The Journal of Ethics, 143-158. Coate, S. (1993). Will Affirmative-Action Policies Eliminate Negative Stereotypes? The American Economic Review, 1230-1240. Icrl.co.uk. (n.d.). Icrl.co.uk. Retrieved from Law : https://www.iclr.co.uk/knowledge/case-law/what-is-case-law/ Key Features of Common Law or Civil Law Systems. (2016, September 06). Retrieved from ppp.worldbank.org : https://ppp.worldbank.org/public-private-partnership/legislation-regulation/framework-assessment/legal-systems/common-vs-civil-law law.corrnell.edu. (n.d.). 14th Amendment. Retrieved from law.corrnell.edu: https://www.law.cornell.edu/constitution/amendmentxiv Lawless, L. (2016, August 11). Termination . Retrieved from employmentlawworldview.com: https://www.employmentlawworldview.com/two-recent-federal-court-decisions-explore-the-limits-of-the-at-will-employment-doctrine/ nolo.com. (n.d.). Employment At Will. Retrieved from nolo.com: https://www.nolo.com/legal-encyclopedia/employment-at-will-definition-30022.html Santi, C. (2019 , January 16). Culture. Retrieved from ebony.com: https://www.ebony.com/culture/black-news-anchor-fired-unprofessional-natural-hair/ uscourts.gov. (n.d.). History – Brown v. Board of Education Re-enactment. Retrieved from uscourts.gov: https://www.uscourts.gov/educational-resources/educational-activities/history-brown-v-board-education-re-enactment

Using the Journal and Adjusting Entries worksheet, prepare the May journal entries and adjusting entries to record the Additional Information Essay

Using the Journal and Adjusting Entries worksheet, prepare the May journal entries and adjusting entries to record the Additional Information from the case (Hint: don’t forget to record the income taxes) Number your entries, instead of using dates. For example #1, #2, etc… Round amounts to the nearest dollar. ***Show any calculations to the right of the entries. Need done in 2 hours or ASAP***