It is continuously changing, and the company needs to be flexible to adapt. There may be aggressive competition and rivalry in a market. Globalization means that there is always the threat of substitute products and new entrants. The wider environment is also ever changing, and the marketer needs to compensate for changes in culture, politics, economics and technology. The acronym “PEST” is used to describe framework for the analysis of these macro environmental factors. PEST Analysis of the Mobile Phone Industry
There are many factors in the macro-environment that will affect the decisions of the managers of any organisation. Tax changes, new laws, trade barriers, demographic change and government policy changes are all examples of macro change. To help analyse these factors managers can categorise them using the PESTEL model. This classification distinguishes between following factors: Political –legal environment Economic environment Socio-cultural environment Technological environment
Political-Legal Environment: This environment is composed of laws, government agencies, and pressure groups that influence and limit various organizations and individuals . Sometimes these laws create new opportunities for business. Various political and legal factors affect a particular industry. By crossing the critical100 million mark, India has one of the largest mobile service markets in the world. In last two years alone, mobile phone users have jumped from 50 million to over 100 million.
Other than the trend of growing Household income in India, the recent mobile market expansion in India has been driven mainly by enlightened regulation and market innovation. We explore some of the drivers below: Enlightened Regulation The Indian Government has been promoting market liberalisation and simplifying regulation. Unified Licensing Indian government has issued new type of unified licences to operators, enabling them to provide both fixed and mobile services. Fixed-Mobile convergence makes the bundling of services easier and operators are offering much wider choice of product to consumers.
The unified licences also allow interconnectivity across contiguous circles ; it is no longer necessary to route inter-circle traffic through a National Long Distance operator which causes delay and increases costs. Lowering of Interconnect Charges Lowering interconnection charges has direct impact on mobile service tariff and interconnection traffic will be boosted significantly, both fixed to mobile and mobile to mobile services will benefit. Made Licence Fees 10%-15% of Revenue instead of a fixed amount irrespective of the operators revenue.
The fixed amount licence fee posed a serious entry barrier to smaller operators and service providers before, now with fee linked with revenue, small players can grow, evolve and diversify into different segment and offer innovative products and services to the market. Simplified Frequency Allocation Process Radio spectrum is critical for mobile service, therefore if frequency allocation process is lengthy and bureaucratic, mobile services deployment will be delayed and it will hamper the whole industry’s development. As the allocation process is getting more simplified and transparent, networks are rolled out faster.
Hinduism and Buddhism
Hinduism and Buddhism.
Choose ONE ISSUE covered in the course and compare how it relates to TWO RELIGIONS of your choice.
Two religions are : Hinduism and Buddhism
An “ISSUE” may consist of one of the following themes or it may be a combination of two or three related themes: The gender of God Gods and Goddesses God language Incarnation and gender Reincarnation and gender Founders’ attitudes to women Adam and Eve Women as sexual temptresses Life-cycle rituals Celibacy and/or Marriage Spousal obedience Dowry Adultery Divorce Child marriage Remarriage Interfaith partners Polygamy Motherhood and Fertility Preference for sons Menstruation Female circumcision Women’s ordination/ prayer Leadership roles Women as models of holiness Women as spiritual teachers Clothing and women It should also contain a complete bibliography (= list of sources) of all sources actually cited, and an appropriate referencing system of your choice. Sources can include books, articles and appropriate websites. A standard bibliography for this essay would have at least five sources. You should not include scriptural books in your bibliography. When quoting scriptures, simply provide the book, chapter and verse (eg Quran 5:43; Genesis: 1:17-24; Matthew 17:2-6; Laws of Manu 9:55). There is no need to reference the lecture material but if this mentions a scriptural passage or other work then you should reference that.
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