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Personality and Its Impact on Organizational Behavior

Personality and Its Impact on Organizational Behavior. The unique thought patterns, behaviors and feelings that make an individual different from the other can be termed as Personality. The personality of every individual originates out of genetic heritage as well as his immediate surroundings, and remains constant all through their lives. This results in individual differences. Due to complexity in human nature arising out of the wide variety of experiences in life, the different personality types affect individual relation ships in an organization, and affect the organizational climate. There are various theories explaining the growth of individual personalities, such as – the Psychodynamic theory, Type theory, Behavioral theory, Biological theory, Trait theory , and the theory of the ‘Big five'( Mike Battista,2008). However, though it is assumed that the personality of an individual is more or less constant, it does not happen so. It has been observed that though individual differences occur as a result of various styles of parenting and the amount of attention that one received in childhood grooming, individual successes and failures experienced in life, changes in individual personality do occur in the long run. Individuals are likely to become more stable emotionally through 20 to 40 years, where usually they do not need to face any more new experience with age, as greater confidence in self develops. (Webbooks/e-library) Impact of Individual Personality at Work The child hood personality of an individual affects the future career and job satisfaction of individuals. It has been found out that, behaviors of individuals in the organizational climate are the result of their individual personalities. There are certain traits of personality that are essential for employee behavior, which may be desirable for an organization to run its operations successfully. Some individuals may be more sociable and carry an outgoing personality and prefer work environment that is more social and friendly. This personality trait does not immediately affect their behavior at work, but might harm their work psychology in the long run. In an organizational environment, everyone is assigned some particular job responsibility, and certain expectations arise out of the definite roles that each are assigned to play. Hence, here the individual behavior is influenced more by the job expectations rather than individual behavioral preferences. In jobs that call for autonomy and freedom, it has been observed that the individual personality exercises a tremendous influence on that. This often leads to difficult management situations in an organization. Employees often tend to become too much egocentric, autonomous, possess too much of differential opinion, and sometimes casual and easy going. Hence these are important issues that need to be focused on when an organization is creating its business plan and designing individual job responsibilities. (Webbooks/e-library) People are not a means to an end, but are as important to an organization as the wheel is to a chariot. Every organization requires a definite workforce comprising a unique employee personality, so as to avoid too much collision of ideas. Again, individual differences give rise to dynamism in the team, which is very healthy and essential for the successful growth of a team, as it unleashes new ideas, provided it is managed efficiently. Thus it is important that every team leader has a proper knowledge about the Big Five Theory of personality development. The Big Five The discovery of the Big Five was the result of an empirical research, and psychologists observed that of the long list of traits prepared by them, many of them occurred together. Five big factors were identified as general dimensions that were essentially considered for differentiating one person from the other. These are – Openness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Neuroticism. Putting the initials of the character traits together, the acronym OCEAN is derived. Source: http://www.web-books.com/eLibrary/Books/B0/B58/IMG/fwk-carpenter-fig02_004.jpg Openness: People who are high on openness, are imaginative as well as conservative, and possess a down-to-earth kind of nature. They like emotions, adventure, art, unusual ideas, possess curiosity and imagination, and like variety. They perform well in settings involving training, and usually are capable of blooming in situations that require acquiring new skills and flexibility. Their personality trait gets them quickly adjusted to a new job setting. Conscientiousness: This personality trait refers to how much organized, achievement-driven, dependable, punctual, and systematic a person is. It is this trait of an individual that sets him/her apart and gives out the prediction about his /her level of performance in a wide assortment of occupation that he or she gets involved into. Extraversion: This refers to a person’s outgoing, sociable and talkative nature, and ability to build up quick and strong interactions. They are found to be successful at jobs involving sales, as well as jobs involving managerial responsibilities. They display inspirational behaviors in leadership roles. They usually are happy in work environment as they enjoy the relationships that they build up there. Agreeableness: This refers to the personality traits of compassion, cooperation in a person on one hand while suspicion and antagonism on the other. They are friendly, helpful, optimistic, and possess the willingness to sacrifice for the benefit of others. People with a high degree of agreeableness, are liked by others and create a strong bonding with others. They do not retaliate much when treated unfairly by others, and have the potential of being an effective leader as well as a valuable asset for a team as they are able to create a fair environment in a team. Neuroticism or Emotional Stability: This personality trait refers to a person’s emotionality, temperaments, irritability, anxiousness, moodiness. It points towards the individual’s ability to remain calm and stable, and ability to handle stress. They generally get angry quickly, and succumb to anxiety and depression, resulting in their inability to think clearly and handle a complicated situation. People that are high on Neuroticism are usually low in achievements as this trait acts negatively against a successful career. They repeatedly get unsatisfied with their job and depict intentions of leaving, though they actually do not leave. (Webbooks/e-library) My Personal Profile 1. Openness to experience: Imaginative, innovative, curious, practical, have wide interest, low focus. 2. Conscientiousness: Planful, organized, achievement oriented, reliable, stronger work ethic, efficient, orderly, practical, careful, prudent 3. Extraversion: Sociable, active, energetic, more assertive, verbally dominant, energized by people, more accessible, reserved rather than unfriendly after a difficult phase 4. Agreeableness: Warm, affiliation seeking, kind, likeable, more sympathetic, tolerant, co-operative, consensual, trusting, collaborative, direct, tough minded, objective. 5. Emotional Stability: Calm, more secure, cool, less emotional, but sometimes become vulnerable to stress My conscientiousness level is high, and so is the level of openness, which often crosses each others path. Using my openness to experience while being achievement oriented, a little more focus, practical sense and careful prudence is necessary, as it is not possible to achieve a set target without that. To be successful, high extraversion is necessary, as the high end facets point towards the effective leadership qualities in me, but add a lot of stress as well by creating lot of expectations. Hence a little management of agreeableness in terms of seeking affiliation and warmth and a little on tolerance would be good, to enhance my emotional stability in terms of vulnerability to stress. To be achievement oriented, I need to be more assertive, as without assertion of one’s objective, it is not possible to drive a team’s focus towards a goal. As a team leader I have responsibilities towards my team as well as towards the organization. Hence I need to be very specific and target oriented regarding alignment of individual goals of my team members as well as of the organization. Assertiveness as a successful personality trait has helped me successfully retain a direct communication between my operational team and the client’s of the organization to run the business successfully. This trait has effectively retained the client’s trust and faith in the organization’s capacity to perform even in difficult situations, and helped retain the team’s confidence in me. An organization benefits in innumerable ways from the commitment of an employee towards an organization. Employees having a high degree of organizational commitment identify themselves closely with the goals and values of the organization, are proud to work for the organization and work for the benefit of the organization. Organizational reform frequently destroys that commitment of the employee to the organization. Therefore, it is very important that proper action plans during such a reform is made so as to retain and enhance that existing level of organizational commitment as it is invaluable for that organization (Shu-Jen Lin, J. She-Cheng Lin and Ben-Yuan Lin, 2010) Action Plan for Changing Behaviors Hackman and Oldham, (1975) opinionate that based on the work characteristics model, change in work characteristics involves five core dimensions related to work, including skill diversity, task integrity, task significance, autonomy and feedback. Changes in work characteristics effectively raise the internal quality of the content of employee jobs and, as a result, improves employee work attitude. (Shu-Jen Lin,J. She-Cheng Lin and Ben-Yuan Lin,2010:3682) The following action plan is prepared with the aim of changing behaviors within the organization with that personality trait that is my strength. Theme: Changing behaviors within Organization Positive /Strong Personality Trait Present Team Attitude Desirable Changes Actions to be Performed Assertiveness Achievement Drive High on extraversion, poor performance due to high sociability amongst members, lack of team accountability and supportive attitude towards the other members Developing team accountability, developing performance and achievement drive, building an interactive and supportive organizational environment Organizing a brain storming session on performance and achievement on a preset organizational goal aiming to arrive at the necessary actions to be taken. Through this session itself team accountability and supportive environment can be developed by setting up objectives to be achieved on a timeline. Conclusion: For running organizational management effectively, it is very important for team leaders to have a very clear understanding of the personality traits that essentially comprise the overall employee psychology of an organization, as well as specific teams dealing with specific job responsibilities. Every organization does not require every kind of individual personality in its organizational climate, as it often adversely affects the organizational behavior and performance. Hence, it is important for team leaders as well as the HR department of an organization to understand the job design of the organization, and the requisite employee personality type that would best fit into it. A precise knowledge of the personality and individual differences would also enhance effective management of the organization, particularly during a reform. Personality and Its Impact on Organizational Behavior

Nutritional Needs of Plants

Nutritional Needs of Plants. INTRODUCTION: Plants can prepare carbohydrates, fats, proteins and vitamins in their body. However they cannot generate the mineral ions. Thus for plants, the constant supply of minerals is very essential. The study of how plants obtain mineral elements, either through water, air or soil and utilize them for their growth and development is called mineral nutrition. Mineral nutrients are elements such as nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium acquired primarily in the form of inorganic ions from the soil. Although mineral nutrients continually cycle through all organisms, they enter the biosphere predominantly through the root systems of plants, so in a sense plants act as the “miners” of Earth’s crust. The large surface area of roots and their ability to absorb inorganic ions at low concentrations from the soil solution make mineral absorption by plants a very effective process. After being absorbed by the roots, the mineral elements are translocated to the various parts of the plants, where they are utilized in numerous biological functions. Other organisms, such as mycorrhizal fungi and nitrogen-fixing bacteria, often participate with roots in the acquisition of nutrients. The study of how plants obtain and use mineral nutrients is called mineral nutrition. This area of research is central to modern agriculture and environmental protection. High agricultural yields depend strongly on fertilization with mineral nutrients. In this section, we will discuss the nutritional needs of plants, the symptoms of specific nutritional deficiencies etc. then we will examine how soil structure (the arrangement of solid, liquid, and gaseous component), root morphology influence the transfer of mineral nutrients from the environment into a plant and factors affecting mineral nutrient acquisition by plant. Finally, we will introduce the topic of mycorrhizal symbiotic associations. MINERAL NUTRITION IN PLANTS The study of how plants obtain, distribute, metabolize and utilize mineral nutrients. “MINERAL”: An inorganic element acquired mostly in the form of inorganic ions from the soil. “NUTRIENT”: A substance needed to survive or necessary for the synthesis of organic compounds. Only certain elements have been determined to be essential for plants. An essential element is defined as one that is an intrinsic component in the structure or metabolism of a plant or whose absence causes severe abnormalities in plant growth, development, or reproduction. If plants are given these essential elements, as well as water and energy from sunlight, they can synthesize all the compounds they need for normal growth. The elements listed in table, are considered to be essential for most, if not all, higher plants. The first three elements- hydrogen, carbon, and oxygen- are not considered mineral nutrients because they are obtained primarily from water or carbon dioxide. CLASSIFICATION OF MINERAL ELEMENTS: Essential mineral elements are usually classified as macronutrients or macronutrients according to their relative concentration in plant tissue. MECHANISM OF MINERAL ABSORPTION The penetration and accumulation of ions and molecules into the living cells or tissue from the surrounding medium, crossing the membrane, is called absorption. Various theories have been put forward to explain the mechanism of mineral absorption. They are broadly categorized into two groups based on the involvement of metabolic energy in the process. Those groups are given below: Passive mechanisms. Those which believe that metabolic energy is not involved in the mineral absorption. Active mechanisms. Those which believe that metabolic energy is involved in the mineral absorption. MECHANISM OF PASSIVE ABSORPTION Absorption of ions and molecules propelled by physical driving forces is called passive absorption. The various modes of passive absorption are given below: Concept of outer free space Absorption of mineral salts takes place through the roots which are in close contact with the soil particles or soil solution. It has been observed that when a plant growing in the medium of low salt concentration is placed in the medium of high salt concentration, an initial rapid uptake of ions takes place. The same plant when returned to pure water, some of the ions diffuse out. This indicate that a part of cell or tissue is open to free diffusion and exchange of ions. This is termed as “the outer free space”. Diffusion The movement of ions and molecules from the region of its higher to lower chemical potential along the concentration gradient is called diffusion. The driving force in the process of such diffusion is chemical potential gradient. Facilitated diffusion (Carrier mediated diffusion) The passive absorption of solute mediated by a carrier is called facilitated diffusion. It has been proposed that certain carriers-probably some proteins, act as shuttle for a passive transport of ions or molecules across the membrane. The carrier selects out and binds certain molecules to form solute-carrier complex. The complex then diffuses across the membrane and finally releases the solute towards the other side without involving the metabolic energy. Ion exchange Ion exchange mechanism offers a greater opportunity for absorption of ions from the external medium. The ion exchange mechanism could be explained by two widely accepted theories, which are- The contact exchange theory. This theory is based on the ion exchange from one absorbent to another without the participation of free electrolytes. An ion, which is adsorbed electrostatically to a solid particle, is not tightly bound but oscillates within a small volume of space. This is termed “oscillation volume”. Therefore, the cations or anions which are adsorbed on the surface of root cell membrane or clay particles oscillate in a limited area. The carbonic acid exchange theory. According to this theory the soil solution plays an important role by providing medium for ion exchange. Respiration occurring in a root cells results in the interaction of carbon dioxide, which forms carbonic acid when dissolved in water. The carbonic acid dissociates into hydrogen ions and bicarbonate ions. These ions may then changed for similar charged ions of the soil solution. Donnan equilibrium This theory suggests that the cell membrane allows only selected ions and particles to pass through it. Some ions get accumulated on the inner side of membrane. These ions are fixed. In this situation, to maintain electrochemical equilibrium, additional mobile ions enter the cell membrane and come inside and counteract the charges of fixed ions. Due to this movement, the product of anions and cations in the internal medium become equal to the product of anions and cations in outside medium. Mass flow of ions According to this theory, an increase in the rate of transpiration causes increase in the salt uptake. Some investigators believe that transpiration plays its role indirectly by removing ions after they have been released into the xylem duct. Mass flow of ions may also occur due to transpiration pull. ACTIVE TRANSPORT The absorption of solute linked with some metabolic reactions involving expenditure of energy is called active absorption or active transport. Any fertile soil contains at least some clay particles within its structure. Clay particles carry a negative electrical charge to which the mineral ions (K , Na , Ca2 ) attach. This attachment effectively prevents the leaching of the mineral ions from the soil. Unlike animal cell there are no potassium-sodium pumps in the cell membranes of plant cells. Rather there are proton pumps which pump protons (H ) outside of the cell. This creates an electro-negative charge within the cell. When the root cells secrete protons into the surrounding soil water the hydrogen ions displace the mineral ions from the clay particle, freeing them into solution. The mineral ions in the soil water are free to be absorbed by various pathways. Absorption of mineral ions. The plasma membrane of the plant cell can bring about the absorption of mineral by two different energy demanding processes: Indirect method in which proton pumps (hydrogen pumps) establish electrochemical gradients. Direct method in which membranes actively transport a particular mineral. Indirect process: Proton (hydrogen) pumps in the plasma membrane pump out hydrogen ions (H ) this has a number of effects which are covered in the model below. Direct process: The cations such as K which are free and in solution in the soil water can be taken up actively by active transport membrane pumps. Specific membrane pumps exist for the different cations. Experiments that metabolically poison the root (stop ATP production) causes all mineral absorption to stop. Direct process FACTORS AFFECTING MINERAL NUTRIENT ABSORPTION Absorption of mineral salts is affected by the number of external and internal factors. Some of them are listed below: External factors Temperature. Hydrogen ion concentration (pH). Light. Oxygen. Interaction. Internal factors- Growth and morpho-physiological status. Aging. External factors Temperature. Absorption of mineral salt is affected by change in temperature. In general, an increase in temperature results increase in the absorption of salts up to a certain optimum level. At very high temperature the absorption is considerably inhibited. The inhibition might be due to denaturation of proteins which are directly or indirectly involved in mineral salt absorption. The change in temperature also affects the process of diffusion. The rate of diffusion depends upon the kinetic energy of diffusing molecules or ions which, in turn, dependent upon temperature. Hydrogen ion concentration (pH). Change in the hydrogen ion concentration (pH) of the soil solution affects the availability of ions to the plants. In general, decrease in the pH of soil solution accelerates the absorption of anions. For example, boron is taken up as the undissociated acid, H3BO3 as the H2BO3?ions. It is absorbed at lower pH. In contrast to the anions, increase in pH will favour the absorption of cations. However, pH values across the physiological range may damage the plant tissue and inhibit the salt absorption. Light. Light has no direct effect, but indirectly by transpiration and photosynthesis, influences salt absorption. Oxygen. The active salt absorption is inhibited by the absence of oxygen. Interaction. The absorption of one ion is influenced by the presence of other ions in the medium. For example, Viets (1944) demonstrated that the absorption of potassium is affected by the presence of calcium, magnesium and other polyvalent cations in the soil solution. Epstein (1978) demonstrated the interaction of several ions (K, Cs, Li, Rb and Na) as competitive for binding sites on carriers. For example, K, Rb and Cs compete with one another for the same binding sites. Li and Na, on the other hand, are not competitive because they have different binding sites. Internal factors Growth. Active cell division, elongation and developmental processes promote the absorption of mineral salts. Aging. As the root matures it increases the surface area which is favourable for salt absorption, but due to heavy suberization the mineral salt uptake is greatly reduced. FACTORS AFFECTING MINERAL NUTRIENTS ACQUISITION BY PLANTS The word “acquisition” emphasizes that more is involved in getting inorganic nutrients into plants than ion transport across cell membrane. Adaptation and evolution of terrestrial plants depend, to a large extent, on their ability to acquire nutrients. This is a modern and integrative treatment of the mechanisms controlling the plant nutrient uptake and how plants respond to changes in the environment. Some factors are given below: Soil nutrients bio-availability Root responses to variations in nutrients supply Nitrogen fixation Regulation of nutrient uptake by internal plant demand Root characteristics Kinetics of nutrient uptake Mycorrhizae Response to climate change This integrated view of nutrient uptake helps us to understand the mechanisms that govern present-day plant communities and is indispensable in models designed to predict the response of plants to a changing climate. THE SOIL AFFECTS NUTRIENT ABSORPTION: pH affects the growth of plant roots and soil microbes. Root growth favors a pH of 5.5 to 6.5. Acidic conditions weathers rock and releases potassium, magnesium, calcium, and manganese. The decomposition of organic material lowers soil pH. Rainfall leaches ions through soil to form alkaline conditions. Negatively charged soil particles affect the absorption of mineral nutrients. Cation exchange occurs on the surface of the soil particle. Cations ( ve charged ions) bind to soil as it is negative charged. If potassium binds to the soil it can displace calcium from the soil particle and make it available for uptake by the root. PLANT ROOT- the primary route for mineral nutrient acquisition pp05080Meristematic zone Elongation zone Maturation zone Different areas of root absorb different mineral ions Calcium Apical region Iron Apical region (barley) or entire root (corn) Potassium, nitrate, ammonium, and phosphate All locations of root surface. In corn, elongation zone has max K accumulation and nitrate absorption. In corn and rice, root apex absorbs ammonium faster than the elongation zone does. In several species, root hairs are the most active phosphate absorbers. Root tips are the primary site for the nutrient uptake because of following reasons: There are the tissues with greatest need for nutrients. The cell elongation requires Potassium, nitrate, and chlorine to increase osmotic pressure within the wall. Ammonium is a good nitrogen source for cell division in meristem. Root apex grows into fresh soil and finds fresh supplies of nutrients. Nutrients are carried via bulk flow with water, and water enters near tips. It maintains concentration gradients for mineral nutrient transport and uptake. Root uptake soon depletes nutrients near the roots The formation of a nutrient depletion zone in the region of the soil near the plant root. It forms when rate of nutrient uptake exceeds rate of replacement in soil by diffusion in the water column. The root associations with Mycorrhizal fungi help the plant overcome this problem. MYCORRHIZAL ASSOCIATIONS Mycorrhizae are not unusual; in fact, they are widespread under natural conditions. 83% of dicots, 79% of monocots and all gymnosperms regularly form mycorrhizal associations. Ectotrophic Mycorrhizal fungi Form a thick sheath around root. Some mycelium penetrates the cortex cells of the root Root cortex cells are not penetrated, surrounded by a zone of hyphae called Hartig net. The capacity of the root system to absorb nutrients improved by this association – the fungal hyphae are finer than root hairs and can reach beyond nutrient-depleted zones in the soil near the root. Vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi Its hyphae grow in dense arrangement, both within the root itself and extending out from the root into the soil. After entering root, either by root hair or through epidermis hyphae move through regions between cells and penetrate individual cortex cells. Within cells form oval structures – vesicles – and branched structures – arbuscules (site of nutrient transfer). pp05110P, Cu,Nutritional Needs of Plants

Effect Of Motivation On Short Term Memory Recall Psychology Essay

essay order Empirical research interested in memory recall has suggested a number of stimuli could influence memory recall. Amongst a multitude of stimuli that is claimed to effect memory is motivation. Motivational stimuli’s such as financial gains, recognition, appraisal and many other forms of rewards are employed in various occupations (Tiglao-Torres, A. (1990). These can be looked upon as cues for organised responses thus improving learning which “is the making of memory” (http://www.library.spscc.ctc.edu/electronicreserve/ece275/Memory1Ebsco.pdf). However, researches into motivational stimuli propose conflicting ideas of the influence they have in regards to memory (Murty, V. P., LaBar, K. S., Hamilton, D. A.,

The Work Of A Hotels Front Desk Staff Tourism Essay

When in a hotel there are jobs for all levels where the front office manager job and responsibilities,assistant managers jobs and responsibilities, the front desk representatives job and responsibilities, the night auditor job and responsibilities, the cashiers jog and responsibilities. If all the job and responsibilities are done correctly the hotel will be successful in the hotel industry. However if a poor job is done the hotel will face failure and bankruptcy there for it is important for the staff to achieve there job and responsibilities to secure a successful business. Front Office Manager The front office manager is in charge of maintaining a high level of efficiency among all the front office staff, to make effective decisions regarding reservations policies and room assignments, and handle guest problems and complaints with courtesy and tact. The manager must also maintain an open communication between all other departments of the hotel. The front office manager must assign duties to all staff members of the front office. He is in charge of preparing weekly work schedules and shift assignments, scheduling regular staff meeting to make sure that staff understand what they have to do and all the hotel policies. The manager must also hire and train all new employers, consistently overview the performance of each the new staff members. The front office manager must also define the reservation policies and set quotas, aiming for maximum room occupancy. The manger must also monitor all arrivals, departures and cancellations. And setting policies for no-shows, early arrivals, and over booking. Assistant Front Office Manager The assistant front office manager is there to aid the department manager who is responsible for coordinating front desk personnel, monitoring all guests’ accounts and payments, and authorized checks and credit procedures. Also the assistant manager may assist the front desk staff during high peak periods. Other duties of an assistant manager are to review reservation for the day and preparing daily room occupancy forecasts. For a manager an front office manager may have have a lot of work to do so as a front office assistant manager he is to help the manager with extra work that needs to be done. Along with helping desk staff if the are to many customers wanting lodgeing. There for needing patience. Front Desk Representatives. Front desk representatives are the main for who are always reminded to always show to the personality of the hotel to all the guests, to be a front desk representative you must strong communication skills along with the ability to work with people. Front desk representatives must use diplomacy, courtesy, and warmth in order to successfully make a guest feel welcome. They must also deal with client’s problems and complaints. Also to directly work with clients of the hotel. Working at the front desk they have an important role of assigning rooms and maintain maximum occupancy. The front desk is responsible for verifying reservation information, checking credit card identification and authorization, assigning rooms, and dispensing room keys. Other duties are to provide information about facilities and policies, handling special guest requests, such as photocopies, and gift purchases. A front desk representative must always be polite warm and understanding around customers. Giving there full attention to customers. A customer does not like to be keept waiting. And also must highlight their experience in the hotel. The night auditor. A night auditor has two jobs to do where first he must do all the jobs as a front office representative. Secondly he or she must prepare a machine balance report. Typically, a night auditors shifts run from 11 pm until 7 am. When the front desk responsibility slackens usually the night auditor starts to audit or trace the posting of the previous day’s transactions to verify their accuracy. The main point is the night auditor must calculate the total charges owed to the hotel and incurred by guests during the previous day. They must determine the daily balance. To be a night auditor one must be good with numbers along with having all the skills needed to be a front office representatives. A night auditor is one of the most tireing jobs in a hotel. Because work is based at night until early morning. As for most people wont want to work as a night auditor. Cashiers The cashiers are responsible for checking out departing clients, posting charges, verifying the guest check, and handling payments. Cashiers may also be required to assist other members of the front desk staff in the performance of their duties. And vice versa. Cashiers are responsible for verifying payments from customers who are about to check out. Also they must calculate the charges and presenting the guest check. They are considered members of the accounting department who answer to the accounting manager. And finally they have other duties, such as sorting mail, handlingguest’s communications, and coordinating room status and reports. A cashier is responsible for handeling all the income for a hotel so its necessary that a cashier is knowledgeable about accounting. And also if asked to help the front office staff with their dutys so there for must have good people skills to be able to communicate sucessufly with a customer. Being a cashier one must always respecta customer along with getting all your taskes fulfilled. Reservationist The reservationist is responsible for handling advance room requests, determining availability, quoting rates, and documenting reservations. Reservation systems range from simple forms that are organized like desk calendars to computer-based systems. A reservationist must have good knowledge of the rooms, rates, and hotel policies. In addition, arithmetic and computer skills may be required. A reservationist is responsible for reciving all reservations and dealing with the accordanly. But mst make sure that all reservations are below 70% because that is the limit that a hotel and reserve for customers. Because if a hotel reserves 100% of the hotel and most the guests don’t come they will lose customers and income. A reservationist must know how to deal with a customer, say when when you can and know how to reject a customer if the hotel has already reserved 70% of rooms in the hotel. Telephone Operator A telephone operator is responsible for coordinating the use of the telephone system of a large hotel. An operator answers all incoming telephone calls and directs the callers to the appropriate guest room, department, or staff member. In addition, operators may be required to direct house calls placed from inside the hotel. Operators must have an up to date directory of the guest’s room assignments. This position requires oral communication skills, an efficient telephone technique, and attention to detail. A telephone is required to know how to transfer calls to all rooms in the hotel and know how to make house bound calls from within the hotel. A telephone operator must answer the phone with a smile talk with a gental tone to all guests. It is important that a telephone operatormust have full knowledge on how to do his job. CONCLUSION The Work of a hotels front desk staff is important they are responsible of first impressions and must always treat guests like royalty. To do so they must always meet their jobs critiera where a front office manager is responsible for looking out on staff giving a weekly work schedule, high level of efficiency infront of all staff, be able to make decisions, and must always have communications with all deparments of the hotel. A assistant front office manager is to help the manager with tasks needed. Coordanating front desks opperations the assistant front desk manager has the responsibility to train all new employees. The front desk representative are the one who serve guests, they must always be polite and carry a smile at all times. Being a front desk representative you need be to able to communicate with customers successfully. The night auditor is responsible of 2 jobs first he is a front dest representative then when customers stop coming normaly around 1 he must calculate all income from the day. cashiers are the ones who deal with the money that guest pay before check out. The also can assists the front office representative with their work. They are considered as members of the accounting department.working under the supervision of the accounting manager. Reservationist are basicly the ones who deal with reservations from customers. Determining availability, quoting rates and documenting reservations. The telephone operator is in charge of handeling all calls, and directing the calls to guests rooms, staff members or department. The also may have to direct house calls placed from within the hotel. QUESTION 2 Front office staffs must have certain skills to attract guests during the first impression. Write about Front Office staff skill in guest relations. INTRODUCTION Front office staffs must have certain skills to attract guests during the first impression. Write about Front Office staff skill in guest relations. When working in a hotel as a front office representative you must have special skills to attract customers. From being able to have a good first impression, giving a smile to customers. Good interpersonal and communication with customers. being able handle stress properly. Having knowledge of phone lines, having knowledge of computers. Being polite and always showing warmth to all customers. Being polite, being courteous, having patience with all troubleing customers. Being helpful to all the customers. When having learned all these skills it will be easy to attract customers to the hotel. Being polite and warm to all customers. When all of these skills are used correctly for sure that all Customers will feel wanted and important by the hotel. Then wanting to come again on holiday. Resulting in a successful hotel. All this is needed for a front office staff. When working in a hotel customers will want to feel like they are wanted by the hotel. Since customers are paying for their stay they will want the perfect service where all customers want to be able to stay their holiday in peace. To do so the staff must always show that they are wanted. A good first impression, A good first impression can go a long way. The way you dress, the way your hair is tied for girls, your hair style for guys, how u say hello to a customer. The way you present your self is important because a customer does not want to be served by someone who looks unpresentable. So dressing correctly and having a decent hairstyle is important to attact customers. Therefor staff members must always have a correct uniform on and is presentable to all customers. First impressions can also be seen from how you greet a customer. A simple hello and a smile would be enough. And must also remember regular customers by name. It makes them feel as if they are all wanted and remembered by the hotel. So making sure that all staff are dressed correctly and know how to greet a customer properly. Good interpersonal and communication with customers. Again all staff must be able to communicate with customers well. Making sure that the customers fully enjoy their stay. Being interpersonal and having good communication with all customers is important to have in a hotel to make it successful. Being able handle stress properly. Every staff member of a hotels front office must always remember that they must not show their personal problems inside the hotel. If in a bad mood or if angry when a customer comes they must not show their emotions towards them. As for a argument might escalate. However if one has a personal problem that is hard to control tell your supervisor to let u have a break or the day of. As for personal problems are part of life and cant be helped. But if a small matter they wont. And you will have to hide your emotions inorder to satisfy the customer. And if a troubleing customer comes that might be rude or disrespectful one must always ignore what he/she says just to please the customer. Hold your emotions. Until later when can release them freely. So having control over stress and emotons is important for front office staffs. To ensure that customers are treated correctly and avoid any problems. Being polite and always showing warmth to all customers. When working in a hotel as a front office staff it is important to always be polite to all customers, politeness is one of the main things to remember when serving a customer. Being rude will show that the hotel does not care about the customers. Even when the customer is wrong the staff must always respect the customer and remember that the customer is always right. When outside ad out of uniform you can say what you want. But when inside of the hotel or wearing the uniform you must respect all customers and always be polite to all the customers. Showing warmth to customers is important being able to show the customer that they are wanted. Try void body contact a customers would not think well some some one they don’t know hugging them. A simple thank you or a smile would be enough to show a customer that they are wanted in the hotel. Being courteous. Courtsy is a form of politeness saying that you for your stay will show your customer that their business is appreciated in a hotel. Always remember that inside a hotel staff must always show courtsy to all customers even if a customer is rude or abnoixous but they are all customers of the hotel and for a hotel to be a success the hotel must have customers so being courteous is important for a hotel. Every hotel must remember to make sure that their front office staff are show courtsy to all customers. Having patience with all troubleing customers. Patience is important for every employee in a hotel. If its being patient with your boss or more importantly being patient around a troubling customer. A customer way be annoying, rude, disrespectful or just an overall pain. But it’s the job of a front desk employee to make sure that the customer enjoys their stay. Patience is the key for success as they say. Every employee must be able to handle a customer, have patience with troubling customers and know how to treat all customers correctly. This having being said every front office manager must always remember to train all staff in ways to communicate with customers to successfully gain their business. Every employee shold be kind to all customers, talk in a soft tone to each and every customer And always make sure that the customer is pleased when checking into room and checking out. Make sure that their stay is a plesent one. CONCLUSION Every employee must have a special set of skills to make sure that a customers stay is plesent. So a manager must always make sure that the acting supervisor is coorectly training staff to handle customers correctly. By making sure that the employees all know how to communicate with a customer correctly and efficiently. Making sure that all employees are warm and kind hearted to all current and future customers, enable to sustain current customers and attract potential customers to the hotel. Making sure that customers have no complaints with employees attitude, A good first impression goes along way where all employees know how to dress correctly and look presentable to all customers for the hotel. Being presentable means having the correct uniform and a decent hairstyle nothing to crazy. Being able to handle stress is important to for all employees where they must not show their unhappy mood to customers. Customers don’t want to see your attitude. Being courteous to all customers is something every employee must remember. A customer is the income for a hotel. And the reason you work there. So always show customer courtsy. Being able to handle troubleing customers is important. Some time customers can be un-understanding, a employee need to be able to handel a troubling customer easily. Bibliogaphy http://www.ehow.com/facts_5538984_hotel-office-manager-job-description.html http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_are_the_Duties_and_responsibilities_of_front_office_manager_in_hotel http://www.paycheck.in/main/work-and-pay/women-paycheck/job-outlook-2/front-office-staff-receptionist-in-hotels-1 http://www.wowjobs.co.za/job/Oops.aspx

SEU Logistics and Supply Chain Management Tools Research Paper

SEU Logistics and Supply Chain Management Tools Research Paper.

Critical ThinkingThe purpose of this assignment is to identify and apply Logistics and Supply Chain Management concepts/tools to suggest supply chain process/logistics performance priorities. To this purpose, you should Study chapter 1, 2 and review Fast food industry /Food companies through secondary available information. Think about how you can apply the concepts/tools that you learned in this course.Select a fast-food company of your choice, research the impact of Covid-19 on that company. Explain why you have come to your conclusions:The Answer should be 4- 5 pagesThe Answer must follow the outline points below:1. Executive summary (no more than one page)- Summarize, what is Supply chain process/logistics performance priorities, what Logistics and Supply Chain Management concepts/tools applied to achieve the company’s objective.2. Background information- Briefly introduce the company background (e.g., name, products, business size, location, internal/external interesting facts, etc).3. Problem Description (Covid 19)- Describe the objectives clearly and specifically.- The objective may involve either logistics decision-making or process improvement.4. Application of logistics and Supply Chain Management concepts/tools applied- Describe, what specific logistics and Supply Chain Management concepts/tools be applied to achieve the objective. This section should make it clear that you understand the concepts/tools you are about to use.5. Results- Analyze the expected results of the proposed solution.6. References
SEU Logistics and Supply Chain Management Tools Research Paper