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Personal Marketing Plan

Personal Marketing Plan.

Personal Marketing PlanThis assignment consists of applying marketing strategy to yourself and your pursuit of a career. This individual project assignment is intended to accomplish two objectives:To give you the opportunity to learn more about marketing plans and how they are constructed by developing a real plan to market a real product (yourself!)To encourage you to begin to focus upon your career planning efforts.This require research – not just your own interpretation of the field you’d like to enter. As withall business communication, grammar and formatting is critical. Use headers to separate your items and make them easy to read and easy to identify. Be professional, not conversational, in your writing. As this is a business assignment, please make sure to take pride in the appearance of your finished product.Although it is for a business, Appendix B in your book is a great sample of a personal marketing plan.You should following this outline:Introduction – This section consists of brief introductory statements about what will follow in your report, its importance to you, and how it will be used to guide your career. It should also introduce you – who you are, what you do. The introduction serves to orient the reader regarding the importance you place on this exercise, and how the report is organized.Situation Analysis – This section focuses on where you are at this point of your life, and helps you identify your distinctive competencies.Significant Life Events: Everyone’s life has had its ups and downs, that is, significantevents about which you have positive or negative feelings. Please briefly describe the threemost significant events of your life, and indicate how these events have shaped your goals, abilities, and attitudes toward your potential contribution(s) to society. For instance, you may have demonstrated persistence, worked hard, or used good human relations skills in overcoming a negative event. These traits may have given you some degree of confidence that hard work and persistence pays off in the long run.Each of these should be in a separate paragraph with explanation as detailed above.Accomplishments: Identify the three most significant accomplishments you have achieved during your college days. These can include academic, service, and sportsachievements. For each accomplishment, identify the area, your objective, the difficulties you overcame, the qualities and abilities you demonstrated to overcome the difficulties, and results. Naturally, the qualities and abilities you list here may duplicate some of the traits you identified in the previous section.Each of these should be in a separate paragraph with explanation as detailed above.Disappointments: Identify at least one failing during your college career, and describe what that situation taught you about the limits to your capabilities.Interest Inventory: Identify the six interests that you care about most, and threeactivities that you care about least from the following list.planning leading observing performing maintainingSWOT Analysiscreating analyzing constructing speaking innovatingtraining counseling writing operating sellingorganizing managing installing exploring financedesigning mediating problem solving administrating persuadingartistic activityStrengths: As a result of the preceding exercises (significant life events, accomplishments, disappointments, and interest inventory), you should feel relatively comfortable that you know your key strengths and weaknesses. In this section, summarize (don’t simply list!) the key findings of the preceding analysis by identifying your ten most important strengths. These are the qualities upon which you will build a successful career.Weaknesses: Summarize (don’t just list!) the limits to your interests and abilities. These are the areas (more than one!!) in which you will either want to take steps to improve your performance or avoid by selecting jobs that do not require skills in these areas.Opportunities: In order to complete this next step, you will need to have a college major in mind. (If you are currently undecided, select any one of the majors you are currently considering.) Identify three trends that will positively affect the need for persons with college degrees in your major over the next five years. Specify the kinds of jobs, the industries, or the companies that will be increasing their hiring as a result. Cite your sources.Threats: Identify at least one trend that will negatively affect the need for college graduates in your specialty over the next five years. Specify the kinds of entry-level jobs, the industries, or the companies that will be decreasing their hiring as a result.Now write a summary paragraph about your SWOT analysis in which you summarize whatyou’ve done and reiterate the significance of what you’ve concluded.Objective – In this section, take a long term perspective on your career. Describe the ideal job position for you ten years after graduation. Identify the ideal industry you would be working in, the region of the country (or world) where you will work, the name of the industry, the name of an ideal employer, your title, your job duties, and your annual income. Write a paragraph describing what accomplishments you would like to be known for in this ideal job. This is your long-term career objective.Target Market – Now take a short term perspective, focusing upon the first job you will hold after completion of schooling. This job will be an entry-level opportunity in which you will establish a reputation for success and accomplishments. It will lead to future advancement, and ultimately to your career objective. Identify the top three industries in which you would like to work and explain why. Pick one of these industries, and name at least three employers in this industry (both name of company and address) with whom you would consider working. Provide a rationale for this selection – why did you choose each of the industries? Why did you pick the industry you chose to concentrate on? Why did you select the three employers you did?Now identify three possible entry-level positions that each of these employers have (each position must be present at all three employers) and in which you have an interest. Now, create a 3 X 3 market segmentation grid by listing employers vertically and positions horizontally. Rate each employer-position on criteria of your choosing – be sure to state what your criteria are and detail the range and what the numbers mean. An examplemight be “proximity” where 1-2 means over 150 miles away, 3-4 means 100 miles away, etc. Define these so that I know if closer is better, etc.Select the best employer-position to serve as your “target market.”Example:Staff Accountant BMW 10Pitney Bowes 8Bookkeeper Researcher8 79 9PWC 7 6 8My criteria for ranking include taking a look at the level of contentment of current employees in that position (GlassDoor.com), starting salary, proximity to home and ability for promotion.Which job did you choose and why? Now provide a complete description of the employer’sneeds for this position. Include in your description a list of the skills and interests they willrequire (Career Services and the Library can help answer this question.) Compare these to the skills and interests you developed in the situation analysis section.5. Positioning Statement – Now develop a positioning statement for yourself (the product) in the following form:“To ____________________(company name), ____________________ (your name) is thecandidate for ____________________(position) who offers____________________, ____________________, and ____________________ (list up to five distinctive skills or competencies from your SWOT analysis.)For each of the distinctive skills or competencies you list, write a short paragraph which provides descriptive support and demonstrates why you believe you possess that competency.6. Marketing Mix – This section of your plan shows how you will use the 4 P’s to marketyourself for the ENTRY LEVEL POSITION.PRODUCT: Use this section to identify what refinements or embellishments you will need tomake in the “product” (that’s you) so that you meet the needs of the target market. Include the skills you need to improve upon, and how you intend to do so (take a specific elective course, attend a Career Services seminar, go to grad school, assume a leadership position in a school organization, take a specific internship, get a supporting summer experience, improve your GPA, buy a suit, etc.).PRICE: What are your expected salary and benefits? Look up current information on starting salaries for the job position you have targeted. Cite a reference for your information. Identify what you believe is a fair starting salary (for you) given your distinctive competencies and track record.PLACE: Identify how you intend to make contact with the target employer (cold call, network contact, want ad reply, etc.). Identify the name, address, and phone number of the individual who will make the hiring decision. Identify the names and locations of other people who can provide you with insight about this individual and the specific needs of the job or company. Determine when, where, and how you will contact these people for advice.PROMOTION: Include your resume and cover letter. It’s best to upload these as separatedocuments – you should be able to upload three docs inside the assignment. Your cover letter should be specific to the job you identified above. Use correct form (address blocks, etc.) for both the letter as well as the resume.Also discuss how you will handle an interview, as well as other promotional and job search activities you will engage in.Action Plan – Compile a list of all the actions you will need to do to implement your plan. Arrange them in chronological order and indicate when you will do them, including specific target dates. Include all the actions that you plan to do for developmental reasons, too.References – This section should include all the information sources you used, including any interview(s) you conducted to gather information. You should use at least five references. References should be MLA or APA formatted.This project will require effort, reflection, and creativity on your part and only you can develop that marketing plan that will help you be successful in your career. For example, I cannot tell you what company you should work for or how you should position yourself.Students must submit their Personal Marketing Plan assignment through SafeAssign via Blackboard.
Personal Marketing Plan

INTRODUCTION The most important unit operation in a chemical process is generally a chemical reactor. Chemical reactions are either exothermic (release energy) or endothermic (require energy input) and therefore require that energy either be removed or added to the reactor for a constant temperature to be maintained. Exothermic reactions are the most interesting systems to study because of potential safety problems (rapid increases in temperature, sometimes called “ignition” behavior) and the possibility of exotic behavior such as multiple steady-states (for the same value of the input variable there may be several possible values of the output variable). In this module we consider a perfectly mixed, continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR), shown in Figure 1. The case of a single, first-order exothermic irreversible reaction, A –> B. We will show that very interesting behavior that can arise in such a simple system. In Figure 1 we see that a fluid stream is continuously fed to the reactor and another fluid stream is continuously removed from the reactor. Since the reactor is perfectly mixed, the exit stream has the same concentration and temperature as the reactor fluid. Notice that a jacket surrounding the reactor also has feed and exit streams. The jacket is assumed to be perfectly mixed and at a lower temperature than the reactor. Energy then passes through the reactor walls into the jacket, removed the heat generated by reaction. There are many examples of reactors in industry similar to this one. Examples include various types of polymerization reactors, which produce polymers that are used in plastic products such as polystyrene coolers or plastic bottles. The industrial reactors typically have more complicated kinetics than we study in this module, but the characteristic behavior is similar. The Modeling Equations For simplicity we assume that the cooling jacket temperature can be directly manipulated, so that an energy balance around the jacket is not required. We also make the following assumptions Perfect mixing (product stream values are the same as the bulk reactor fluid) Constant volume Constant parameter values The constant volume and parameter value assumptions can easily be relaxed by the reader, for further study. Parameters and Variables A Area for heat exchange CA Concentration of A in reactor CAf Concentration of A in feed stream cp Heat capacity (energy/mass*temperature) F Volumetric flowrate (volume/time) k0 Pre-exponential factor (time-1) R Ideal gas constant (energy/mol*temperature) r Rate of reaction per unit volume (mol/volume*time) t Time T Reactor temperature Tf Feed temperature Tj Jacket temperature Tref Reference temperature U Overall heat transfer coefficient (energy/(time*area*temperature)) V Reactor volume DE Activation energy (energy/mol) (-DH) Heat of reaction (energy/mol) r Density (mass/volume) The parameters and variables that will appear in the modeling equations are listed Overall material balance The rate of accumulation of material in the reactor is equal to the rate of material in by flow-the material out by flow. Balance on Component A The balance on component A is where r is the rate of reaction per unit volume. Energy Balance The energy balance is where Tref represents an arbitrary reference temperature for enthalpy. State Variable form of Dynamic Equations We can write (1) and (2) in the following state variable form (since dV/dt = 0) where we have assumed that the volume is constant. The reaction rate per unit volume (Arrhenius expression) is where we have assumed that the reaction is first-order. Steady-State Solution The steady-state solution is obtained when dCA/dt = 0 and dT/dt = 0, that is To solve these two equations, all parameters and variables except for two (CA and T) must be specified. Given numerical values for all of the parameters and variables we can use Newton’s method (chapter 3) to solve for the steady-state values of CA and T. For convenience, we use an ësí subscript to denote a steady-state value (so we solve for CAs and Ts). Dynamic Behavior We noted in the previous section that were three different steady-state solutions to the case 2 parameter set. Here we wish to study the dynamic behavior under this same parameter set. Recall that numerical integration techniques were presented in chapter 4. The m-file to integrate the modeling equations iscstr_dyn.m, shown in Appendix 2. The command to integrate the equations is [t,x] = ode45(‘cstr_dyn’,t0,tf,x0); wheret0is the initial time (usually 0),tfis the final time,x0is the initial condition vector.tis the time vector andxis the state variable solution vector. Before performing the integration it is necessary to define the global parameter vectorCSTR_PAR. To plot only concentration or temperature as a function of time, useplot(t,x(:,1))andplot(t,x(:,2)), respectively. Initial condition 1 Here we use initial conditions that are close to the low temperature steady-state. The initial condition vector is [ conc , temp] = [9,300]. The curves plotted in Figure 2 show that the state variables converge to the low temperature steady-state. Initial condition 2 Here we use initial conditions that are close to the intermediate temperature steady-state. The initial condition vector for the solid curve in Figure 3 is [conc, temp] = [5,350], which converges to the high temperature steady-state. The initial condition vector for the dotted curve in Figure 3 is [conc, temp] = [5,325], which converges to the low temperature steady-state. If we perform many simulations with initial conditions close to the intermediate temperature steady-state, we find that the temperature always converges to either the low temperature or high temperature steady-states, but not the intermediate temperature steady-state. This indicates to us that the intermediate temperature steady-state isunstable. This will be shown clearly by the stability analysis in section 5. Initial condition 3 Here we use initial conditions that are close to the high temperature steady-state. The initial condition vector is [conc, temp] = [1,400]. The curves plotted in Figure 4 show that the state variables converge to the high temperature steady-state. In this section we have performed several simulations and presented several plots. In section 6 we will show how these solutions can be compared on the same ìphase planeî plot. Linearization of Dynamic Equations The stability of the nonlinear equations can be determined by finding the following state-space form and determining the eigenvalues of theA(state-space) matrix. The nonlinear dynamic state equations (1a) and (2a) are let the state, and input variables be defined in deviation variable form Stability Analysis Performing the linearization, we obtain the following elements forA where we define the following parameters for more compact representation From the analysis presented above, the state-space A matrix is The stability characteristics are determined by the eigenvalues ofA, which are obtained by solving det (lI-A) = 0. det (lI-A)=(l-A11)(l-A22)-A12A21 =l2-(A11 A22)l A11A22-A12A21 =l2-(trA)l det (A) the Eigen values are the solution to the second-order polynomial l2-(trA)l det (A) =0(13) The stability of a particular operating point is determined by finding theAmatrix for that particular operating point, and finding the Eigen values of the A matrix. Here we show the Eigen values for each of the three case 2 steady-state operating points. Input / Output Transfer Function Analysis The input-output transfer functions can be found from G(s)=C(sI-A)-1B(14) where the elements of theBmatrix corresponding to the first input (u1 = Tj-Tjs) are the reader should find the elements of the B matrix that correspond to the second and third input variables (see exercise 8) Here we show only the transfer functions for the low temperature steady-state for case 2. The input/output transfer function relating jacket temperature to reactor concentration (state 1) is and the input/output transfer function relating jacket temperature to reactor temperature (state 2) is Notice that the transfer function for concentration is a pure second-order system (no numerator polynomial) while the transfer function for temperature has a first-order numerator and second-order denominator. This indicates that there is a greater ìlagî between jacket temperature and concentration than between jacket temperature and reactor temperature. This makes physical sense, because a change in jacket temperature must first affect the reactor temperature before affecting the reactor concentration. Phase-plane Analysis In section 4 we provided the results of a few dynamic simulations, noting that different initial conditions caused the system to converge to different steady-state operating points. In this section we construct a phase-plane plot by performing simulations for a large number of initial conditions. The phase-plane plot shown in Figure 6 was generated usingcstr_run.mandcstr.mfrom the appendix. Three steady-state values are clearly shown; 2 are stable (the high and low temperature steady-states, shown as ëoí), while one is unstable (the intermediate temperature steady-state, shown as ë í). Notice that initial conditions of low concentration (0.5 kgmol/m3) and relatively low-to-intermediate temperatures (300 to 365 K) all converge to the low temperature steady-state. When the initial temperature is increased above 365 K, convergence to the high temperature steady-state is achieved. Now, consider initial conditions with a high concentration (9.5 kgmol/m3) and low temperature (300 to 325 K); these converge to the low temperature steady-state. Once the initial temperature is increased to above 325 K, convergence to the high temperature steady-state is achieved. Also notice that, once the initial temperature is increased to around 340 K, a very high overshoot to above 425 K occurs, before the system settles down to the high temperature steady-state. Although not shown on this phase-plane plot, higher initial temperatures can have overshoot to over 500 K before settling to the high temperature steady-state. This could cause potential safety problems if, for example, secondary decomposition reactions occur at high temperatures. The phase plane analysis then, is able to ìpoint-outî problem initial conditions. Also notice that no initial conditions have converged to the intermediate temperature steady-state, since it is unstable. The reader should perform an eigenvalue/eigenvector analysis for theAmatrix at each steady-state (low, intermediate and high temperature) (see exercise 3). You will find that the low, intermediate and high temperature steady-states have stable node, saddle point (unstable) and stable focus behavior (see chapter 13), respectively. It should be noted that feedback control can be used to operate at the unstable intermediate temperature steady-state. The feedback controller would measure the reactor temperature and manipulate the cooling jacket temperature (or flowrate) to maintain the intermediate temperature steady-state. Also, a feedback controller could be used to make certain that the large overshoot to high temperatures does not occur from certain initial conditions. Understanding Multiple Steady-state Behavior In previous sections we found that there were three steady-state solutions for case 2 parameters. The objective of this section is to determine how multiple steady-states might arise. Also, we show how to generate steady-state input-output curves that show, for example, how the steady-state reactor temperature varies as a function of the steady-state jacket temperature. Heat generation and heat removal curves In section 3 we used numerical methods to solve for the steady-states, by solving 2 equations with 2 unknowns. In this section we show that it is easy to reduce the 2 equations in 2 unknowns to a single equation with one unknown. This will give us physical insight about the possible occurance of multiple steady-states. Solving for Concentration of A as a function of Temperature The steady-state concentration solution (dCA/dt) = 0) for concentration is We can rearrange this equation to find the steady-state concentration for any given steady-state reactor temperature, Ts Solving for Temperature The steady-state temperature solution (dT/dt = 0) is The terms in (17) are related to the energy removed and generated. If we multiply (17) by VrCp we find that Qrem=Qgen Energy Removed by flow and heat exchange Heat Generated by reaction Note the form of Qrem Notice that this is an equation for a line, where the independent variable is reactor temperature (Ts). The slope of the line is and the intercept is. Changes in jacket or feed temperature shift the intercept, but not the slope. Changes in UA or F effect both the slope and intercept. Now, consider the Q gen term Substituting (16) into (20), we find that Equation (21) has a characteristic S shape for Q gen as a function of reactor temperature. From equation (18) we see that a steady-state solution exists when there is an intersection of the Q rem and Q gen curves. Effect of Design Parameters In Figure 6 we show different possible intersections of the heat removal and heat generation curves. If the slope of the heat removal curve is greater than the maximum slope of the heat generation curve, there is only one possible intersection (see Figure 6a). As the jacket or feed temperature is changed, the heat removal lines shifts to the left or right, so the intersection can be at a high or low temperature depending on the value of jacket or feed temperature. Notice that as long as the slope of the heat removal curve is less than the maximum slope of the heat generation curve, there will always be the possibility of three intersections (see Figure 6b) with proper adjustment of the jacket or feed temperature (intercept). If the jacket or feed temperature is changed, the removal line shifts to the right or left, where only one intersection occurs (either low or high temperature). This case is analyzed in more detail in section 7.3. Multiple Steady-State Behavior In Figure 7 we superimpose several possible linear heat removal curves with the S-shaped heat generation curve. Curve A intersects the heat generation curve at a low temperature; curve B intersects at a low temperature and is tangent at a high temperature; curve C intersects at low, intermediate and high temperatures; curve D is tangent to a low temperature and intersects at a high temperature; curve E has only a high temperature intersection. Curves A, B, C, D and E are all based on the same system parameters, except that the jacket temperature increases as we move from curve A to E (from equation (7) we see that changing the jacket temperature changes the intercept but not the slope of the heat removal curve). We can use Figure 7 to construct the steady-state input-ouput diagram shown in Figure 8, where jacket temperature is the input and reactor temperature is the output. Note that Figure 8 exhibits hysteresis behavior, which was first discussed in chapter 15. The term hysteresis is used to indicate that the behavior is different depending on the direction that the inputs are moved. For example, if we start at a low jacket temperature the reactor operates at a low temperature (point 1). As the jacket temperature is increased, the reactor temperature increases (points 2 and 3) until the low temperature limit point(point 4) is reached. If the jacket temperature is slightly increased further, the reactor temperature jumps (ignites) to a high temperature (point 8); further jacket temperature increases result in slight reactor temperature increases. Contrast the input-output behavior discussed in the previous paragraph (starting at a low jacket temperature) with that of the case of starting at a high jacket temperture. If one starts at a high jacket temperature (point 9) there is a single high reactor temperature, which decreases as the jacket temperature is decreased (points 8 and 7). As we move slighly lower than the high temperature limit point (point 6), the reactor temperature drops (also known asextinction) to a low temperature (point 2). Further decreases in jacket temperature lead to small decreases in reactor temperature. The hysteresis behavior discussed above is also known asignition-extinctionbehavior, for obvious reasons. Notice that region between points 4 and 6 appears to be unstable, because the reactor does not appear to operate in this region (at least in a steady-state sense). Physical reasoning for stability is discussed in the following section. Conclusion and future work Finally the conclusion is that a small study on the continuous stirred tank reactor and its model equation after going through we come to know its importance in the chemical engineering field and also its significance as a chemical reactor The future work is that we have to calculate and prove the equation of the continuous stirred tank reactor using Laplace transformation and check it using the MATLAB he equation of the continuous stirred tank reactor using Laplace transformation and check it using the MATLAB

NEED ASAP 12-01-2021

5-1 Final Project Milestone Four: Addressing Policies  Continue analyzing the situation your case study’s healthcare organization faces. In this milestone, you will evaluate the impact of policies and policy changes on the healthcare organization’s strategic plan. You will also consider the role the healthcare manager and other organizational stakeholders have in strategic planning. You will develop a 2–3-page short paper addressing the policies of the healthcare organization. Be sure to address the following: A. Provide a brief summary of the organization’s current policies with regard to the issue it is facing. B. To what extent do you feel current organizational policies address the influence of the identified environmental or external factors? Be sure to justify your rationale. C. What internal policy changes or new policies do you feel will need to be implemented to more effectively address the issue? Be sure to justify your response. D. What role should the healthcare manager assume in terms of guiding strategic planning processes around policy revision or development? Why? E. To what extent do the identified key stakeholders influence the strategic planning process in terms of policy change or development? Guidelines for Submission: This short paper should be between 2 and 3 pages, not including cover page and references. This paper should be in APA format.    Continue analyzing the situation your case study’s healthcare organization faces. In this milestone, you will evaluate the impact of policies and policy changes on the healthcare organization’s strategic plan. You will also consider the role that the healthcare manager and other organizational stakeholders have in strategic planning. In a short paper, address the policies of the healthcare organization. Be sure to address the following: Provide a brief summary of the organization’s current policies with regard to the issue it is facing. To what extent do you feel current organizational policies address the influence of the identified environmental or external factors? Be sure to justify your rationale. What internal policy changes or new policies do you feel will need to be implemented to more effectively address the issue? Be sure to justify your response. What role should the healthcare manager assume in terms of guiding strategic planning processes around policy revision or development? Why? To what extent do the identified key stakeholders influence the strategic planning process in terms of policy change or development? To successfully complete this assignment, view the Milestone Four Guidelines and Rubric document.

Forest Park High School Become a Professional Activist Discussion

essay writer free Forest Park High School Become a Professional Activist Discussion.

After reading the speech, “Become an Activist”, do the following by listing: What is the thesis of the speech? What details, examples, language does the author to persuade the audience? What makes this a persuasive? Become an ActivistMy fellow young people, ladies, and gentlemen,Firstly I should like to sincerely thank you for considering becoming activists, with the goal of making this world a better place for all of us.Being a young person growing up in a rural part of the developing world, I have never liked to be called a “leader of tomorrow.” Many of our politicians have adopted this phrase, always calling the youths “leaders of tomorrow.” Are you one of the leaders of tomorrow? As for me, I strongly deny that I am a leader of TODAY and tomorrow.To me, leadership is not a process, but a natural choice based on how well one is able to lead and influence.If we are to go back to records of most of the well documented past events, we had prominent figures like Nelson Mandela, Mahatma Gandhi and Martin Luther King Jnr – to mention just a few – who still stand as examples of what an activist must be. They are the people who, on our behalf, took a stand to decide on how the future of our world should look.Ladies and gentlemen, the actions of these people I have mentioned turned some stones and put in place some precedents we still enjoy today. They were true activists, with no corrupt minds at all.There are many issues facing us today, which really need our collective attention. We talk of global warming, and climate change, human trafficking, terrorism, high rates of unemployment, poverty, and hunger in the developing world. All of these issues need our attention as leaders of today.It is not too late for us to become activists and stand together in a common battle of making this world a conducive living place for all of us. We can all do something to change this world, to be what we want to see out of it.Ladies and gentlemen, changing the world is not a matter of carrying on our shoulders weapons of mass destruction. It is not an issue of holding terrorizing demonstrations in our streets. It is not about looting public places, but it is about coming up with good initiatives and constructive actions. Yes! Constructive actions.We are today living in a world which others created for us. We, too, can partner to combat all these universal problems if we are to forget ourselves. We should stop thinking as individuals; we should always think globally and act locally. Yes! We can.The issue of global warming is real, and we have already seen its devastating effects. It is not too late to hold our hands and together create a better world for ourselves and the other generations to come.If we are to move forward with our fight, our activism must be based on sharing information, knowledge, skills, time, and resources.We need to pull up our sleeves and get geared for real action. The knowledge and skills we have acquired naturally, academically, and through experiences, should help us shape this world into something we want to see as our own product.My fellow young people, the robe we need to wear is heavy. Challenges will be there, but we must embrace pain and burn it as fuel for our journey.If you look at what our forefathers did to attain the same freedom we are enjoying today, you will agree with me that they fell down many times. But, their courage to get up each time they were down was the only passport to the land of freedom they got at last.Ladies and gentlemen, let us fight with courage, hope, objectivity, and with unity. Fall seven times, stand up eight; this should be our motto!Ladies and gentlemen, let us take these universal adversities as our opportunities to show the world our best. As Nelson Mandela said: “The greatest glory in living lies not in never failing, but rising every time we fail.” Let darkness in this fight, at last, show us the stars.In conclusion, I believe that we are all geared to do something to positively change this world into what we want to see. Let us be the change we want to see, and that change will come for us.Thank you very much for your attention.
Forest Park High School Become a Professional Activist Discussion

Is International Adoption Justified In The Usa Social Work Essay

The reason I chose this subject was mainly because International adoption has played a major role in the news during the last few years. On the one hand, there are thousands of orphan children worldwide, mainly in poor countries. On the other hand, there is an increasing demand for adoption in the U.S. and many people turn to international adoption because the supply of national children for adoption is lower than demand. In order to draw a conclusion I have made an extensively research. In particular, I made a thorough analysis for the current situation in the country, the types of adoption that exist and also some celebrities’ views and acts, since it is believed that celebrities have contributed to the popularity of international adoptions. Moreover, I have described the adoption system in the U.S.A., the main reasons people tend to adopt and why they turn to international adoption. Furthermore, I examined the consequences (positive and negative) of international adoption for the child, for the adoptive parents, for the birth parents and for the society in general. In the end I concluded that international adoption should be justified under certain circumstances. More specifically, I believe that it is better for a child to be adopted from a family in its own country. If this is not possible, someone should turn to international adoption, instead of leaving the child in an inadequate orphanage, where social care is non-existent. Of course, he/she should not overlook the negative impacts of international adoption and the implications it may have on the child, the original parents and the country of birth. Adoption is “the act of establishing a person as parent to one who is not in fact or in law his child” [1] . Adoption is so widely recognized that it can be characterized as an almost worldwide institution with historical roots traceable to antiquity. [2] Nowadays, adoption can be either open or closed. Open adoption is a process in which the birthparents and the adoptive parents meet and exchange identifying information. The birthparents relinquish legal and basic childrearing rights to the adoptive parents. Both sets of parents retain the right to continuing contact and access to knowledge on behalf of the child [3] . On the contrary, closed adoption, the traditional closed system in adoption, seals all identifying information and bans any contact between children and their biological families. [4] However, during the last decades more and more countries have acknowledged the legal right of the adoptee to search for his/her original roots. There are also two types of adoption: national and international or intercountry adoption. National adoption is a type of adoption in which an individual or couple adopts a child born in the same country. On the contrary, international adoption, is a type of adoption in which an individual or couple adopts a child from a different country through permanent legal means, and brings that child to the home country permanently. Through international adoption, the legal transfer of parental rights from birth parent(s) to another parent(s) takes place. United States citizens started adopting war orphan children from other countries mainly after World War II. Recently, the number of families that adopt children from countries other than their own has increased considerably [5] . In U.S., in particular, families have adopted on average approximately 20,000 children from foreign nations each year [6] . And, not long ago, factors such as poverty and social changes resulted in the adoption of children from Latin America, the former Soviet Union, Eastern Europe and China. [7] Nowadays, international adoption has become a common practice and in some countries accounts for the majority of cases. International adoption can be conducted through both public and private agencies in each country. However, each country has passed different laws as regards international adoptions. In order to ensure that intercountry adoptions are in the best interests of children, The Hague Conference on Private International Law developed the Convention of May 1993 on Protection of Children and Co-operation in Respect of Intercountry Adoption. This is known as the Hague Adoption Convention and it is “an international treaty among over 75 nations around the world, including the United States” [8] . Its aim is “to prevent the abduction, sale of, or traffic in children”; it enables intercountry adoption under certain circumstances and, “recognises intercountry adoption as a means of offering the advantage of a permanent home to a child when a suitable family has not been found in the child’s country of origin” [9] . The aim of this study is to show whether international adoption in the United States is justified, examining the consequences on three levels: for the child, for the family, and for society in general. MAIN REASONS FOR INTERNATIONAL ADOPTION International adoption is gaining ground in our day and time. Couples and individuals tend to look for children to adopt from developing countries, such as China, Thailand, India and may more. There are a plurality of reasons that urge American people to resort to this course of action and are related to the changes effected to the social structure of society at large, the status of women, the financial situation and the changes effected in the mentality of the population. The social structure of the society and especially demographics in the United States has changed significantly. According to recent statistics [10] , the percentage of households headed by single parents is at about 9%, up from 5% in 1970. Out of 12.9 million one-parent families in 2006, 10.4 million were single-mother families and 2.5 million were single-father families. Some other highlights are as follows: Average household size in 2006 was 2.57 people, down from 3.14 in 1970. Slightly more than one in four households (26%) consisted of a person living alone in 2006, up from 17% in 1970. In 2006, 33% of males and 26% of females 15 and older had never married, compared to a respective 28% and 22% in 1970. In addition, contemporary society in the US faces fertility problems. According to recent data [11] , the level of childlessness among women 40 to 44 years old in June 2006 (20%) is twice as high as 30 years ago (10%). Moreover, 45% of the women in the principal childbearing ages of 15 to 44 years were childless. Financial pressures and the changes in the traditional stereotypical perceptions about the role of women in the society, force American people to consider marriage at a later age in their lives (40-44), after having established their careers and secured a steady income. In particular, women at this age or older do not want to risk a pregnancy, which may put the mother’s life at risk or bear children with physical and/or mental diseases. This was not the case in previous decades, in which American people were very conservative with regards to accepting young, unmarried mothers in the society. The norm called for a well-built family around the patriarchal symbol, with the woman playing the role of the child-raising parent. Back then, unmarried women who got pregnant had no option other than having an illegal abortion to avoid the consequences of ‘ostracism’ from the rest of the societal members. For those women who wanted to keep the child they were bearing, adoption away from home was the only choice once the child was born. Changes in social norms nowadays have made it possible for unmarried women in the United States and abroad to give birth to their children without the fear of facing all sorts of different sanctions, be it moral or psychological. This significant turn on behalf of the American society to higher tolerance levels has made possible the acceptance of unmarried mothers. Even more so, in the case of young girls giving birth, their parents are willing to adopt the new-born and thus support both psychologically and practically their young daughter. Tolerance to abortion has also been heightened and although illegal in many states, abortion is a safe resort -with the advancements in medicine- for many women who want to terminate their pregnancy at an early stage. This limits the number of children available for adoption nationally in the U.S. Added to the above is the fact that women who have a career feel that the nine months of pregnancy could interfere with their job, therefore, adoption would be a better option for them. They may not even want to take that much time out of work to have a baby. This trend is further supported by the fact that in the last decades women have become more financially independent and educated; hence, they are more capable of making ends meet and stand on their feet to run their own households, without having to get married. Still, they want to have the privilege of raising a child and reap the benefits of parenthood. Because a married couple has much higher chances of being allowed to adopt a child, unmarried women resort to international adoption, to overcome their handicap against married couples. In other cases, people who know that they carry a serious genetic disease may not want to give birth to a child, to avoid the risk of passing the disease to their offspring. Still, some families choose to adopt believing that they will be saving a child, offering a loving and supportive family. This is mainly the reason why some people prefer international adoption to national adoption, believing they offer service to the developing world. They usually choose children from developing countries, where the standard of living is very low and they mainly prefer children with no families or relatives, who live in orphanage. International adoption has received widespread media coverage lately, due to the recent adoption of foreign children by several high-profile celebrities. Nowadays, there are many cases of famous people who choose to adopt. Generally, famous people have the same reasons for adopting children that people who are not famous have. Adopting children may be one way for them to feel like they are helping the world out [12] . Moreover, famous people often have both financial resources and influence, so, in contrast to an ordinary family, adoption process is much easier for them [13] . There are many examples of celebrities who have adopted several children from abroad [14] , such as Sharon Stone, Meg Ryan (from China), Mia Farrow (from Vietnam and Korea), Madonna/Guy Ritchie (from Malawi) and Angelina Jolie/Brad Pitt (from Cambodia, Ethiopia and Vietnam). However, in contrast to what has been discussed above, there are some negative aspects of adoption, mainly international adoption. A negative reason for adoption is when people choose to adopt in order to deduct an amount from their tax liability. In the US both those who adopt internationally and domestically can take advantage of the Adoption Tax Credit [15] . The Adoption Tax Credit is a valuable benefit for adopting families since they may take a tax credit for qualifying expenses paid to adopt an eligible child (including a child with special needs). Such expenses include “reasonable and necessary adoption fees, court costs, attorney fees, travelling expenses (including amounts spent for meals and lodging while away from home), and other expenses directly related to and for which the principal purpose is the legal adoption of an eligible child” [16] . Another negative issue is when adoption becomes so crucial to a celebrity only to get fame, power and admiration. In such cases, international adoption becomes a trend that may result in a negative impact that could last a child’s lifetime. Also, a negative aspect of international adoption relates to a tendency of the rich and famous to bypass the law. Celebrities sometimes are bending the rules and pushing the boundaries to bring babies to their own countries. They do not always respect the laws of the third countries and do not follow the procedures as ordinary people usually do. Two cases of famous people that have been discussed a lot are the cases of Madonna and Angelina Jolie. Angelina Jolie acts as a very good example. She has adopted following the proper procedures, she has shown great sensitivity and interest in such issues and has been Goodwill Ambassador for the UN Refugee Agency. On the other hand, Madonna has not followed all the proper procedures according to the Malawian Law, and there have been legal disputes over whether her adoption was totally legal or not [17] . Her practice was condemned by many humanitarian organisations and agencies that deal with international adoptions (ISS Headquarters in Geneva expressed their disapproval for the way the procedure was carried out). In short, the discussion in this part of the essay has focused on the rationale behind international adoption. Evidently, there is a trend towards international adoption, which is attributed to the increasing demand for adoption in the U.S. It appears that many people turn to international adoption because the supply of national children for adoption is lower than demand [18] . Also, the rising number of single mothers in America – as well as in the rest of the western world – has turned international adoption into an attractive alternative to national adoption, with its legal complexities and the preference for married couples. INTERNATIONAL ADOPTION IN THE U.S. – IS IT JUSTIFIED? Adoption, either national or international, came into effect so that children can live in a loving and healthy environment. In addition, through adoption, individuals as well as childless couples who wish to raise a child can enjoy parenthood. Adoption involves three parties, the child (adoptee), the family (adoptive parents) and the home country of the child (birth parents). It is evident that adoption alters traditional family structure and functioning. In other words, positive and negative aspects of international adoption emerge for each one of these parties. Positive aspects For the adoptee As I stated previously, United States citizens started adopting orphan children from other countries in substantial numbers after World War II. Moreover, over the last twenty years, many children have been adopted from poor countries all over the world. So there are numerous positive aspects for the orphan and poor children worldwide. Research shows that “children do best when raised in a supportive, caring family” [19] . The most important is that international adoption provides a permanent family for the orphan children worldwide. Also, nowadays, many high society individuals are adopting children from underdeveloped nations. This, besides a good home to live, provides the children with a secure future. Living with a rich family, children can have not only a decent living, but also good educational opportunities that they would never have had in their birth country. In addition, most children who need new homes are older than five, sick, disabled, or somehow traumatised. So they have more opportunities for a better life if adopted by a prosperous and caring family. Statistical data derived from parents, teachers and children themselves show that the vast majority of the adopted children demonstrate satisfactory adjustment [20] . More specifically, adopted children felt strongly attached to their adoptive families. This can be explained, in part, by the fact that the American society is highly multi-cultural, reducing thus the time for adjustment of a new member originating from a foreign country. Evidently, adjustment is even easier for an adopted international child at the age of five, which is quite malleable and open to stimuli from a different culture. For the adoptive parents Most adults, when they get married plan to have children. Few of these individuals expect ahead of time that there will be difficulties in conceiving a child. Yet, approximately, one in six couples in the U.S. will experience a fertility problem [21] . When this happens, most couples seek a medical solution. Nearly 50% of them will be eventually able to have a child biologically [22] . The remaining couples must decide whether to remain childless or to seek parenthood through adoption. There are thousands of children without a family all over the world and people who wish to adopt have a better chance of obtaining a child internationally. Thus they are able to give a permanent home and a nurturing environment for an orphan child. This is definitely a positive scenario and, according to statistical data derived from interviews, adoptive parents expressed considerable satisfaction in their roles [23] . For the birth parents The biological parents are forced to give away their children, usually because they are very poor, and they cannot provide a stable home and the necessary basics for living. Giving their child for adoption makes them happy that their child gets a family, and a secure future in a loving and healthy environment. Even though the process of separation from their children is painful, they realise that this is a far better solution than not being able to provide their children with a safe, healthy and promising future. On occasions when the mother is very young and has little or no experience to raise a child, adoption is also a better option than entrusting the fate of a newborn to an inexperienced mother, who may be living in the slums of an impoverished nation. For the society of the birth parents International adoption brings significant financial resources into poor countries, putting them in a better economic condition. Still, societies are deprived of their younger members in cases where the adoptee goes to another country. Celebrities like Madonna and Angelina Jolie have provided significant financial resources to poor countries. In addition, celebrity adoptions, through the publicity that they have, play a major role in increasing people’s awareness as regards poverty all over the world. Negative aspects For the adoptee International adoption often, but not always, involves trans-racial placement. Opponents of trans-racial adoption suggest that placement of children outside their own racial group will undermine the development of positive racial identity, ultimately leading to “cultural genocide” [24] . The child’s removal from its birth country would mean the loss of the child’s original language and culture. According to research, adopted children may experience the loss of birth parents and extended birth family; loss of status; loss of ethnic, racial, and genealogical connections, loss of feelings of stability in the adoptive family, and loss of identity [25] . For some children, adoption is associated with feelings of confusion, sadness, anger, embarrassment, and shame. When children begin to understand the meaning and implications of adoption, around five to seven years of age, emergence of sensitivity to adoption related stigma and loss occurs. Some children appraise being adopted in negative ways and have great adjustment problems. In reality, the younger the children the more sensitive they are to adoption issues. For the adoptive parents Among the many tasks experienced by parents are those associated with coping with infertility and the transition to adoptive parenthood, discussing adoption with their child, creating a family environment that supports the child’s exploration of adoption issues, helping their child cope with loss, supporting a positive self-image and identity in their child in relation to adoption and, in some cases, as the adoptee moves into adolescence and adulthood, supporting their child’s plans to search for birth family. Although not necessarily a negative implication of adoption, it is a great challenge for the adoptive parents, especially when they have adopted a child from abroad. For this child, the pursuit of answers to questions about his/her origins, cultural differences, ethnic background and the like is a long journey that many a times has an unclear destination. The decision to adopt a child is not an easy choice. Profound stress, typically associated with infertility, often results in both short-term and long-term psychological problems, including heightened feelings of anxiety, guilt, shame, anger, and depression; diminished self-esteem and marital difficulties [26] . For the birth parents The child is genetically connected with the birthparents and this connection is lost with adoption. As a result, birthparents suffer from a loss of their role as parents, which makes them feel irresponsible and incapable of bringing up their child. Sometimes birthparents are under great pressure and are enforced to give their child to adoption against their will. Sometimes they worry about the future of their child, and they wonder if they will ever see it again. They may feel anger with themselves, with the society, even with the adoptive parents. And the most important issue is that they will have to deal with this for the rest of their lives. From what has been covered in the preceding paragraphs it is concluded that adoption can change significantly the life of all parties involved. Adoption is therefore justified and should be made with the best interests of the child. Likewise, international adoption “should be an option only when and if there is no viable alternative in the child’s country of origin” [27] . It should be also mentioned that Unicef believes that international adoption should be considered as a last resort, for children who cannot find a permanent home in their country [28] . CONCLUSION Through my study I can understand that international adoption constitutes a great part of the total adoption and has caused public reaction, both positive and negative. I agree with adoption critics, which focus on the issue of exploitation since adoption often involves the transfer of children from less to more privileged people, or from black to white families [29] . However, I would like to make it clear that international adoption does not always cause injustice. It should be taken under consideration that there are many orphan children in poor countries or families that are not in a good situation to raise a child. In the case of international adoption, I believe that all alternative solutions for orphan children in poor countries should be considered. These children have no home and family and they are suffering neglected in various institutions. Keeping orphan children in inadequate institutions rather than giving them good permanent homes, does not mean that they will be happier. If a family in their country could offer them home, love and affection, I am convinced this solution would be preferred. If not, international adoption clearly represents an extraordinarily positive option for them. Otherwise, homeless children around the world will probably live or die in inadequate institutions or on the streets. In my opinion the U.S. is a suitable new home for internationally adopted children since a large part of the population who want to adopt a child are well-off and can offer a good and caring family. Since the number of national children for adoption is less than the demand for adoptions, international adoption is the next best alternative [30] . To this end, international adoption in the U.S. is justified. Yet, we should not overlook the negative impact of international adoption discussed in the previous section and the implications it may have on the child, the original parents and the country of birth. Ideally, it would be better to provide a home in the country of birth but this is not always possible if the child was born in a very poor country, where social care and infrastructure to support local adoption are non-existent. Banning international adoption will not solve the problems of homelessness in poor countries. Being anti-foreign without a reason is not reasonable. As far as international adoption works well under the existing adoption laws and serves children’s interests, it should be justified and facilitated. The destructive earthquake in Haiti left almost 300,000 people dead and thousands of children without a family. I am of the opinion that for many of these children, international adoption could be a justifiable solution and a unique opportunity for the U.S. to prove that its citizens can make good use of it for the sake of the children and their future.

NSG 470 University of the District of Columbia TTT Telegraph Agency PPT

NSG 470 University of the District of Columbia TTT Telegraph Agency PPT.

You will be creating and presenting a PowerPoint (PP) presentation for this project. The components of the project are broken up into five parts; please refer to each part for specific guidelines Make sure in you address each assigned element. This project is worth 200 points and 20% of your assignment grade. Presentations include key concepts of the proposal with an introduction and conclusion. Note pages should accompany the presentation with appropriate in-text citations. In-text citations are not necessary on the presentation, but are expected in the notes. References at the end of the presentation in APA format are expected.Pls see the attached file for comprehensive details about this project
NSG 470 University of the District of Columbia TTT Telegraph Agency PPT