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Permeability of Plasma Membranes

Permeability of Plasma Membranes. Introduction Plasma membranes are bi-layered membranes made up of amphiphillic molecules (having charged polar heads tending to be hydrophillic and uncharged fatty acid tails tending to be hydrophobic) that selectively allow entrance of certain large molecules into the cell’s cytosol and through which water and small non-polar molecules may freely diffuse. This experiment seeks to understand limited aspects of the permeability of the plasma membrane using the Elodea leaf membrane as model organism. Some of the factors upon which permeability of the plasma membranes of biological organisms depend are differences in pH on opposite sides of the membrane, temperature, osmolarity, expression of certain membrane receptors and the concentration gradients of various molecules. This experiment is very limited in scope and seeks to answer only the question of what is the time dependence for permeability of glycerol through the cell membrane. Other experiments have answered many of our questions regarding this and have resulted in mathematical equations describing these results. This experiment will use one of the formula derived from these prior experiments, the Ether:Water partition coefficient for alcoholsiii as a means of hypothesizing what the outcome of this present experiment will be. I have hypothesized that within seconds of exposure to a 0.3M (molar) hyper-tonic solution of glycerol, dissolved in an isotonic deionized water (dH2O)/sucrose solution, the Elodea leaf will plasmolyze irreversibly-an assumption I believe is supported by the fact that glycerol’s ether:water partition coefficient is only 0.00066iii. Further support for this supposition is the fact that glycerol has a relatively bulky chemical structureviii-owing to it’s three large, highly polar hydroxyl groups-and a large molecular weight of 92.0938 grams per mole. Alternatively, it may be hypothesized that the glycerol-being an aliphatic alcohol (see diagram in section IV(i) infra) which, itself makes up a part of the plasma membranevi-will be capable of more easily diffusing across the plasma membrane as compared to the sucrose, which cannot diffuse across the membrane, in which case not only will there be no severe plasmolysis but there may, instead, be a build up of turgor pressure inside the cell due to the inward movement of the alcohol and its confinement in the central vacuole. Methods In order to discover what molar concentration of sucrose will be needed in an aqueous solution to create a solution that is isotonic to the leaf’s cytosol I shall perform a bifurcated experiment in which the first part shall be to determine this concentration. Part two of this experiment will be to determine the period of time it takes for glycerol to diffuse across the plasma membrane. In order to determine which molar solution of sucrose is isotonic to the cytosol of the Elodea cell I labeled 6 micro-centrifuge tubes with the markings: 0.2M, 0.3M, 0.4M, 0.5M, 0.6M and “isotonic” respectively and using an adjustable pipette placed 1000 μL of premixed sucrose solution of each of the indicated molarities into the respective tubes. In each of these tubes I placed an Elodea leaf and allowed them to sit for approximately five minutes [my observations of plasmolysis along with photographs of leaves in similar states to what I observed are provided in table 2 of the “Table of observations of plasmolysis” and photographs #2-#6 in the “Photograph table” which can be found in sections III(A)Permeability of Plasma Membranes

Technological Advances, Financial Accounting and Managerial Accounting Data Security Essay

Introduction The current report summarizes the information related to technological advancements in financial and managerial accounting. These technological advances prove to be beneficial for improving various processes involved in these two types of accounting. However, the challenges associated with these advances cannot be ignored. The purpose of this report is to highlight and discuss critically the technological advancements that resulted in transforming all processes involved in accounting. The executive summary of the overall analysis in this report is presented in the conclusion section. Three main recommendations are included at the end of this report to bring specific improvements in the use of technological advances in managerial and financial accounting. Research on Technological Advances in Accounting Data Security Technology plays a vital role in bookkeeping and other accounting processes. Accountants require comprehensive data to record and report business transactions (Huber, 2015). The three key processes of accounting are record keeping, analysis, and finalizing transactions to present them to the users of accounting and financial reports. Due to globalization, many transformational changes have influenced businesses requiring them to generate comprehensive information. The use of accounting software has also become standard for all types of businesses due to their accuracy. Therefore, researchers have signified many advanced technologies that could ensure continuous development in managerial and financial accounting methods and procedures. Cloud Computing Cloud computing refers to storing, processing, and sorting data by using the internet network rather than a personal computer (Chou, 2015). The technology provides a large space for storing large data that is difficult to maintain on a personal computer. Aliac, Khan, and Vasilakos (2015) state that cloud computing is beneficial for reducing the cost of storage for businesses as the storage of data requires many hardware devices. Large institutions, including hospitals, hotels, educational institutes, and multinational companies, etc., have adopted this technology to ensure the availability and accessibility of their data over the internet. Díaz, Martín, and Rubio (2016) argue regarding outsourcing of cloud services that could be a threat for businesses. The data stored on a cloud network contains private and confidential information of users that is the big corporate responsibility for businesses. Companies outsource their clouding services to minimize their cost and address issues that are not within their control. However, its use can compromise data, which raises the security risk that could prevent accountants from using this technology. Tax Software Taxation is also a significant part of financial accounting. Businesses are required to prepare strategies for managing their taxation requirements and issues. Taxation includes direct and indirect taxes such as income tax and Value Added Tax (VAT). Technological advancements have enabled users to calculate taxes according to the taxation rules in a specific country. Brandas, Megan, and Didraga (2015) highlight the importance of tax software in financial accounting by explaining the application of taxes on business transactions. The preparation of payroll is also a critical task that involves tax calculations. Large companies have more than 10,000 employees working at different levels. Therefore, the primary benefit of this technology is to reduce the cost and time for payroll management to prepare employees’ accounts. Brauner and Moreno (2015) criticize the use of the software by claiming that numerous factors could discontinue tax software in the digital economy. The main reason is the input of taxation rates for different transactions. Taxation rates are different in each country, and there are many types of taxes, such as withholding tax, that apply to a single transaction, which makes it all complex. Therefore, the calculation of the tax liability and income tax is complicated by using the software. The complicated and time-consuming practices of this technology prohibit companies from adopting it for financial accounting. Mobile Accounting The use of mobile is prevalent in today’s modern environment. Businesspersons also utilize this technology to record and view business transactions (Mougayar, 2016). A few common uses of smartphones are checking bank balances, online transfers, and reviewing product rates in the online market. Kavoura (2016) highlights the importance of mobile accounting by claiming that it keeps users informed about the business environment. The increasing trend of remaining online all the time suggests more significant benefits for small and large organizations as they can take advantage of the opportunities in their industries. Businesses require upgraded and complete information of the business world to make quick decisions. Furthermore, taxpayers can easily determine their income by using various mobile applications. The use of mobile accounting is also useful in assessing the feasibility of a new project, which relates to managerial accounting. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Yang et al. (2016) highlight that the use of internet devices, including mobile accounting, is risky in a critical situation. Mobile accounting is preferable only when it ensures quick results at any time without a security breach. However, there could be internet connectivity issues and hardware problems that could undermine its use for business purposes. The uninterrupted presence of users on the platform is necessary, which, in some cases, becomes difficult due to the lack of gradation in the technological products or services. OCR Technology OCR technology is a new technology that enables users to transform printed data, including images, scanned documents, and PDF files, into editable formats (Knight, Rowe, McCarthy, Tilley,

The Benefits And Challenges Of Elogistics

essay helper free The increased competition in all sectors due to globalization has forced the companies to reduce business costs. To reduce cost the companies are forming new management strategies like supply chain management and e- logistics. E- logistics means applying the concept of logistics electronically via the internet in order to conduct the business electronically. According to AMR Research( Challenger,2001), E- logistics helps to reduce cost by 10%. According to Sahay,B.S.(2003) logistics contribute to 10 to 12% of GDP . Based on two references e-logistics helps to save about 1.2% of GDP. That is why the companies like Dell, Compaq, Hewlett Packard is favourable to the E- logistics and supply chain management. E- commerce logistics are the activities that ensures that customers get what they need at right time at right place and at minimum cost. E-commerce logistics face many challenges in developing countries like higher tariffs, Complicated global trade rules, Global Terrorism and Geographical Barriers. The lack of knowledge of total cost in online merchant is the main cause for the failure of many electronic commerce in past decades. According to Hesse 2002, Gunasekaran et al 2003, E- logistics is an internet enabled logistics value chain that offer competitive logistics services like contract warehousing, public warehousing, distribution management, target consolidation and transport management.E- logistics consist of four components like one stop value added services, information management, automation in warehousing network and a transportation network. The one stop value added services helps to improve customer satisfaction .For example in government service one stop value added services like making queries and application, to search council services and to make payment can be done all at one time. Information management is where the information is exchanged through electronic media`s like WWW, Internet and EDI. Automation in warehousing operation will reduce human involvement in updating consolidation, loading and unloading. A Transportation network helps to increase flexibility and reduce transportation costs. The difference between traditional logistics and e- logistics are as follows. In case of traditional logistics the volume is very low because large amounts of goods are sent to lesser location like retail stores. But in case of e- logistics the lesser amount of materials are sent to many customers quickly. In case of traditional logistics the objective is that it is efficient and cost effective but in case of e- logistics it is more speed and can meet customer expectation.In case of traditional logistics the information is gathered through fax, paperwork and Management Information System(MIS) but in case of e- logistics the information is gathered through Internet, Electronic Data Interchange (EDI), Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) and Integrated IS. The E- logistics is more reliable and fast than traditional logistics. In Traditional logistics accountability of shipments is linked to limited supply chain but in e- logistics the accountability is expanded in whole supply chain. In E- logistics the customers have high expectation about quality of service and delivery of shipments but in case of traditional logistics the delivery of products is taking long time as the expectation of customer is not met because today`s customer needs faster delivery of goods. In case of traditional logistics there is less complexity in fulfilling international trade but in case of e- logistics there is larger complexity in fulfilling international trade. In e- logistics it is possible to place direct orders with distributors and producers and also helps in accessing more sellers globally but in case of traditional logistics it is mainly done through fax and paper works as it takes expensive and takes long time in getting reply from producers and distributors. In case of E- logistics the demand for shipment is lacking stability and also not predictable due to huge number of customers but in case of traditional logistics the demand for shipment is predictable . The challenges of e- logistics in developing countries are economic and educational barriers, lack of infrastructure, security, trust and privacy, channel conflicts, delivery logistics, security problems and global terrorism and geographical barriers. In economic and educational barriers the main obstacles for e- logistics is the lack of economic resources, internet usage and standard of education. Most of e- logistics are used by advanced users in developing countries because of lack of resources to use the internet and shop online. Lack of infrastructure means developing countries poor telecommunication infrastructure and short access of computers create barrier in e- logistics .Internet access cost also result in barrier to e- logistics. Security,privacy and trust is different in different countries and there is no provision in many countries govt rules that e- logistics should be legally binding and trust worthy as such it create barriers in E- logistics. According to survey conducted by Forrester Research said that they turned off global trade because of difficulty in process in e- logistics. The main barrier for e- logistics for this is the language and cultural barriers that destroys the different stages of internet infrastructure and adoption and also incapable to deal with direct global orders. According to Leung et al 2000, Gunasekaran and Ngai (2004b), the benefits of e- logistics are enhancing customer service, minimizing cost and also meeting product delivery deadlines. It helps to develop web based inventory control and also helps in building relationship with large logistics companies like DHL,UPS and FedEx. It help to concentrate and understand the customers more readily. It helps in B2B2C —commerce for third part logistics (3PL) , it helps to SME`S to develop strategic alliance and also help to meet growing demand. In conclusion due to globalisation the importance of e- logistics is growing eventhough there are many challenges in e- logistics the significance of e- logistics cannot be ignored. In order to use e- logistics effectively we should understand the strength and weakness of e- logistics effectively and we should use in a proper way and should not misuse it. Last but not least in the coming future the importance of e- logistics will be higher and it will be used by many people in the future.

Request for Specific Levels of Funding and Resources Report (Assessment)

The product we are going to implement is absolutely new for consumers, so internal investment may be available for business. Requesting for internal investment, we are going to point to new marketing strategies and expansion where funded resources are going to be spent. The chocolate business which is going to be led has financial resources to undertake internal investment (Sprague, 2008). The business should try to spread as much as possible information about the specifics of the business to the potential internal investors to make those interested in the revenue they are going to receive in the future. A corporate business sponsor is a good opportunity for the company. Having conducted a research it was concluded that there is a sponsor who is ready to finance this kind of business. ING Australia Holdings Limited and ING Australia Pty Limited are the Australian departments of the ING Corporate Investments B.V. This organization is ready to invest its corporate finances in business which is a strong niche player. Having developed a new niche on the market, the organization should show the priorities and benefits of this business. Having only a business plan, this organization should show its best sides to ING, pointing to the minimal risks. The development potential should be shown as well. Robust cash flow substantiated forecast is obligatory if “Indulge” wants to get corporate investment from ING Corporate Investments B.V. This organization also declares other requirements for the company which is interested in being invested, namely engagement of other shareholders, experiences and skilled management, the possibilities for the creation of the value and main requirement is that h business should be understood for the company (ING 2011). Other Required Resources Except for funding and financial resources, business requires other types of resources, like people, assets, and a business plan. Having searching for investment, it is obvious that we are going to use other people’s resources. Thus, the rent of the space and equipment with the opportunity of further buy-out is a good start for the shop. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Being a simple business, the use of outside advisors may be a good alternative as, still, some decisions should be made in marketing, management, advertising, shop running, etc. Dwelling upon other resources in business, it should be mentioned that it is possible to reduce the costs by means of employing graduate students. Their services are not very expensive as they lack experience, but the fresh ideas they have are really great. There should be a person responsible for business liability, harassment, and risks. The services of attorney may be used if they are necessary, thus this resource should be outsourced only in emergency cases. An accountant is a human resource which is inevitable in our case. Internet resources also become important for business development and modeling dynamic online services. It is necessary to create a web site of the company with the novelties offered in the shop and an opportunity to place orders for delivering in the near located offices (like an additional service). Thus, using only the necessary activities in the organization, it is possible to minimize and marshal resources, which is a guarantee of a successful business. There is no necessity to keep much staff is a shop, different human resources may be outsources when they are necessary. But, it is important to draw the line and employ the required number of resources (Stevenson 2007). Reference List ING 2011, ‘ING Corporate Investments B.V.’, Commercial Loans, https://www.ing.com.au/home-loans/commercial-loan.html Sprague, C 2008, ‘Cash Flow’, Cash Flow — Research Starters Business p. 1. Stevenson, HH 2007, ‘Resource requirements’, in JA Timmons

Marketing automotive strategies questions

Marketing automotive strategies questions.

Please provide credible and legitimate evidence that your answers are correct. Opinions as to why you think they are correct do are not considered sources. 12. Sears obtains over 50% of the goods it sells in its retail stores from companies that it partially or wholly owns. Sears participates in _________ vertical marketing system. a. retail cooperativeb. administeredc.selectived. corporate17. The important legal constraints on pricing are deceptive pricing, price discrimination, deceptive pricing and a. sole sourcingb. purchasing rolesc. promotional pricingd. purchasing policies18. Mel hoped to earn some money this summer by taking care of her neighbor’s pets, plants, and lawns while they were on vacation. She had 10 weeks of summer vacation in which she hoped to make about $50/week. Instead she didnt work at all for five weeks. One week, she made $250 and was exhausted when it was over. Mel’s experience with her vacation service illustrates the problem of: a. service intangibilityb. service intangibility and inseparabillityc. service perishability and fluctuating demandd. creating form, time and place utility for service. 19. Service quality is important to the Marriott hotel chain. If a Marriott employee hears a customer complaint, the employee is empowered to do everything possible to make the customer happy. The employee becomes personally responsible and is not allowed to pass the complaint on to a superior or to another employee even if the employee is better equipped to solve the problem. This strategic rationale to customer complaints shows Marriott’s concern with the _________ determinant of service quality. a. empathyb. tangiblesc. reliabilityd. responsiveness20. A trucking company that uses the slogan “Our people are our driving force” is recognizing the importance of its personnel in providing quality customer service and is engaged in a. benchmarkingb. internal marketingc. customer empowermentd. human resources management25. When Ford and Volkswagen agreed to co-build & co-operate in a plant in Portugal to manufacture a four wheel drive vehicle, it was an example of _______ because of the long term nature of the relationship. a. indirect ownership b. dual productionc. a strategic allianced. a turnkey operation
Marketing automotive strategies questions