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Perfect Leader Essay

I have attached a copy of this weeks study guide to help assist you with this assignment. For this assignment, imagine that you are the creator of an artificial intelligence robot (AI-R). You created the AI-R to be the perfect leader. However, there are many skeptics who believe that a perfect leader cannot be created and that AI-R is not real. Write a two-page essay proving the skeptics wrong. In your essay, include a discussion of the concepts listed below, and explain how AI-R’s qualities personify the perfect leader: leadership styles, theories of leadership, conflict styles, diversity in leadership, and leadership skills. Adhere to APA Style when constructing this assignment, and include in-text citations and references for all sources that are used. Please note that no abstract is needed.
case study human services.

Throughout the B.S. Human Services program, students have been introduced to the roles and applications of theoretical models in the development of human services organizations and interventions. In a well-organized critical essay based on the document Case Study of a Human Service Organization, linked below, identify one theoretical model used in the field of human services that fits the organization as described in the case study.
1.Describe the major components of the theoretical model.
2.Explain the model’s influence on the roles and responsibilities of the human service worker.
3.Describe how the theoretical model influences the organizational structure and policies of the fictitious human service organization.
4.Apply the basic components of the model to providing rationale for the services delivered by the organization.
5.Explain the role of the client through the lens of the theoretical model you choose.
Cite and integrate at least three sources to support your analysis and/or position(s), Your paper should be three to four pages in length, with citation formatting per APA Requirements.

case study human services

MA 278 Rasmussen College Human Anatomy and Physiology Skin Case Study.

I’m working on a anatomy discussion question and need support to help me learn.

Directions:The American Academy of Dermatology (2018) states that skin cancer is the most common cancer in the United States. One in five Americans will develop skin cancer in their lifetime. Protecting our skin from harmful ultraviolet rays is imperative. However, the human body does benefit from a mild to moderate amount of UV radiation.What is the best way to protect your skin from sun-related damage? What are the advantages and disadvantages to sunscreens containing common active ingredients such as oxybenzone, octocrylene, and homosalate? Are there benefits to using mineral sunscreens, such as zinc oxide or titanium dioxide? How effective are natural sunscreens, such as coconut oil or shea butter? If a sunscreen product is not regulated by the FDA, how can you determine if the product’s claims are true?ReferenceAmerican Academy of Dermatology. (2018). Skin Cancer. Retrieved from
MA 278 Rasmussen College Human Anatomy and Physiology Skin Case Study

Visual Exhibit The 1954 Brown v Board of Education Case Analysis Essay

Visual Exhibit The 1954 Brown v Board of Education Case Analysis Essay.

Now that you are familiar with legislation and court decisions that have expanded civil rights, a local museum needs your help to create a small exhibit for the museum. Your exhibit will highlight how legislation and court decisions have impacted the exercise of civil rights in the United States, and why these changes are significant. The exhibit should include expository writing, with the purpose of informing, describing, and explaining. Select two from the following Supreme Court decisions that expanded civil rights:Brown v. Board of EducationGideon v. WainwrightMiranda v. ArizonaRoe v. WadeMapp v. OhioSelect two from the following legislative actions that expanded civil rights:14th Amendment15th Amendment19th Amendment24th Amendment26th AmendmentCivil Rights Act of 1964Voting Rights Act of 1965Research each decision and policy and find a picture to represent each one. Take notes on the background and outcome of each case or law. Be sure to cite the sources the information and images you use in your exhibit in MLA Format.
Choose a Web 2.0 tool to create a visual exhibit about your four events. There are many 21st century tools available for creating products in an online environment. Use the Web 2.0 tool of your choice to create a slideshow or video. To learn more and locate a tool to help you complete the assignment, visit the Web 2.0 tools area.For each event, include:an image to represent the case decision or legislationa minimum of one well-written paragraph explaining the background of the eventthe significance of the event to the expansion of civil rightsExample Image and Paragraph: The 13th Amendment© akg-images / Universal Images Group / Image Quest 2012Long before the Declaration of Independence was signed in 1776 creating the United States of America, slavery was prevalent in the region. At the start of the Civil War in 1861, the majority of African Americans were enslaved. While the Emancipation Proclamation declared about three million slaves in the southern states free from slavery in 1863, it did not abolish slavery, or free slaves outside of the Confederate states. After the Civil War ended, the 13th Amendment to the Constitution was ratified in 1865, finally declaring that “Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.” This amendment formally abolished legal slavery in the United States and made it possible for African Americans across the United States to legally claim the liberties described in the nation’s founding documents. Later court cases, amendments and legislation would be required to ensure these freedoms were protected and freely exercised throughout the nation.Our Documents. National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). n.d. Web. March 22,2012.Abolition Of Slavery 1865 / Woodcut. Fine Art. Encyclopædia Britannica Image Quest. Web. 22 Mar 2012.Note: This example shows one way you can format an event image and paragraph in your exhibit. Remember, your complete exhibit should include four images and four paragraphs–one for each of the four events you selected.
Visual Exhibit The 1954 Brown v Board of Education Case Analysis Essay

Putting the Incompatible Elements Together: Avatar Meets Gladiator Essay

online assignment help The issues of power and political difference have always been of great interest for scholars, politicians and mere mortals due to the controversy around the former concepts. As a result, the two have spawned countless number of artistic interpretations, Cameron’s Avatar and Scott’s Gladiator being the landmarks of the XXI century take at the problem. Although the movies are based on completely different stories and are driven by seemingly different plots, a number of ideas regarding power and policy of differentiation in both movies rub shoulders. No matter what one might say about Avatar being the adult version of Disney’s Pocahontas, as well as the fact that the story of greedy invaders and poor civilian residents has been beaten to death, the movie still offers an interesting journey into human mind. James Cameron clearly knows how to get the audience in their seats for a couple of hours, and creates a sophisticated political and cultural conflict. Scott’s Gladiator, in its turn, provides a much darker and, therefore, more adult view of the problem. Unlike Avatar, Gladiator does not pander to its audience, thus, it taps on more complex issues. In addition, Gladiator tackles the story that is arguably planted into the realm of reality, the lead character being the representation of those oppressed and rebelling against the dictatorship of Commodus. Although in no possible way can the movie claim to be historically accurate, it still represents real people and the events that, for the most part, actually took place – or, at the very least, could be. Nevertheless, what both movies are very good at is taking the evil off the political difference and power, though with rather different takes on the problem. In Gladiator, the social stratification is dealt with in a very impressive way. As it has been stressed above, in Gladiator, the director and screenwriter did not actually have to come up with the political environment for the story to unwrap in – the dictatorship of the Roman autocrats and the miserable life of plebs and especially slaves, which Crowe as Maximus Decimus Meridius represented, was already a notorious page in the world history. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, Scott still did an amazingly good job by projecting the power abuse and policy of differentiation of the XXI century onto the Ancient Roman story. For example, the following line by Commodus points at the flaws of the ochlocracy system, in which the power belongs to few people defined as the crème of society. In Avatar, the issue concerning power abuse is downplayed compared to the Gladiator plot; however, the Colonel Quaritch is miles away from Commodus in terms of the methods exercised to seize power. Commodus acts as a power-hungry despot by demanding that Crowe’s character should be dragged through mud, enslaved and finally killed for the amusement of the Roman elite. While astonishingly diabolical, these intentions still show that Commodus is a mere mortal with his petty concerns about his status, wealth and other down-to-earth trifle. Colonel Quaritch, in his turn, clearly aims at playing God by offering Sully the ability to walk and, in fact, live a complete and different life: “A recon gyrene in an Avatar body… that’s a potent mix! Gives me the goosebumps!” (Avatar 0:36:17). It would be wrong to assume that God related symbolism must have been Cameron’s intent, since the focus of the movie is not on Christianity, but on policy of difference; however, the allusions in the movie are far too strong to ignore them. Moreover, unlike Commodus, who was born into his position and, therefore, considers his means of ruling the Empire the only acceptable methods, Quaritch knows exactly what is wrong with his strategy and openly acknowledges it: “Well, well, well. I’d say diplomacy has failed” (Avatar 0:41:03). Apart from power, both movies also touch upon the policy of difference, and they do so in a very smart and unique way. Avatar represents the clash of two different races, for the lack of a better word to describe the conflict between people and aliens, whereas Gladiator renders the issue of one social class oppressing another. However, Cameron downplays the concept of policy of difference greatly – perhaps, in attempts to get a PG-13 rating, while Gladiator does not shy away from displaying the faults of the policy of difference in the intense scenes of battles and vile treatment of slaves, thus, warranting an R-rating in some of the theaters: “They tell me your son squealed like a girl when they nailed him to the cross” (Gladiator 1:11:02). Avatar spares its audience the necessity to see Na’vis slaughtered in the battles and instead offers the viewers to sneak a peek at the evil masterminds, including Quaritch and the greedy government plotting to get the hold of unobtanium: “This is why we’re here. Unobtanium. Because this little gray rock sells for twenty million a kilo” (Avatar 0:23:55). We will write a custom Essay on Putting the Incompatible Elements Together: Avatar Meets Gladiator specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Though the two movies belong to different genres and are set in completely different environment, they tackle the same problem of power abuse and policy of difference efficiently. Smart and sophisticated, the movies give a lot of food for thoughts. Despite having their flaws, they are clearly worth watching. Works Cited Avatar. Ex. Prod. James Cameron. Los Angeles, CA: Twentieth Century Fox. 2009. DVD. Gladiator. Ex. Prod. Ridley Scott. Los Angeles, CA: Universal Pictures. 2000. DVD.

management of information system case study

management of information system case study. I don’t understand this Management question and need help to study.

Case Study 1: Should a Computer Grade Your Essays?
Would you like your college essays graded by a computer? Well, you just might find that happening in your next course. In April 2013, EdX, a Harvard/MIT joint venture to develop massively open online courses (MOOCs), launched an essay-scoring program. Using artificial intelligence technology, essays and short answers are immediately scored and feedback tendered, allowing students to revise, resubmit, and improve their grade as many times as necessary. The non-profit organization is offering the software free to any institution that wants to use it. From a pedagogical standpoint—if the guidance is sound—immediate feedback and the ability to directly act on it is an optimal learning environment. But while proponents trumpet automated essay grading’s superiority to students waiting days or weeks for returned papers— which they may or may not have the opportunity to revise—as well as the time-saving benefit for instructors, critics doubt that humans can be replaced.
In 2012, Les Perelman, the former director of writing at MIT, countered a paper touting the proficiency of automated essay scoring (AES) software. University of Akron College of Education dean, Mark Shermis, and co-author, data scientist Ben Hamner used AES programs from nine companies, including Pearson and McGraw-Hill, to rescore over 16,000 middle and high school essays from six different state standardized tests. Their Hewlett Foundation sponsored study found that machine scoring closely tracked human grading, and in some cases, produced a more accurate grade. Perelman, however, found that no direct statistical comparison between the human graders and the programs was performed. While Shermis concedes that regression analysis was not performed—because the software companies imposed this condition in order to allow him and Hamner to test their products—he unsurprisingly accuses Perelman of evaluating their work without performing research of his own.
Perelman has in fact conducted studies on the Electronic Essay Rater (e-rater) developed by the Educational Testing Service (ETS)—the only organization that would allow him access. The e-rater uses syntactic variety, discourse structure (like PEG) and content analysis (like IEA) and is based on natural language processing technology. It applies statistical analysis to linguistic features like argument formation and syntactic variety to determine scores, but also gives weight to vocabulary and topical content. In the month granted him, Perelman analyzed the algorithms and toyed with the e-Rater, confirming his prior critiques. The major problem with AES programs (so far) is that they cannot distinguish fact from fiction. For example, in response to an essay prompt about the causes for the steep rise in the cost of higher education, Perelman wrote that the main driver was greedy teaching assistants whose salaries were six times that of college presidents with exorbitant benefits packages including South Seas vacations, private jets, and movie contracts. He supplemented the argument with a line from Allen Ginsberg’s “Howl,” and received the top score of 6. The metrics that merited this score included overall length, paragraph length, number of words per sentence, word length, and the use of conjunctive adverbs such as “however” and “moreover.” Since computer programs cannot divine meaning, essay length is a proxy for writing fluency, conjunctive adverb use for complex thinking, and big words for vocabulary aptitude.
Program vendors such as Pearson and Vantage Learning defend these parameters, asserting that they are highly correlated. Good writers have acquired skills that enable them to write more under time constraints; they use more complex vocabulary, and they understand how to introduce, interrupt, connect, and conclude complex ideas—the jobs of conjunctive adverbs. AES programs also recognize sentence fragments and dock students for sentences that begin with “and” or “or.” However, professional writers know how to employ both to great effect. Perelman and a newly formed group of educators, Professionals Against Machine Scoring of Student Essays in High-Stakes Assessment, warn that writing instruction will be dumbed down to meet the limited and rigid metrics machines are capable of measuring.
The productivity gains from using automated essay-grading software will undoubtedly take away some of the jobs of the graders hired by the standardized test companies. Pearson, for example, ostensibly pays its graders between $40 and $60 per hour. In that hour, a grader expected to score between 20 and 30 essays—that is two to three minutes (and dollars) per essay. Clearly graders must use some type of shorthand metrics in order to score this quickly, but at least they can recognize as false the statement that on July 4, 2013, the United States observed its 2,013th birthday, even if it is contained in a well-constructed sentence. While the e-Rater can score 16,000 essays in 20 seconds, it cannot make this distinction. In addition, presumably, a 716-word essay containing multiple nonsense sentences will not receive a 6 from a human grader while a 150-word shorter, factual, well-reasoned essay scores a 5, as Perelman was able to demonstrate.
ETS, developer of the SAT, GRE, Praxis, and K-12 standardized tests for multiple states, counters that the e-Rater is not replacing human graders in high stakes tests; it is supplementing them. Essays are scored by both human and machine and when the scores do not match, a second human breaks the impasse. Furthermore, they posit that the test prep course Perelman developed to teach students how to beat AES software requires higher-order thinking skills—precisely those the tests seek to measure. Thus, if students can master Perelman’s techniques, they have likely earned their 6. Pearson adds that its Intelligent Essay Assessor is primarily a classroom tool, allowing students to revise their essays multiple times before turning them in to a teacher to be graded. However, for many states looking to introduce writing sections to their battery of K-12 standardized tests, and for those that abandoned the effort due to the cost, eliminating graders altogether will make them affordable. In addition, the stakes are not insubstantial for failure to achieve passing grades on state standardized tests, ranging from retesting, to remedial programs, to summer school, to non-promotion.
ETS, developer of the SAT, GRE, Praxis, and K-12 standardized tests for multiple states, counters that the e-Rater is not replacing human graders in high stakes tests; it is supplementing them. Essays are scored by both human and machine and when the scores do not match, a second human breaks the impasse. Furthermore, they posit that the test prep course Perelman developed to teach students how to beat AES software requires higher-order thinking skills—precisely those the tests seek to measure. Thus, if students can master Perelman’s techniques, they have likely earned their 6. Pearson adds that its Intelligent Essay Assessor is primarily a classroom tool, allowing students to revise their essays multiple times before turning them in to a teacher to be graded. However, for many states looking to introduce writing sections to their battery of K-12 standardized tests, and for those that abandoned the effort due to the cost, eliminating graders altogether will make them affordable. In addition, the stakes are not insubstantial for failure to achieve passing grades on state standardized tests, ranging from retesting, to remedial programs, to summer school, to non-promotion. In addition, that provides immediate guidance, is a welcome addition to the instructional toolbox. However, as demands on instructor’s time decrease, will university administrators push staff cutbacks to meet budgetary constraints? Will fewer and fewer instructors be teaching more and more students?
As MOOC and AES proliferate, the answer is: most likely. EdX is quickly becoming controversial in academic circles. Presently, its course offerings are free and students earn a certificate of completion, but not course credit. To become self-sustaining, however, the non-profit plans to offer its MOOC platform as a “self-service” system, which faculty members can use to develop courses specifically branded for their universities. EdX will then receive the first $50,000 in revenue generated from the course or $10,000 for a recurring course. Thereafter, revenue will be split 50-50 between the university and EdX. A second revenue-generating model offers universities “production help” with course development, charging them $250,000 for a new course and $50,000 each term the course is offered again. If a course is successful, the university receives 70% of the revenue, as long as EdX has been fully compensated for any self-service courses. However, in order to generate enough revenue to share with its 12 university partners, which now include University of California, Berkeley, Wellesley, Georgetown, and the University of Texas, a licensing model is likely. Tested at no charge at San Jose State University in 2012, an EdX MOOC served as the basis for a blended online engineering course. The enriched curriculum resulted in an increased passing rate from 60% to 91 %. If course licensing becomes the key revenue stream, Anant Agarwal, the electrical engineer president of EdX, foresees this happening in closed classrooms with limited enrollment.
But some members of the San Jose State faculty are nonetheless alarmed. When a second EdX MOOC, JusticeX, was considered, the Philosophy department sent a sharply-worded letter addressed to Harvard course developer, Michael Sandel, but actually leveled at university administrators. Asserting that the department did not have an academic problem in need of remediation and was not lacking faculty to teach its equivalent course, it did not shy from attacking the economic motives behind public universities’ embrace of MOOCs. The authors further asserted that MOOCs represented a decline in educational quality and noted the irony involved when a social justice course was the vehicle for perpetrating a social injustice—a long-term effort to “dismantle departments and replace professors.” Sandel’s conciliatory response expressed his desire to share free educational resources, his aversion to undercutting colleagues, and a call for a serious debate at both EdX and in the higher education community.
Other universities are similarly pushing back, against both EdX and other new MOOC ventures such as Coursera and Udacity, founded by Stanford faculty members. MOOCs and AES are inextricably linked. Massive online courses require automated assessment systems. In addition, both Coursera and Udacity have expressed their commitment to using them due to the value of immediate feedback. Amherst College faculty voted against joining the EdX consortium. Duke University faculty members thwarted administration attempts to join nine other universities and educational technology company 2U in a venture to develop a collection of for-credit undergraduate courses.
However, EdX was founded by two of the most prominent universities in the United States, has gathered prestigious partners, and is already shaping educational standards. Stanford, for one, has decided to get on board; it adopted the OpenEdX open-source platform and began offering a summer reading program for freshman and two public courses in the summer of 2013. Stanford will collaborate with EdX on the future development of OpenEdX and will offer both public and university classes on it.
Therefore, while Professor Perelman jokes that his former computer science major students could develop an Android app capable of spitting out formulaic essays that would get a 6 from e-Rater, cutting humans completely out of the equation, he knows that serious issues are in play. What educational outcomes will result from diminishing human interaction and input? Will AI develop to the point that truth, accuracy, effective organization, persuasiveness, argumentation and supporting evidence can be evaluated? And how many more jobs in education will disappear as a result?

Case Study 1: Should a Computer Grade Your Essays?
1) Identify the kinds of systems described in this case. (1 Mark)

2) What are the benefits of automated essay grading? What are the drawbacks? (1 Mark)

3) What management, organization, and technology factor should be considered when deciding whether to use AES? (1 Mark)

Case Study 2: American Water Keeps Data Flowing
American Water, founded in 1886, is the largest public water utility in the United States. Headquartered in Voorhees, N.J., the company employs more than 7,000 dedicated professionals who provide drinking water, wastewater and other related services to approximately 16 million people in 35 states, as well as Ontario and Manitoba, Canada. Most of American Water’s services support locally managed utility subsidiaries that are regulated by the U.S. state in which each operates as well as the federal government. American Water also owns subsidiaries that manage municipal drinking water and wastewater systems under contract and others that supply businesses and residential communities with water management products and services.
Until recently, American water’s systems and business, processes were much localized, and many of these processes were manual. Over time, this information environment became increasingly difficult to manage. Many systems were not integrated, so that running any type of report that had to provide information about more than one region was a heavily manual process. Data had to be extracted from the systems supporting each region and then combined manually to create the desired output. When the company was preparing to hold an initial public offering of its stock in 2006, its software systems could not handle the required regulatory controls, so roughly 80 percent of this work had to be performed manually. It was close to a nightmare.
Management wanted to change the company from a decentralized group of independent regional businesses into a more centralized organization with standard company-wide business processes and enterprise-wide reporting. The first step toward achieving this goal was to implement an enterprise resource planning (ERP) system designed to replace disparate systems with a single integrated software platform. The company selected SAP as its ERP system vendor.
An important step of this project was to migrate the data from American Water’s old systems to the new platform. The company’s data resided in many different systems in various formats. Each regional business maintained some of its own data in its own systems, and a portion of these data was redundant and inconsistent. For example, there were duplicate pieces of materials master data because a material might be called one thing in the company’s Missouri operation and another in its New Jersey business. These names had to be standardized so that every business unit used the same name for a piece of data. American Water’s business users had to buy into this new company-wide view of data.
Data migration entails much more than just transferring data between old and new systems. Business users need to know that data are not just a responsibility of the information systems department: the business “owns” the data. Business needs determine the rules and standards for managing the data. Therefore, it is up to business users to inventory and review all the pieces of data in their systems to determine precisely which pieces of data from the old system will be used in the new system and which data do not need to be brought over. The data also need to be reviewed to make sure they are accurate and consistent and that redundant data are eliminated.
Most likely some type of data cleansing will be required. For example, American Water had data on more than 70,000 vendors in its vendor master data file. Andrew Clarkson, American Water’s Business Intelligence Lead, asked business users to define an active vendor and to use that definition to identify which data to migrate. He also worked with various functional groups to standardize how to present address data.
One of the objectives of American Water’s data management work was to support an enterprise wide business intelligence program based on a single view of the business. An analytical system and data warehouse would be able to combine data from the SAP ERP System with data from other sources, including new customer information and enterprise asset management systems. That meant that American Water’s business users had to do a lot of thinking about the kinds of reports they wanted. The company had originally planned to have the system provide 200 reports, but later reduced that number by half. Business users were trained to generate these reports and customize them. Most financial users initially tried to create their reports using Microsoft Excel spreadsheet software. Over time, however, they learned to do the same thing using SAP Business Objects Web Intelligence tools that came with the system. SAP Business Objects Web Intelligence is a set of tools that enables business users to view, sort, and analyze business intelligence data. It includes tools for generating queries, reports and interactive dashboards.
At present, American Water is focusing on promoting the idea that data must be “clean” to be effective and has poured an incredible amount of effort into its data cleansing work—identifying incomplete, incorrect, inaccurate, and irrelevant pieces of data and then replacing, modifying, or deleting the “dirty” data. According to Clarkson, just as water treatment plants have measurements and meters to check water quality as its being treated, data management needs to ensure the quality of data at every step to make sure the final product will be genuinely useful for the company.

Case Study 2: American Water Keeps Data Flowing
1)How did implementing a data warehouse help American Water move toward a more centralized organization?(1 Mark)
2)Give some examples of problems that would have occurred at American Water if its data were not “clean”? (1 Mark)

3)How did American Water’s data warehouse improve operations and management decision making?(1 Mark)

management of information system case study

Autistic Children’s Treatment and Education Coursework

Table of Contents Introduction TEACCH Intervention Evidence-Based Research Intervention Procedure Evidence-based Emerging Practice Available Research Additional Information Reference List Introduction Autism is a developmental condition that is behaviorally defined. The symptoms related of the syndrome occur on a continuum spreading from mild to severe (Gresham, Beebe-Frankenberger and Mcmillan, 1999). It is also viewed as a pervasive developmental disorder that leads to impaired development in social interaction and communication among patients (Grandin, 1986). TEACCH-Treatment and Education of Autistic and Communication related handicapped Children originated at the University of Carolina Chapel Hill in 1970 by Eric Schopler and fellow researchers. The service dwells on training, research and evidence related practice targeting both adults and children (Mesibov, G., and Shea, V., 2009 p.570-579). TEACCH Intervention TEACCH is a holistic technique that focuses on structured teaching based on evidence and observation which entails physical organization, scheduling and teaching methods. Mesibov notes that, individuals with autism have a common pattern of neuropsychological deficits and strengths that are called – the culture of autism (Mesibov et al., 2005). TEACCH recommends using four kinds of structures; using a physical structure where elements as furniture arrangement, visual cues and client activities are used to monitor behavior. Furthermore, it reduces environmental sources of distraction by seating away from enhancing objects, which aims to structure individual behaviors. Secondly, by sequencing of events of the day, through organization or schedule of activities understandable to clients, the condition may be reduced to lower levels. Mostly, objects help students to make transitions to the next activities. Those with developmentally advanced abilities use pictures or written words that are used as schedules. Thirdly, organizations of individual tasks basing on visual methods to monitor structuring in students or clients are also employed in this technique. Fourthly, a sequence of activity tasks by students/clients is organized to increase the amount of time that the individual is engaged in productive activities (Mesibov and Shea 2009 p. 550-570). Evidence-Based Research Intervention Evidence-based research (EBP) has transformed from Empirically validated treatment (EVT) in Psychology and Empirically supported treatment (EST), which arose as a means of documentary benefits of adult psychotherapy, to evidence-based research (Mesibov and Shea 2009). The American Psychological Association (APA), developed a broader concept as an integration of the best available research and clinical expertise within the context of characteristics, culture, values and preferences (APA, 2006). It aims to develop interventions that improve the conditions of autistic clients. Procedure In the TEACCH program, important characteristics are observed. Students with impaired auditory processing in the form of language rely on visual information structuring. Besides, those students with difficulties in attention to details rely on activities that enhance sequencing, integration, connecting and deriving meaning out of them. Those with significant variability in attention are provided with activities that strengthen their abilities to focus. It aims at those who are easily digressed or those with high attention and difficulty in shifting focus (Mesibov and Shea 2009). Teaching tools may also target those with difficulties to conceptualize time. They move through activities too fast or sluggishly from the beginning to the end. There are also those with the inability to communicate, whose social life is impaired. Those suffering from Asperger Syndrome, may have a low preverbal level, activities targeting communication would focus on the development of preverbal level communication targeting the use of language (Whetherby et al 1997 P.515). Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The tendency to get attached to routines and settings are diagnosed and activities that may be difficult to transition or generalize situations detected. Some patients experience maladjustive impulses and interests that may be intense. They experience the inability to disengage from favored activities once engaged. It also corrects sensory preferences and aversions (APA 2006). The structuring in autism describes the organization of time, space and consequences of events to make learning activities clearer and easier to perform ((Gresham et al 1999). Evidence-based Mesibov’s comparison of symptoms of depression in two groups of mothers; those on the TEACCH program and control groups is used as an experiment to treat depression among mothers. Those on the TEACCH program reported a significantly lower depression as compared to the control group (Mesibov, 2009). Conversely, Ozonofff and Cathcart compared children with autism under the TEACCH home-based program and a control group, it emerged that the children had improved their psychological and educational profile (Ozonoff and Cathcart 1998). Emerging Practice Researchers on Autism fraternity have begun to diversify TEACCH methodologies. For instance, as noted by Schopler, descriptive literature about adults with autism have begun to examine and focus on areas as the enjoyment of humor, sexual behavior, perceptions of the population, feelings of loneliness and other social challenges (Schopler, E., and Bourgondien 1996). Besides, autism studies have broadened from the experimental laboratory setting to real-world practice as residential programs, social groups, summer camps, individual and group counseling. Available Research In a study, Rutter and Bartak compared skills and behavior of 50 children aged 7-9, they attended three educational programs with different philosophies; autistic specific psychotherapeutic program, a cross-categorical model combining psychotherapy and special education and autistic specific structured education. The findings found that children in a structured program demonstrated more on-task behavior and higher achievement (Rutter and Bartak 1973). Bodfish concluded in his study that, there was clear empirical support for the benefits of structure and predictability in the environment (Bodfish 2004). In 1999, the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry found that structure was an important element of educational intervention. The National Research Council in 2001 recommended repeated planned teaching opportunities. Additional Information There is a need for further research into both components of the TEACCH approach and overall program effectiveness. Clinical expertise is now expanding the evidence in the field to improve the TEACCH approach. Reference List American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: DSM-IV. Washington D.C: APA. Bodfish, J. W. (2004). Treating the Core Features of Autism: Are We There Yet? Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews , 10, 318-326. We will write a custom Coursework on Autistic Children’s Treatment and Education specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Bourgandien, V.,