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Perceptions Of Risk And Travel Intentions Tourism Essay

Perceptions Of Risk And Travel Intentions Tourism Essay. Despite its resilience, tourism is also seen as a fragile industry as it is vulnerable towards various attacks and crises events, such as wars, incidents of terrorism, outbreak of diseases, political instability, and so on. Boniface and Cooper (2005) noticed that in recent years, the global tourism industry has suffered an increasing number of serious disasters and crises. The impact of globalization of the tourism market means that events occurring in one part of the world can have a significant impact on other parts of the world. Tourism is an important economic sector for many countries. However, as the tourism industry is highly prone to risk from external factors and pressures in the operating environment, planners in charge of tourism have to develop strategies to manage the impact of crises and disasters so as to protect society in general and tourism business in particular. Against this background, this chapter offers a better understanding of the type of travel risks, tourists’ perceptions of travel risks, the impact of perceptions of risk on travellers’ travel intentions and travel risks associated with Thailand. TRAVEL RISKS Risk is defined as the uncertainty a person would face when they cannot foresee the consequences of a decision made (Schiffman and Kanuk, 2000). It has become an important factor when it comes to considering global tourism because safety, calm and peace are the fundamentals in attracting potential tourists to a destination (Sonmez, 1998). Travel risk is defined as the possibility of meeting a danger while engaging in travel (Fischhoff et al. 1984) or the consciousness of security and awareness of the likelihood of damage during travel (Wogalter et al. 1999). Tourists will experience travel risk during the process of consuming and purchasing travel services (Tsaur et al. 1997). Perceived travel risk is often referred to travellers’ perception of negative results of buying travel products (Murray 1991; Dowling and Staelin 1994; Zeithaml and Bitner 2003) or the unclear travel decision outcome (MacCrimmons and Wehrung 1986). Perceptions of travel risk vary according to different types of travel risk (Reisinger and Mavondo 2005). In the tourism literature, there are several types of travel risk listed out by tourism scholars such as cultural risk, equipment or functional risk, crime risk, health risk, financial risk, physical risk, natural disaster risk, psychological risk, political risk, social risk, terrorism risk and time risk (Reisinger and Mavondo 2006a, 2006b). Reisinger and Mavondo (2006a, 2006b) offer definitions of these various risks: Cultural risk: refers to the possibility of facing cultural misunderstanding, difficulties in communicating with foreigners, inability to adjust to the life and living standards in the foreign land. Equipment or functional risk: is the likelihood of equipment, mechanical, organizational problems that may occur during travel or at a destination (accommodation, attractions and transportation). Roehl and Fesenmaier (1992) found out from their research result that the respondents mentioned equipment risk as the highest perceived risk factor among the others. Crime risk: refers to the possibility of victim being robbed or becoming the subject of a murder or rape. Health risk: is the possibility of getting sick and unwell while travelling or at a destination. It was stated by Richter (2003) that health organisation such as World Health Organization (WHO) was not successful in performing its original duty of reporting and preventing the outbreak of new and serious disease. However, there is an increasing number of individuals’ awareness towards the seriousness of heath risk they may face while travelling abroad. Health diseases such as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) in the Asia-Pacific region and Mad Cow Disease in Europe have caused a significant impact towards travel flows (Richter, 2003). Financial risk: refers to the possibility of travellers not being able to obtain value for money, lost or waste money if the expectation for the trip is not fulfilled. In tourism, price was a major demand factor. Hsieh et al. (1994) found that both non-package and package tourists have the common view of getting the value for the amount that they have paid for their vacation. Physical risk: refers to the possibility of getting injured physically; it includes danger and injury that are harmful to health (accidents). It was also defined as the possibility that there is a probability that one’s health will be exposed to risk, sickness and injury due to the factors like weather, law and hygiene problems found during the tour (Tsuar, Tzeng and Wang, 1997). Natural disaster risk: refers to the possibility of being affected by a natural disaster event such as eruptions of volcanoes, hurricanes, earthquakes, typhoons, floods, tsunamis, wildfires and droughts. Psychological risk: imply that there may be a possibility of damaging self-image as the travel experience may not reflect the tourist’s personality or self-image. Political risk: means that tourists may get involved in the political chaos of the destination being visited. Social risk: refers to the possibility of disapproval from friends, associates or family with regards to the vacation choices. Tourist may suffer a lower social and personal status or emerge as being unfashionable. Also, as according to Reimer (1990), he argued that the style of vacation such as the number of places visited, distance travelled, regularity of travelling and destination’s unusual nature may impress a traveller’s peers. Or that with the existence of peer pressure, it can act as a strong motivation for people to purchase upscale trips. Terrorism risk: relates to the possibility of being caught in a terrorist act, for example hijacked plane, biochemical attack or bomb explosion. Time risk: refers to the possibility of wasting too much time on travel experience, as the tourist waste time doing unnecessary stuff or that the product did not perform on time. Perceptions of Risk and Travel IntentionS One of the factors affecting a tourist’s decision-making process is perception of risk. In this sense, it acts as a deciding factor (Freyer and Schroder, 2007, p. 136), and has significant impact on tourism demand. For example, studies have illustrated that perceptions of high risk in a destination are associated with a decrease in the demand of tourism (Prideaux and Laws, 2007; Sonmez, Apostolopoulos and Tarlow, 1999). This could be due to the fact that tourists’ buying behaviour is influenced by destination image and that with the freedom to choose from a wide range of destinations, most tourists are not likely to travel to places associated with risks (Pechlaner et al. 2007, p. 158). Destination image affects not only the travel decision of potential travellers but also acts as an influential factor towards the perceptions and holiday activities of tourists at a particular location. Therefore, when a destination is linked to negative images, there will be a probability that the tourists will choose a safer substitute destination (Freyer and Schroder, 2007, p. 136; Gurtner, 2007, p. 82). It is useful to understand how individuals are influenced by perceived risk while making the decision. In general, perceptions of individuals may be affected by external factors that are a problem for local tourism business and destination management to influence (Kozak, Crotts and Law, 2007). There are uncontrollable factors such as natural disasters (Faulkner and Vikulov, 2001; Huang and Min, 2002; Huan et al. 2004), outbreaks of diseases (MacLaurin, 2004) and terrorism attacks. These types of factors may cause a lasting effect in the perceptions of tourists when they happen. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the nature of these incidents and disasters so as to foresee the potential impacts they have on the industry and to control their consequences. Recognizing human basic needs for safety and security is needed to make potential tourists feel safe prior or during their trips. However, it is unfortunate to know that safety and security problems are often destination dependent (Kozak, Crotts and Law, 2007). Sonmez and Graefe (1998b) identified two types of decision makers, risk averse individuals and risk seekers. Risk averse decision makers would prefer to choose a destination of lower risk and are willing to forgo some expected return in order to reduce differences in possible outcomes. On the other hand, risk seekers are likely to show less concern regarding safety factors towards the choice of destination and are most willing to sacrifice some expected return. Clearly, information about the factors influencing perceptions of risk would allow tourism and destination managers to develop a better understanding of what may potentially scare off tourism market segments as well as what they can do to attract them (Dolnicar, 2007, p. 107). Reisinger and Mavondo (2006) stated that each and every individual perceive and react to travel risk differently. It is said that tourists’ perceptions towards travel risk differ depending on gender (Darley and Smith 1995; Loker-Murphy and Pearce 1995; Carr 2001; Lepp and Gibson 2003). However, Sonmez and Graefe (1998) argued that there is no relationship between gender and travel risk whereas Mattila et al. (2001) identify some gender differences in health risk behaviour during travel period. It is also said that females have restrictions in their choice of travel due to their gender (Lynch and Atkins, 1998). This could be due to the fact that females generally perceive higher travel risks than men. For example, women are more concerned about food and health related risks and that experienced male travellers are less likely to change their travel plans when it comes to facing potential terrorism, natural disaster and health related risks (Kozak et al. 2007). In addition, other than gender, personality might be influential on individuals’ perception of travel risk as well (Carr, 2001). Tourists’ perceptions of travel risk also differ depending on age as younger tourists tend to perceive higher travel risk than older tourists. This also means that travel-related risk actually declines as individuals grow older (Gibson and Yiannakis, 2002). It is said that older individuals can be more or less risk averse than young individuals depending on their wide personal and observational learning experiences, experimentations and abstract conceptualisation. However, Sonmez and Graefe (1998b) argued that there is no relationship between age and travel risk. In this case, the relationship between age and perception of travel risk remains unclear. Reisinger and Movondo (2006a, 2006b) argue that, different nationalities and cultures are differentiating factors with respect to perceptions of travel risk. Bontempo et al. (1997) found that risk perception of tourists from western countries differs significantly from that of Chinese tourists. Kozak et al. (2007) used Hofstede’s (2010) concept of Uncertainty Avoidance (UAI) theory to observe international perceptions of related travel risk in terms of ambiguity and uncertainty; it shows the residents comfort level in terms of low, medium and high risk avoidance. Travellers from high UAI cultures, tend to perceive higher risks when compared to travellers from low UAI cultures (Hofstede and Hofstede 2005). Typically, travellers coming from high UAI (risk-avoiding) cultures do not feel at ease in environment listed as unstructured, risky and unclear as they feel threatened by the ambiguous and unknown. Whereas tourists coming from low UAI (risk-tolerant) cultures are typically more comfortable with environments involving uncertainty and risk. Low UAI countries such as Singapore, Malaysia and China tend to be more sensitive towards terrorist attack, infectious disease and natural disaster risks (Kozak et al. 2007). Travellers from high UAI countries, such as Germany, perceive higher travel risks and anxiety as compared to Singaporean tourists (Reisinger and Movondo, 2006a). With anxiety, there will be a significant impact on travel intention and perceptions of safety (Reisinger and Movondo, 2005). Past experiences and familiarity with a destination are also factors that affect tourists’ perceptions of travel risks. Tourists who are more experienced in travelling may perceive lower risks, due to the confidence in the destination gained from previous positive visits (Sonmez and Graefe, 1998b; Lepp and Gibson, 2003; Kozak et al. 2007). However, if the last visit to the destination turns out to be negative, it may cause potential tourists to be nervous about future options. Also, individuals who have travelled to the destination before are more likely to return to the place as they are familiar with the location and that increases their sense of safety in the destination. Relevant research also indicates that tourists who travel with friends/family/partner (collectivists) perceive lower travel risk than tourists who travel alone (individualists). Travel activities involving group activities help act as a cushion against potential risks whereas travelling alone expose individuals to numerous potential risks (Weber and Hsee, 1998). Lastly, tourists’ perception of travel risk differs according to their education background as well (Sonmez and Graefe, 1998). Better educated tourists are better informed and aware of real travel risks through information obtained from reliable sources. They do not engage, therefore, in misunderstanding of the real situation, hence perceiving lower risks than lower-educated tourists (Laver et al. 2001). Also, according to Park and Reisinger (2010), high income tourists perceive a lower influence of travel risks than low income tourists. It could be due to the availability of finances that lead to a lower concern in travel risks as they have the money to sacrifice if there is a need to pay for damages. It is important to understand the importance of safety and security concerns of potential travellers over a destination, as according to Buttle and Bok (1996) travellers are generally affected by their own perception of risk while making travel decisions. For example, it is highly possible that when travellers perceive higher potential risks as compared to the benefits they might acquire from travelling to a destination, there will be a tendency of cancelling the trip to the destination. This is clearly supported by Sonmez and Graefe (1998a), who state that there is a high probability that tourists would avoid travelling to a destination if they associate the destination with the existence of high levels of risk. As judging from past incidents, there was an indication of an increasing demand in cancellation of trips or holiday plans just right after the attack of 9/11 (Chen and Noriega, 2004; Floyd et al. 2004; Kingsbury and Brunn, 2004). SINGAPOREAN TOURISTS AND RISK PERCEPTIONS As a small country with limited choices of entertainment and natural sceneries for the locals to enjoy, many Singaporeans tend to find the opportunity to travel out of Singapore (Lim and Lui, 2009). There has been an increase in the total number of Singaporeans travelling outbound. With the data extracted from Immigration and Checkpoint Authority (ICA, 2009), it indicates an increase of 804,234 outbound Singapore residents in year 2008 to 6,828,362 as compared to 6,024,128 in 2007. It was also reported that there are an increasing trend among Singaporeans within the age range of 18 to 65 years old to travel to nearby countries such as Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, Australia and Hong Kong (Lim and Lui, 2009). This could be due to the living lifestyle of Singapore residents as employed Singaporeans generally earn a decent amount of income, and fresh universities graduates receive a good starting pay from their first official job. Which shows a society that is willing to spend on leisure and recreational activities as travel is considered as part of their lifestyle. According to Lim and Lui (2009) findings, wide spread of swine flu in America and Mexico did stirred up fear among Singaporeans who are intending to travel within Asia Pacific. However, it was not confirmed or known if any risk or crisis would affect Singaporeans’ plans towards international travelling. ABOUT THAILAND AND TRAVEL RISKS The discussion now turns to Thailand, the research context of this study. Thailand is a country the economy of which depends heavily on its tourism industry. Tourism is the major export service of Thailand, actually accounting to about 6-7 percent of the country’s national Gross Domestic Product (EIU ViewsWire, 2003). From a tourism perspective, over the years Thailand has been branded as a friendly, exotic, exciting and natural destination. It is considered to be a popular travel destination among tourists as it is considered to be a hospitable country towards visitors as well as a country rich in cultural heritage, historical tourist destinations and natural attractions (Koumelis 2004; National Identity Board, 2000). Tourists generally have many choices on attractions and activities in Thailand as there is a wide selection such as: the beautiful beaches located in the South, rainforests and mountains in the North, huge shopping malls or market located in the city, etc. According to Rogers (2003, p. 276), the most important factor attracting tourists would have to be the value for money. Staying in Thailand is cheap because of the availability of cheap accommodation and food. Engaging in activities does not cost much, which is why the destination attracts many young tourists as it is affordable. Thus, with a combination of all these favorable factors, Thailand emerges as an attractive tourism destination. However, according to Campiranon, K. (2008), there has been a rise in the number of the occurrence of crises events in Thailand has caused worries regarding their impact on the image of the country. For example, towards the end of 2004, disasters such as the Tsunami, SARS epidemic, bird flu or avian flu had caused a significant drop in international arrivals to the country. In addition, the serious worldwide recession emerging in mid 2008, caused a decrease in the desire of tourists to travel. Furthermore, Thailand was suffering from political instability crises, whereby the Suvarnabhumi Airport was closed down on 26 November 2008 by the yellow shirt or Peoples’ Alliance for Democracy (PAD) protesters, which mainly consists of royalists, businessmen and the urban middle class who are the opposition of the former Thai leader Thaksin Shinawatra and his allies. On 11 April 2009, Thailand was assigned to hold the East Asia Summit in Pattaya, but this resulted in an attack by the Red shirt mob, which mainly consists by a large proportion of rural-based and working-class Thais who are the supporters of Thaksin and his policies. This caused the significant delay of the summit and the evacuation of world leaders to safety. Following the cancellation of the East Asian summit was the uprising of violent riots and the declaration of emergency by the prime minister the very next day. The graph below illustrates the international tourist arrivals to Thailand between years 2007 to 2010. Source: According to the data extracted from the Tourism Authority of Thailand (TAT, 2010), there have been a decrease in international arrivals from 3.64 million in the first quarter to 2.96 million in the second quarter of 2009. As compared to the previous first two quarters of 2007 and 2008, the figures appeared to be lower. However, despite all the serious commotions that had happen in April, tourism arrivals increased towards the end of 2009. In the last quarter of 2009, it was reported to have a higher arrival rate as compared to 2007 and 2008. It was then brought forward to the first quarter of 2010, whereby there was a significant increase in tourist arrivals. However, just when hopes of returning to healthy levels of industry growth were up, serious demonstrations held by the Red shirts during the month of April negatively affected tourist arrivals in the second quarter of 2010. From here, we can see that with the negative factors affecting Thailand’s tourism, the influence of it actually seems to last just a few months each time it happen, and that tourists will resume their interest in Thailand as their selected tourist destination thereafter (ThaiWebsites, 2010). CONCLUSIONS Following the analysis presented in this chapter, the main conclusion is that a negative destination image leads to negative tourists’ perceptions of risk. This in turn affects tourists’ intention to visit the destination if there are other options to choose. Also of particular relevance to this study is the conclusion that tourists’ perceptions of risk is associated with factors such as socio-demographic variables (e.g. age, gender), previous travel experience, travel party size, education level and nationality. Travelling has been part of Singaporeans’ lifestyle as Singapore lacks the leisure activities and natural sceneries to entertain the locals in long run. Therefore, travelling to nearby countries like Thailand is an attractive destination choice as it is affordable and suitable for short holiday trips. There is however, no known data on how Singaporeans are affected by risk or crisis towards their holiday planning. In recent years, Thailand has been vulnerable towards risks such as the outbreak of diseases, natural disasters as well as political instability. Visitor arrivals were seen to have decreased during the occurrence of crises events, and various businesses were affected as a result. Thus, this study aims to study the following three researched question: Singaporeans have a low perception of risk with regards to travel to Thailand. Socio-demographic has a positive relationship with the perceptions of risk. Intention to travel has a positive relationship with the perception of risk. Perceptions Of Risk And Travel Intentions Tourism Essay
PRLS 410 George Mason University InEvent Inc Organizational Chart.

I’m working on a hospitality writing question and need support to help me study.

Organizational Chart – 3 pointsWhat is the organizational chart for the organization. The chart should fit on one 8 x 11″ page. Depending on the size of the organization, boxes may represent “work” at the individual job level or as a grouping of jobs. If the organization is very large, you may choose to represent a division or department of the organization (as opposed to the entire organization); please specify if this is the case and provide a brief overview of where this division/department fits into the overall organizational structure.Organizational Chart Narrative – 2 pointsExplain which of the four structures discussed in class (Functional, Divisional, Matrix, Network, or a combination of these) best represents your organization’s structure. Explain why that is the most efficient and effective way for your organization to get work done. Consider: Is your organization dynamic or stable? How much diversification is there in company businesses, products, customers and/or locations? Who should make strategic decisions? How much does the organization rely on lower level employees to be creative and autonomous in decision-making?Provide any additional background information necessary to explain how the business is organized for action. Ensure that all critical business functions (administration, finance, HR, sales, marketing, and similar), as well as service and production, are clearly represented in the organizational chart OR described in the narrative The Job Description – 3 pointsSelect one position from your organizational chart and create/find a job description for that position. This position must report to a supervisor (should not be the CEO for instance) AND must be a manager, supervising a minimum of 1 employee. Include all of the recommended content of a job description.
PRLS 410 George Mason University InEvent Inc Organizational Chart

Introduction The contemporary globalized world is associated with the need in development of various communicative approaches. The translator is playing an important role as a mediator between people pertaining to different cultural backgrounds (Cui, 2009: 8). The Skopos theory was developed in the 1970s to address the new trends that started appearing in the information era (Parker et al., 2008: 36). I believe the theory provides a variety of valuable tools for translators to deal with numerous texts. The theory is applicable in the majority of spheres, but in some cases translators cannot rely on the tools offered. Nonetheless, as far as I am concerned, a successful translator should be aware of the major peculiarities of the theory as this will help him/her self-develop and encounter a variety of interesting approaches to fulfil different tasks. Major Peculiarities of the Theory The central point in the theory is that the target text is dominant as the original text is less important since it is based on different cultural peculiarities. For instance, when it comes to advertisement, the target text should appeal to the target audience and the exact translation is quite irrelevant as it tends to miss specific characteristics of a target audience pertaining to a different cultural background (Malmkjær, 2005: 35). When translating an advertisement, translators should render ideas but speak the language the target audience will easily perceive. Importantly, proponents of the theory stress that it is not enough for a translator to be bilingual as the translator should be bicultural (Snell-Hornby, 2006: 52). Functionality of the translation is brought to the fore by the proponents of the theory. Importance of the Theory for a Translator Where the Theory Is Applicable I believe the major concept of the Skopos Theory is very important for a translator as it helps to achieve the major goal of translation, i.e. to make an original text understandable for a target group. As has been mentioned above, this approach is especially important in advertising as the major objective of an original text to tell about the product and sell it, i.e. make it attractive to potential customers (Garces, 2008: 124). Thus, it is the translator who understands cultural peculiarities of the target audience and ‘sells’ the product to specific people. The theory is not only important for advertising, but it is also applicable in business. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Translators become mediators when it comes to signing contracts and arranging deals (Gile, 2009: 250). Admittedly, translators have to take into account specific cultural background of the partners to make them speak the same language. Where the Theory Should Be Used Carefully However, translators should also understand that there are areas where the theory should not be employed to certain extent. For instance, legal communication needs precision in ideas and terms (Kocbek, 2008: 54). Sometimes complete adherence to concepts of the theory can be harmful as trying to make the terms clearer can lead to distortion of data (Cao, 2007: 35). I go along with this view and think that translators should pay specific attention to legal terms. However, it does not mean the theory is absolutely inapplicable in legal communication as translators can make the target text clearer for recipients (Kocbek, 2006: 233). Of course, this will require a lot of effort and skills on the part of the translator. Some may think that these difficulties cause troubles for translators, whereas I see lots of opportunities for self-development. In the sphere of legal communication importance of the major concepts of Skopos theory become evident. The theory helps translators develop as adherence to major concepts of the theory will require a variety of skills. Translators need to know peculiarities of cultural backgrounds as well as legal systems of the original texts and target texts. Where the Theory Should not Be Used Nonetheless, there is a sphere where the theory should not be used or rather can be used only to a certain extent (Munday, 2008: 81). Literary works should not be perceived as a source of information to be understandable for the target audience. The translator should understand that the literary work has a specific literary value which cannot be distorted by changing devices to fit the cultural background of the target text (Leon, 2008: 19). It is necessary to remember that any literary text is a certain introduction to the culture (Mason, 2001: 67). We will write a custom Assessment on Skopos Theory: Person’s Development as a Translator specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In other words, reading a piece of fiction writing, the reader learns more about culture and the very way other people perceive the world. Every literary device serves for a fact about the other world. I believe it is crucial to make readers feel the difference in other people’s perception. Therefore, the translator should be much closer to the original when working with a literary work. Why the Theory Can Be an Interesting Way to Self Develop Obviously, adherence to the concepts of Skopos theory makes it a bit harder to translate texts as translators have to take into account a variety of issues. Nonetheless, this also makes the translator’s work more interesting. Translators learn a lot of interesting facts about other cultures. I also think that it is interesting to try to find ties between two different cultures. It is exciting to make a text perceivable for people brought up in a different cultural reality. Major concepts of the theory require attention to a broader scope of details and cultural interactions. As far as I am concerned, it is much more interesting to understand all tinges of meaning available in the text. I believe that it is really interesting to see the whole cultural strata behind a phrase or even a single word. Therefore, it is clear that following major postulates of the theory is not only important for a translator’s development but it is interesting as well. Conclusion It is necessary to note that the central concept of Skopos theory, i.e. to provide a target text which is understandable for the target audience rather than close to the original, can be regarded as one of the most important approaches for a translator. The theory provides tools which help translators self-develop. Adherence to the concepts of the theory is associated with learning more about different cultures. Translators acquire a lot of skills and learn a variety of facts, which helps them develop. It is also important to note that concepts of Skopos theory make translator’s work really interesting as he/she does not only translate specific words, but translator searches for ties between two cultures. Therefore, Skopos theory can be regarded as an interesting way for a translator to self-develop. List Of References Cao, D. (2007) Translating Law – Nop/077, Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. Cui, Y. (2009) ‘The Goal of Advertisement Translation: With Reference to C-E/E-C Advertisements’, Journal of Language
The Differences Between Evidence Based Practice and Research Discussion.

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Describe and evaluate the differences between evidence based practice and research.
Describe the importance and application of health care information, data mining, and importance to application in patient care outcomes
Discuss how data mining and interpretation influences case management  and utilization
Describe participation in managed care and the importance of quality care initiatives and performance indicators (remember to use AHRQ as a resource)
1000-1500 words not including the cover page and references (total, not for each topic)
Follow the APA 7th edition for references and citations
Include a minimum of 6 scholarly references (does not include text or websites)
Demonstrate analysis, evaluation and synthesis of information

The Differences Between Evidence Based Practice and Research Discussion

International Business Transactions of United States and Saudi Arabia Compare and Contrast Essay

International Business Transactions of United States and Saudi Arabia Compare and Contrast Essay. International business is a type of trade that involves commercial transactions between two or more countries operating beyond their national boundaries. In other terms, these are business transactions involving several nations, which are carried out at the international level. As it would be observed, international business transactions are of great importance to participating countries in a number of ways. For example, they help in strengthening a country’s international relations with other countries in the world. More importantly, they give countries a direct opportunity to market their products in the global markets, thus playing a key role in shaping their economic development. This paper is about international business transactions and it revolves around two countries that have been successful in this type of trade. The two featured countries are United States and Saudi Arabia. In fact, United States is one of the most developed countries in the world, in terms of trade and economy (Rugman and Collinson 35). At 9.8 million km2 in land area, the US is arguably one of the largest countries globally. Currently, the country’s population stands at around 317 million people. United States is a major player in the global markets, and this is evident from its large business links with other countries across the world. As a result of these commercial establishments, America enjoys one of the most successful economic relationships in the world. USA is a major player in export transactions, and some of its major exports are transportation equipment, petroleum oils, pharmaceutical products, organic chemicals, and telecommunications equipment. In terms of the imports, USA is the leading importer of commodities and products in the world. Some of their major imports would include refined petroleum oils, crude petroleum oils, automobiles, medicaments, and automatic data processing machines. Most of the country’s exports go to Canada, while most of its imports come from China. Just like other advanced nations, USA enjoys a wide range of industries and manufacturing companies (Rosenberg, Nathan and Rosenberg 68). The largest industries in the country include the automotive industry, the retail industry, healthcare industry, pharmaceutical industry, and oil and gas industry. These industries and others that are not listed here serve as the backbone of the country’s economy. As a notable participant in the international business arena, United States is a trade partner to many other countries around the world. However, some of its biggest traders in terms of exports and imports are Mexico, Japan, China, Canada, and Germany, among others (Helpman, Melitz and Rubinstein 445). The U.S. is currently the largest single economy in the world, with a Gross Domestic Product of $16.6 trillions according to the latest listings. The other country that is featured here is Saudi Arabia, popularly known as the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. With an estimated area of 2.1 million km2, the popular Arab State is said to be the largest country in terms of land area in the whole of Western Asia. Currently, the country has an estimated population of about 29 million people comprising of the original citizens, illegal immigrants, and registered foreign expatriates. Just like America, Saudi Arabia is a major player in international business, especially in transactions involving petroleum and oil-based products, which are said to have a heavy command on the country’s economy (Achoui 41). Even though Saudi Arabia is incomparable with the U.S. when it comes to international business transactions, they are well recognized at the global markets for being a major importer and exporter of a wide range of products. Currently, the Arabic state is ranked at position 19 among the biggest exporters, and position 20 among the biggest importers in the world. Some of the major exports of the country are petroleum and petroleum products, petrochemicals, electrical appliances, construction materials, plastic products, and metal-related goods (Jasimuddin 61). On the other hand, Saudi Arabia imports products such as motor vehicles, machinery equipment, foodstuffs, and coal products, among other things. Just like the U.S., Saudi Arabia is also home to numerous industries, with some of the big ones including petroleum refining industries, oil industries, petrochemical industries, pharmaceutical industries, plastic industries, pharmaceutical industries, and cement industries among others. As a recognized importer and exporter of vast products, Saudi Arabia has a large network of business partners from allover the world (Niblock and Malik 77). Some of the major trading partners of the Arab State of Saudi Arabia include the UK, Japan, China, Thailand, Canada, and the United States. The country also has numerous trade relations with other surrounding Arabic nations such as Yemen, Iran, Syria, and Iran, just to mention a few. Saudi Arabia enjoys a strong economic situation, considering its current GDP that stands at $160 billions. As it would be observed, the commercial sector in the country has grown rapidly over the past few decades. This, however, has made the Arabic state the most powerful economy in the Arabic world. Based on these observations, there is no doubt that Saudi Arabia has a great potential in international business transactions. Works Cited Achoui, Mustapha. “Human resource development in Gulf countries: an analysis of the trends and challenges facing Saudi Arabia.” Human Resource Development International 12.1 (2009): 35-46. Print. Helpman, Elhanan, Melitz Marc and Rubinstein Yona. “Estimating trade flows: Trading partners and trading volumes.” The Quarterly Journal of Economics 123.2 (2008): 441-487. Print. Jasimuddin, Sajjad. “Analyzing the competitive advantages of Saudi Arabia with Porter’s model.” Journal of BusinessInternational Business Transactions of United States and Saudi Arabia Compare and Contrast Essay

Name two advantages and two disadvantages of mitochondrial DNA analysis compared to..

custom essay Name two advantages and two disadvantages of mitochondrial DNA analysis compared to…

Complete question: Name two advantages and two disadvantages of mitochondrial DNA analysis compared to nuclear DNA analysis.Answer needs to be 1-2 pages 350 – 500 words. Works cited section for references need. Introduce the topic to the reader in 3-5 sentences. Leave the body for the facts. Focus on a strong thesis statement leading into the body of paper. Let the last sentence in the introduction be the thesis statement. What is a thesis? It is a proposition to be tested and weighed. Question from BCJ 351 Forensic Science Text: Criminalistics: An Introduction to Forensic Science, Tenth Edition, 2011 ISBN-13: 978-0-13-504520-6. Author: Richard Saferstein.
Name two advantages and two disadvantages of mitochondrial DNA analysis compared to..

Lone Star College Environmental Influences on Personality Discussion

Lone Star College Environmental Influences on Personality Discussion.

Format: Typed, double-spaced, submitted as a word-processing document.12 point, text-weight font, 1-inch margins.Length: 1200 – 1500 words (approx. 5-6 pages)Value: This project will be graded out of 100 possible points, and will be part of the Unit 2 Assignment group. Overview:In Unit 1, you focused on reading the published writing of other writers critically in order to begin developing your own “invitations” into topics that interest you. You used textual analysis to break down the context, voice, thesis, and other elements of existing written texts. You also used invention strategies to begin exploring specific issues that interested you as you read and reflected. Finally, you exercised your critical literacy skills in order to evaluate the content and context of sources.In Unit 2, you have been studying ways to define the context for the issue you are writing about in order to help audiences understand why the issue is relevant to their interests. You also have been learning about synthesis: a rhetorical tool for connecting sources and ideas that may initially seem to be unrelated.For this Unit 2 Assignment, you will practice both definition and synthesis by writing an essay that helps an audience understand the context for your topic and the ways that other people are already invested in the topic. Assignment:Write an essay that defines the topic of your research for this course and synthesizes different perspectives on the issue from sources you have read critically.Your Definition and Synthesis Essay shouldClearly define the topic of your essay and the specific issue (or issues) you will addressClarify your position: what exactly are you wanting to say about the issue? Why is it relevant? What is at stake, and for whom?Connect (synthesize) differing perspectives on this topic and set of issues, and explain how existing perspectives portray the issue in overlapping or contradictory waysRevise your research question and research proposal in response to the new sources you have found and the new connections you have madeNote: this essay is not asking you to evaluate or make an argument about your chosen issue. We will move on to consider arguments in the next unit. Focus instead on writing that tries to understand and “deepen” your relationship with your chosen issue. Notes and Tips:This essay is not asking you to evaluate or make an argument about your chosen issue. We will move on to consider arguments in the next unit. Focus instead on writing that tries to understand and “deepen” your relationship with your chosen issue. Try to explain rather than persuade.You are not writing two essays here, but rather writing a single essay that focuses on using two rhetorical tools (defining and synthesizing) at the same time.The form this essay takes is close to the genre of a literature review (Links to an external site.), which “collects key sources on a topic and discusses those sources in conversation with each other” (from the Purdue Online Writing Lab (Links to an external site.)). If it helps you, you can think of the Definition and Synthesis essay as a literature review that studies the different perspectives on a particular topic and presents these perspectives as part of the context for a larger social issue. Objectives:In this project, you willDefine the context for the issue you are writing about for this course, framing the significance, relevance, and urgency of the issue for one or more audiencesSynthesize existing research perspectives on the topic, making connections between sources and analyzing why these connections are importantConnect the existing conversation to your primary research question and start to identify the threads of the conversation that will be most important to the position you want to take
Lone Star College Environmental Influences on Personality Discussion

MGT 211 Saudi Electronic University Human Resource Management Questions

MGT 211 Saudi Electronic University Human Resource Management Questions.

Assignment Workload: This Assignment comprise of a short Case.Assignment is to be submitted by each student individually. Assignment Purposes/Learning Outcomes: After completion of Assignment-3 students will able to understand the following LOs: (Lo 1.1).Demonstrate overall Human Resource concepts, goals and strategies within the context of organizations goals and strategies. (Lo 1.2) Explain the Differentiation between the major functions of HR and describe their interdependency. (Lo 1.9).Ability to Examine the role of Employees as a strategic partner in an organization. Assignment-2 Please read the case “Employees Make A Difference at Amy’s Ice Creams” HR IN SMALL BUSINESS at the end of Chapter 16, Strategically Managing the HRM Functions available in your textbook Human Resource Management: Gaining A Competitive Advantage-Noe, Hollenbeck, Gerhart, Wright,11e., and answer the following questions: Assignment Question(s):(Marks 5) Which elements of a customer-oriented HRM perspective does Amy’s Ice Creams seem to have? (See Figure 16.2.)Suppose Amy’s hired you as a consultant to evaluate whether the company has an effective HRM function. Which outcomes would you look for? How would you measure them?Generally, a small ice cream shop such as Amy’s cannot afford to pay store workers very high wages. How well do you think the company can achieve high employee satisfaction without high pay? What can it do to foster satisfaction besides the efforts described here? How could e-HRM support these efforts? Answers: 1. 2. 3.Important Notes :Attachment is in the attachment, the solution is required to have no similarity ratio.The assignment must be completed within one or two days as a maximum.add at least 3 references.APA style. 1 (The reference must be added in the text, the author’s name and the date) and 2 The reference should also be added at the end)
MGT 211 Saudi Electronic University Human Resource Management Questions