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Pension Roth Accounts Retirement Income Calculations Excel Worksheet

Pension Roth Accounts Retirement Income Calculations Excel Worksheet.

To accomplish this assignment, you will need to simulate the solution. I suggest using Frontline’s Premium Risk Solver platform. You can download and install Frontline Premium Risk Solver at If you have a different simulation package you would prefer to use, feel free.ProblemYou have been hired to help Floyd Enterprises determine how much to contribute to their company’s pension plan. They use a ten-year planning horizon to determine the contribution, which, if made annually in next 10 years, would allow for only a 10% chance of the fund running short of money. The company then makes that contribution in the current year and repeats this process in each subsequent year to determine the specific amount to contribute each year. Last year, the company contributed $23 million to the plan. The pension plan covers both hourly and salaried employees.This year, 6,000 former hourly employees and 3,000 former salaried employees are receiving benefits from the plan. The changes in the number of retired hourly employees from one year to the next is expected to vary according to a normal distribution with a mean of 4% and a standard deviation of 1%. The change in the number of retired salaried employees from one year to the next is expected to vary between 1% and 4% according to a truncated normal distribution with a mean of 2% and a standard deviation of 1%. Currently, hourly retirees receive an average benefit of $15,000 per year, and salaried retirees receive an average annual benefit of $40,000. Both of these averages are expected to increase annually with the rate of inflation, which is assumed to vary between 2% and 7% according to a triangular distribution with a most likely value of 3.5%. The current balance in the company’s pension fund is $1.5 billion. Investments in this fund earn an annual return that is assumed to be normally distributed with a mean of 12% and a standard deviation of 2%. Create a model for this problem and use simulation to determine the pension fund contribution the company should make in the current year. What is your recommendation?Turn in your simulation file, whether it is a spreadsheet, R script, etc.
Pension Roth Accounts Retirement Income Calculations Excel Worksheet

YNF Project Description and Requirements.

I’m working on a accounting project and need an explanation to help me understand better.

Forrest runs Y Not Flowers, Inc. (YNF), a wholesale flower distributor with stores in several
major metropolitan areas of the U.S. He is considering expanding his business, but he thinks his
current accounting and financial systems are restricting that expansion. He also worries that YNF
is not adequately prepared to face expected business risks. He has come to you for assistance.
Your supervisor met with Forrest and discussed his requirements in detail. At that meeting, they
agreed on the following deliverables for your project.
1. (10 points) Document process activity using BPMN. These diagrams will serve multiple
purposes. YNF expects to use them to train new employees. Plus, they will provide
information about potential improvements to those processes by the efficient use of
information technology. Additionally, they will also highlight areas where YNF is exposed to
unnecessary risks in his business. [hint: read “Summary_of_YNF_Interviews.docx” to
understand business process]
1.1. (2.5 points) YNF Sales: 1.2. (2.5 points) YNF Flower Purchases:1.3. (2.5 points) YNF Miscellaneous/Administrative Purchases:
1.4. (2.5 points) YNF Timekeeping and Payroll: 2. (5 points) Prepare an integrated data model using UML class diagrams and the REA
framework. This data model will serve as the blueprint for YNF’s prototype database that
you will also develop. [hint: each spreadsheet in “YNF_data.xlsx” represents one class]
3. (2 points) Prepare a prototype database for YNF. Forrest has agreed to provide financial data
from his business for the 1st quarter of his fiscal year in EXCEL format. Move the data into
Access, structure it appropriately, and set relationships consistent with your data model.
[hint: refer to “Guide_to_Importing_EXCEL_data_into_Access.docx”]5. (4 points) Evaluate YNF’s financial performance for the 1st quarter, and explain those ratios.
Also, evaluate performance against the past performance in “YNF_Financial_History.xlsx”.
6. (4 points) Recommend changes to YNF business processes to make it more effective and
YNF Project Description and Requirements

3 parts/Topic Proposal/Rough Draft/Final Draft.

Please Help!Last Tudor was late and had to redo assignment 2x and still got a zero for the assignments-I need this ASAP please please!Research Paper: Topic ProposalSee the Details for Research Paper for full instructions and the Research Paper Grading Rubric for the research paper.Remember that your proposal must include:Your thesis and at least two main points in support of itRefresh your knowledge of thesis statements by doing the interactive exercise included this weekThree sources you will use for your paper, not counting the story and film themselves, presented in MLA formatAn analysis of how each source will help you make your argument and how each is credibleRefresh your knowledge of literary argument by doing the interactive exercise included this weekSubmit to the digital drop box.I need this in 3 parts:Topic proposal and three proposed sources -Rough draft of your essay Final draft ****Attached is the rubric and final details****
3 parts/Topic Proposal/Rough Draft/Final Draft

ECE 465 GCU Strategies for Engaging and Working with Young Students Discussion.

Clinical Field Experience B: Celebrating our World Activity Implementation Working with young students in small groups is an effective way to engage them in social studies concepts and encourage them to apply the content to real-world experiences.Allocate at least 3 hours in the field to support this field experience.As a part of the Celebrating our World event, you created an example of a learning activity. Review that activity with your mentor teacher, and work with your mentor teacher to find a time to implement that activity with a small group of students. n a 250-500 word reflection, discuss your experience implementing the small group activity. How does the instructional activity engage students and encourage them to apply content to real-world experiences? How will you apply what you have learned to future professional practice?APA format is not required, but solid academic writing is expected.This assignment uses a rubric. Review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.You are required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite. Refer to the LopesWrite Technical Support articles for assistance.Due Date: 30-Aug-2020 at 11:59:59 PM
ECE 465 GCU Strategies for Engaging and Working with Young Students Discussion

Pricing Decision and Nash Equilibrium Price Questions

Pricing Decision and Nash Equilibrium Price Questions.

Q #1 You have just been hired as the manager for a Fortune 500 company. In your new role you have three primary tasks that are due within the next two weeks. The first task is to determine pricing for a new product that directly competes with another company’s product. A group of market analysts have run several models to determine the profitability of each pricing decision made by you and the competing company. Below are their results (profits are in millions). Competitor Price Low Same Price Price High Your Firm Price Low 2, 2 4, 1 5, 0 Same Price 1, 4 3, 3 3, 1 Price High 0, 5 1, 4 3, 3 1. Which pricing strategy do you choose? 2. Why did you choose this pricing strategy? 3. Was there a better strategy to choose? If so, why didn’t you choose it? Your second task is the renegotiation of contracts. You have learned that negotiations had stalled between the prior management and you want make sure that the current negotiations are completed, as production needs to ramp up for the upcoming holiday season. The production crew wants a raise, whereas you want to keep costs at a minimum but also improve worker morale—which may lead to more productivity. Below are the most likely scenarios (payoffs are in thousands). Competitor Bargain Hard Accommodate You Bargain Hard 0, 0 5, 2 Accommodate 2, 5 4, 4 4. What is the most likely outcome and why? 5. As the manager, what can you do to change the disagreement value of those you are bargaining with or your own disagreement value? Your last task is to hire a new employee for the data analytics department. You have several résumés on your desk and one catches your eye. The applicant has graduated summa cum laude from a top 20 institution, they held an internship at another Fortune 500 company, and have been involved in the local community. 6. Why did this résumé catch your eye as compared to the other résumés? 7. You want to hire the applicant, but are risk averse. List two ways you can be assured that the applicant is a good choice. 8. Even though the new hire looked great on paper, they have quickly become a problem (due to lack of effort) in their department. You need to act, as you don’t want turmoil throughout the department and company. List two ways to improve the employee’s work effort and productivity. 9. After a long week, you’ve finally had the chance to look over the data. You’ve found that the new hire generates $1,000 of additional productivity per week. You also know that the new hire earns $30/hour. Thinking about this, you’re unsure if hiring the new data analyst was a wise decision. What amount of hours should the analyst work for this new hire to be a prosperous one? Q #2 You are conducting market research on the largest firms in the video game industry. You have found out each firm’s sales and the industry sales. Below are your results. Firm Sales (millions) 1 $500 2 $600 3 $300 4 $900 5 $750 6 $800 Industry $5,500 1. Based on your research you determine that the four firm concentration ratio is _____ and you can classify this industry as a(n) _____? 2. There are 10 other firms in this industry and they evenly split the remaining industry sales. What is the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index for this industry? 3. Will the Department of Justice allow a merger to take place between firms 4 and 6? Why or why not? As luck would have it, you are able to collect data on two of the firms you have been researching. The products they sell are homogenous. Below is the estimated demand function for each firm and their marginal costs: Q = 80 – 4PA + 4PB MC = 2 4. What is the price response curve for each firm? 5. What is the Nash Equilibrium price that each firm should charge? Being satisfied with the results you found, you happen upon a new set of data for two other firms in the industry who have been fiercely competing. You analyze the data and come up with the following: Firm B Lower Price Raise Price Firm A Lower Price 1, 1 3, 0 Raise Price 0, 3 2, 2 6. The payouts represent profits for each firm given a pair of strategies. You think the firms will make this a one-shot promotion. What is the likely outcome and why? 7. You’ve reconsidered what each firm is doing. Now, you believe the firms will act in a behavior that seeks long-run profits instead of short-run profits. What is the most likely outcome now? Why? You’ve researched many aspects of this industry and have a good understanding of how it works. However, in a recent change, the firms find themselves switching to a new technology that increases their productivity. There has also been an increase in the incomes from those who buy video games. 8. Draw a supply and demand diagram showing the before and after effects of the changes. Use the price you found in question 5 as your starting market price. Be sure to label all parts of the graph. Q #3 Two firms currently comprise the market for chicken sandwiches. One firm has been in the market for 50 years and has considerable market share. The other firm has been in the market for 25 years and is trying to erode the market share of the first firm. Below is the inverse demand function for the market. Each firm also faces marginal costs of $1. P(Q) = $8 – 0.25Q MC = $1 1. How many chicken sandwiches will each firm produce (assume this is thousands)? 2. What price will each firm charge? 3. How much in profit will each firm earn? How much will the industry earn in profit? 4. Draw a supply and demand diagram for this market. Be sure to appropriately label all parts on the diagram. Use the price and quantity you found in questions 1 and 2. (Hint: the supply curve is found by multiplying MC times Q). 5. How much is consumer and producer surplus in this market? 6. A new study shows that chicken sandwiches are delicious. At the same time, each firm faces rising wages as the “Fight for $15” becomes a reality. Show these changes on your graph from question 4. Each firm is not thrilled that the “Fight for $15” became a reality. They are now back to the drawing board to determine how to enhance profitability. The graph below shows the results of the first firm’s research. Popeye’s Lower Price Raise Price Chick-fil-A Lower Price 3, 3 4, 1 Raise Price 1, 4 2, 2 7. If the other firm has the same results, what is the most likely strategy of each firm? 8. In an effort to surpass Chick-fil-A, Popeye’s is considering placing drive-thru kiosks to create more efficient lines and reduce costs. The investment is expected to cost $20 million. Over the next 5 years, the kiosks are expected to generate income flows of $9 million, $7.5 million, $5million, $3 million and $1 million, at which time the kiosks will need to be replaced. If the average interest rate is 8%, should Popeye’s invest in the new kiosks? Why? Q #4 You have crunched the numbers and found your business has the following demand and cost functions: Q = $150 – 5P TC = $1,000 – 3Q + 0.05Q2 1. What is your business’ marginal revenue function and marginal cost function? 2. What is the profit maximizing price and quantity? You have found your profit maximizing price and quantity, but a little market research determined that there were five other firms with similar marginal revenues and marginal costs. When you combined the output of all firms (under the assumption they chose their profit maximizing quantity as well) you came up with the following table: Price ($) Quantity Demanded Quantity Supplied 0 750 0 4 650 75 8 550 150 12 450 225 16 350 350 20 250 425 3. Draw the appropriate supply and demand graph. a) What is the equilibrium price and quantity in this market? b) At a price of $8, will there be a shortage or surplus in this market? c) At a price of $20, will there be a shortage or surplus in this market? You don’t think this market is as competitive as you originally assumed. Instead, you think there are enough quality differences in your product over your competitors that you can increase the price. Being cautious, you first decided to find the current price elasticity of demand. 4. Using the demand function above: a) What is the price elasticity of demand when price is set to equilibrium price and quantity? b) Is your product price elastic or price inelastic? How do you know? 5. You experiment with a 5% decrease in price. What is your new price and quantity (hint: be sure to use your demand and inverse demand functions)? As it turns out, you do have a competitor whose product closely matches yours. This leads to a predicament, as you have already raised your product price. Assume the numbers below represent the change in profit you will receive if you keep your price as is or if you decide to lower it (positive numbers increase profit; negative numbers decrease profit) Competitor Keep Price Lower Price You Keep Price -50, -50 -100, 100 Lower Price 100, -100 50, 50 6. Based on your analysis, what should you do? Why should you do this? 7. Suppose we are operating in the short-run. If market conditions change and more consumers enter the market and your resource costs (and competitors) increase; what are the likely effects on the supply and demand curves you drew in question 3? Show this in your graph, be sure to label the changes, if any. Q #5 Over the past few decades, Boeing’s chief competitor was Airbus. Recently, smaller firms have entered the market. One of these firms is Embraer. Embraer recently had one of the best-selling business jets, the Phenom 300. Though, there are competitors, Boeing has led the market in terms of pricing. 1. What type of market structure is this and what model might we use to analyze it? These companies have the following total cost functions with A = Airbus, E = Embraer and B = Boeing: TCA = $1,500,000 + $30,000,000QA + $500,000QA2 TCE = $484,000,000 + $10,000,000QE + $250,000QE2 TCB = $3,000,000,000 + $2,000,000QB + $55,000QB2 The industry demand curve for this type of jet aircraft is: Q = 950 – 0.000015P 2. What are the supply functions for Airbus and Embraer? (Hint: these firms operate as price takers) 3. What is Boeing’s demand function? (Hint: Boeing’s demand function is the industry demand curve minus the following firms’ supply or QB = Q – QA – QE. Use the answers you found in question 2) 4. What is Boeing’s profit-maximizing price and output. 5. What are Airbus’ and Embraer’s profit-maximizing output levels? 6. Is the industry in short-run equilibrium, i.e. does firm supply equal total demand? 7. Which firms are earning an economic profit? Which ones are earning a normal rate of return? How do you know? 8. Is the industry in a long-run equilibrium? Why or why not? Q #6 You’ve been hired as a consultant by a local company to help them determine what course of action they should take regarding future investment in capital. The firm is currently profitable and has the ability to acquire a loan at a 6% interest rate. They are looking to expand their current operations, but are unsure if the investment will be profitable. The market looks to be in a long-run equilibrium (i.e. the marginal entrant is making a normal rate of return), so you are unsure if the firm should make the investment. You crunch the numbers anyway. 1. The investment will cost $500,000 and is expected to provide income of $275,000 in year 1, $200,000 in year 2, and $100,000 in year 3 after which the piece of capital will need to be replaced. Is the investment profitable? Why or why not? 2. You are unsure that the answer you found is reliable, so you ask for more information. The owner tells you that previous experience ensures an 80% success rate and that they can scrap the capital for one-fifth its value. With this new information do you find the project to be successful? Why or why not? Satisfied with your analysis, the owner asks you to conduct further analysis. The owner is interested in changing market conditions and how that will affect business. She thinks there has been a change in demand, but wants to be sure. You ask for her sales so that you can run a regression to determine her demand. You get the following: QD = 500 – 0.25P + 0.2I where P is the price of the own good and I is income. 3. Using the demand function above, draw a demand curve and label the graph appropriately. Assume that income is held constant 4. You analyzed the local market and have found that average income is expected to increase from $45,000 to $45,500. Show this change in your graph. Label all parts appropriately. What change in demand have you found? Digging further into the business, you want to give the owner a full set of information to help her better understand her pricing decisions going forward. You find that the business’ marginal cost is $1,200. 5. What is the profit-maximizing quantity the business should pursue? 6. What is the business’ price elasticity of demand? 7. If the business is currently producing 50 units, at a price of $1,200, should they increase production to increase profit? Using the optimal price formula, what is the price the business should charge? Lastly, you assess the entry of a new competitor into the local business’ market. You make a few calculations to determine what the profit per unit will be if the entrant comes into the market or stays out. Below is part of your analysis. 8. Looking at your game tree, what would you advise the owner to do and why? Q #7 The instructor for the course has caught several students cheating. He asks the students to come to his office on separate days. He confronts each student about their actions and shows them proof that directly ties them to their misdeeds. He asks the students to either confess to the misdeed or stay silent. As the instructor is benevolent, he is only considering filing academic misconduct charges if the students become hostile. The following is a set of potential outcomes (final assigned grades): Student 2 Stay Quiet Confess Student 1 Confess D, F D, D Stay Quiet F, F F, D 1. What is the most likely outcome? Why/? 2. Is this a Pareto optimal outcome? Why or why not? 3. What can the instructor do to ensure that students do not cheat in the course? 4. Why is it in the best interest of the instructor to be benevolent towards his students early in the term, i.e. why would the instructor be forgiving of an early term late assignment? (Note: if you get this question then you have a strong grasp of game theory concepts).
Pricing Decision and Nash Equilibrium Price Questions

MHA 560 Trident Health Information Systems Standards and Security Presentation

help writing MHA 560 Trident Health Information Systems Standards and Security Presentation.

Module 3 – CaseHEALTH INFORMATION SYSTEMS STANDARDS AND SECURITYCase AssignmentAs the Health IT director at Trident Hospital, you are asked to create a presentation to give to the Board of Directors on the new EHR that was implemented. For this presentation, create a 13- to 15-slide presentation that highlights the standards, policies, and technical requirements of the Electronic Medical Record System (EMR). In addition, you are to discuss the Promoting Interoperability standards and what types of data is being collected to ensure the hospital is meeting the Promoting Interoperability stages.Assignment ExpectationsProvide a 13- to 15-slide (excluding title slide and reference slide) slide PowerPoint presentation.Your presentation must cover the standards, policies and technical requirements associated with an EHR implementation.Your presentation must also include slide(s) that discuss the Promoting Interoperability standards and what types of data should be collected to ensure meeting the Promoting Interoperability stages.Include speaker notes to support your presentation.Your references and citations should be consistent with a particular formatting style, such as APA.Provide references from at least 3 scholarly articles (peer-reviewed). Do not include information from non-scholarly materials such as wikis, encyclopedias, or (or similar websites). Use the following link for additional information on how to recognize peer-reviewed journals: additional information on reliability of sources, review the following source:Georgetown University Library. (n.d.). Evaluating internet resources. Retrieved from response should incorporate the outcomes of the module with the requirements of this assignment and will be graded according to the rubric.Ensure to cite as much as needed Module 3 – BackgroundHEALTH INFORMATION SYSTEMS STANDARDS AND SECURITYRequired ReadingHung, S., Chen, C. & Wang, K. (2016). Critical success factors for the implementation of integrated healthcare information systems projects: An organizational fit perspective. Communication of the Association for Information Systems, 34 (39). Retrieved from:, C. S., Smith, B., Vanderlinden, H., & Nealand, A. (2017). Security techniques for the Electronic Health Records. Journal of Medical Systems, 41(8)., M. (2014). Healthcare information systems opportunities and challenges. In Mehdi Khosrow-Pour (Ed.), Encyclopedia of information science and technology, third edition (pps. 258-267). IGI Global. Retrieved from:, P. (2017). Midwest (MWAIS) 5-2010 Standards and Interoperability in Healthcare Information Systems: Current Status, Problems, and Research Issues. Retrieved from: ReadingFDA Device Software Functions Including Mobile Medical Applications Health Standards and Architecture:
MHA 560 Trident Health Information Systems Standards and Security Presentation

The Meaning Of National Security Politics Essay

The Meaning Of National Security Politics Essay. The development of the concept of security in the global scenario is being influenced by the changes in environment. This could be clearly seen in the changes of the nature of security during the world war and the post cold war era. In post cold war era, the emergence of new civil conflicts, large-scale atrocities and even genocide are in incremental rate. As globalization takes shape in the post cold war era, it is strongly believe that it will drag along significant increment in violent crimes, drug trades, transnational terrorism, diseases, environmental degradation and many other aspects of human life. These contemporary security concerns couples with the enduring problems of ethnic violence and inter-state conflicts are now at the forefront of potential and existing threats. 3.2 CONCEPTUAL MEANING OF SECURITY Security according to Barry Buzan is an “under-developed concept” (Hawkesworth and Kogan, Vol.2 [46] ). Its status as a controversial political value and its habitual misuse as a rationale for state policies and actions, imply that the concept lacks of the intrinsic meaning. Buzan (1991) explains that one of the reasons behind the slow conceptual development of security can be attributed to the fact that the concept defies simple definition [47] . Another is that power dominates security in the realist school, which has been preeminent in international relations theory. Security has always been interpreted as the natural consequence of effective accumulation and exertion of power. Security is intrinsically a relational concept. In an objective sense, it measures the absence of threats to acquired values. In a subjective sense, security measures the absence of fear that such values will be attacked [48] . Lexical definitions of being secure refer to being “safe against attack, impregnable, reliable …,” on the contrary, and to being “untroubled by danger or apprehension” on the other [49] . This definition points to the relational (subjective) nature of the concept of security. One should note that the objective physical condition favorable to one’s secure existence has meaning only when set against the capabilities and intentions of possible adversaries. This also suggests that there can be no absolute definition of security. 3.3 THE MEANING OF NATIONAL SECURITY The broadening of the scope of security in the context of the nation-state is a controversial issue. As mentioned, there are scholars who were against the move to broaden the scope and meaning of national security for fear of destroying the analytical utility of the concept. Richard Ullman who initially supported the call to widen the scope of security eventually contradicted his initial proposition and is now engaged in a discourse with the proponents of a broader scope of security. According to Ullman (1995), “If national security encompasses all serious and urgent threats to a nation state and its citizens, we will eventually find ourselves using a different term when we wish to make clear that our subject is the threats that might be posed by the military force of other states” [50] . In the same article, he said that the “war problem” in security is conceptually distinct from other concerns like environmental degradation or urban violence, which are better categorized as threats to well-being. The problem of defining national security springs from the fact that the meaning of security itself is ambiguous. More importantly, if one uses the state as the referent, as the term national security suggests, he will then encounter the problem of who defines national interests or set the national security agenda of the state. Some scholars define security or national security as “the protection and enhancement of values that the authoritative decision makers deem vital for the survival and well-being of the community” [51] . However, this definition of security carries with it the problems that were discussed in the previous section. Although it is true that the regime aggregates the interests of the people, to define security or national security along this line or define security from perspective of the regime is unwarranted. If one agrees that the regime is both a source of threats and a producer of insecurity, then the concept must not be defined only from this perspective. The values that the authoritative decision makers seek to protect and enhance, which are deemed necessary for the well-being of the community, often do not constitute the national security or interests of the state. Hence, they are better labeled as the national security agenda. National security is a condition open to the assessment and evaluation of both the regime and the people. Whether or not the national security agenda represents the state’s national interests is another case in point. The definition of national security interest is relative to the one defining it. On the other hand, the national security agenda can be defined objectively and easily inferred from the national security policies of the government. National Security is better defined as “the condition wherein the people’s way of life and institutions, their territorial integrity and sovereignty including their well-being are protected and enhanced” [52] . This definition captures the essence of the “state” as composed of the people and the regime. It talks about two concerns, that of the people’s interest (well being) and that of the regime (sovereignty). 3.4 PILLARS OF NATIONAL SECURITY National Security rests on several pillars: social cohesion and solidarity, economic prosperity and stability, political unity and stability. Genuine security cannot be achieved if any of these pillars are absent [53] . The degree of security, which a country enjoys, depends ultimately on the strength of the pillars of national security. A country cannot be secure when one of its national security pillars is tenuous. These three pillars of security are interrelated and mutually reinforcing. Therefore, they must be built simultaneously. The responsibility of building these pillars rest on the people and the government/regime. The government leads the people while the people provide support to the government. By analogy, the government serves as the equipment or machinery for building the pillars while the people serve as the laborers, who use the equipment in building the foundations of national security. Social Cohesion and Stability Peaceful and harmonious co-existence among the people, regardless of social and cultural differences, is a foundation of national security [54] . This is achieved when people observe mutual respect for their values and beliefs. People must also offer cooperation and mutual support. Social cohesion allows consensus building necessary for effective decision-making. With social cohesion, the choices, decisions, and the consequent actions that government undertakes based on the concerns of the people become effective and persist despite challenges from the outside. Social cohesion embraces concepts such as moral spiritual consensus and cultural cohesiveness. Economic Prosperity and Stability Economic prosperity enhances the well being of the people. Without economic prosperity, the aspirations of the people to live a decent life cannot be attained. It is only when the country enjoys economic prosperity that people can live with dignity. It is a key element in augmenting national power, prestige, and influence. The development and sustenance of diplomatic and military power heavily depends on this. Economic prosperity embraces concepts such as ecological balance and sustainable development [55] . Political Unity and Stability Political unity means that there is cooperation among the different branches of government. It exists when those who exercise legitimate authority and political power act in concert toward the attainment common goals. When the political leadership is divided, the people are caught in a quandary as to which among those who exercise legitimate authority and political power should they support [56] . This puts the people in a dilemma where they have reservations and doubts on the policies and actions that the government undertakes. Public support is therefore essential to the government’s success in meeting security challenges. The social, economic, and political aspects are permanent elements of national security foundations. The customs, traditions, laws, policies shall determine their respective status and quality, and strategies adopted by the government. The three pillars shall be created and shall operate within the context of the prevailing politico-legal organizing ideology of the state. It should be noted that no single pillar could guarantee security on its own. 3.5 THE DNYAMICS OF THE FOUNDATIONS OF NATIONAL SECURITY The pillars of national security are interrelated and mutually reinforcing. Social cohesion affects economic prosperity and stability. Social divisions and strife (e.g., sectoral or ethno-linguistic conflicts) could retard the nation’s economic development activities. For instance, policy disagreements between the government and the private sector could eventually affect the welfare of the people and the nation’s income. Economic prosperity or the level of development of the nation’s economy and the peoples’ sense of security has a positive correlation. Citizens of developed countries certainly feel more secure than those of underdeveloped countries. Economic development and prosperity are perhaps the ultimate objective a nation seeks to achieve. Economic development affects social cohesion [57] . When there is only a small pie available to be divided for the people, equal distribution will create a situation where each of the recipients get a small piece not sufficient for his needs. However, unequal distribution will leave others with little or no piece at all. Both situations leave the people dissatisfied. From Indonesia’s experience, economic instability can undermine the legitimacy of the regime. Barely ten months after the July 2, 1997 financial crisis hit Thailand, the regime of President Suharto was toppled. Although Indonesia is a relatively rich country in terms of natural resources and has achieved a relatively high economic growth prior the financial crisis, economic instability made the Suharto regime unpopular, which led to its demise [58] . Economic growth, once attained, does not automatically translate and ensure security. When the fruits of economic growth are not equitably distributed within domestic society, the threat of social unrest remains. Inequity or the rising inequality in the distribution of economic gains creates social divisions that could lead to violence and social anarchy. Political unity refers to a united leadership. Unity among the political leaders from the different branches of government facilitates fast and effective implementation of policies and programs, which are requisites of a secure nation. It allows government to take firm and decisive steps in addressing the different challenges that the nation faces. It also facilitates the quick delivery of services needed by the people. Each of the pillars of national security has to be stable and solid. Social cohesion, economic prosperity, and political unity if not stable and solid will not lead to genuine security. Thus, once these pillars have been built, they have to be maintained, protected, and enhanced. These are the basic responsibilities of a state. 3.6 BUILDING THE FOUNDATIONS OF NATIONAL SECURITY The different pillars of national security are not intrinsic to every nation. They have to be built. The responsibility of building the foundations of national security ultimately rests on the people as its ultimate beneficiary, and the duly constituted government, which shall exercise authority delegated to it by the people [59] . The regime shall lead the people towards the attainment of national security by formulating appropriate policies and strategies, and laws conducive to the enhancement and protection of national security interests. The people on the other hand, shall support the government in its security engagements. The government, through the different agencies and instrumentalities, has the responsibility of formulating appropriate policies, as well as strategies, which will pave way to the realization of the aspirations of the people. 3.7 DIPLOMACY AND MILITARY Security is a condition or state of affairs, which can be created or attained using the different political instruments such as diplomacy and military. In the literature, three conventional instruments of national power have been identified: economic, politico-diplomatic, and military instruments [60] . The economic instrument refers to the use of economic rewards and/or penalties to influence the policies of government leaders or states. This is done through Aid, Trade Preference Status, Trade Embargo, etc. The diplomatic instrument consists of the activities of a country’s diplomats to convince another party or state to comply with the desired policy preferences of the former. The military instrument refers to the outright use or employment of force to get states to comply with the desired policies. In this framework, the instruments of national power include only diplomacy and military. Economic strength is not included in the list. The economic aspect or the level of economic development is identified as a foundation and not as an instrument for the pursuit of national security interests and objectives. The reason being is that economic strength, as an instrument, finds expression in diplomacy (economic punishment or rewards) and a sophisticated military. Japan and the US are both economically prosperous countries, yet their abilities to influence the policies of other states differ. Diplomacy is commonly understood as belonging only to the realm of foreign relations. This is understandable since, in most cases, diplomacy finds its utility in the conduct of international relations. Under this framework, diplomacy is broadly defined as a means to shape the security environment by influencing policies and/or behavior of political actors, state and non-state actors alike, through an act of persuasion [61] . This definition extends to actors in the domestic arena and is not limited to international relations. This broader definition of diplomacy does not mean that all acts of persuasion are diplomatic acts. Diplomacy applies only to political entities or groups [62] . Interstate diplomacy and intrastate diplomacy have the same purpose and utility. The only difference between the two is that in the interstate diplomacy parties involve has mutual acknowledgement of their sovereignties while the opposite is true in the intrastate diplomacy. Example is the peace engagement the Philippine government had with the MNLF and the current peace engagement of the government with the MILF. Diplomacy in international relations is an act of one sovereign nation to influence the behaviors or policies of another sovereign nation by means of persuasion. Diplomacy is defined as such a process because one state (object of persuasion) is not subject to the laws the other (persuading state) [63] . Thus, the former cannot be compelled to behave according to the latter’s desire. In most cases, persuasion is a function of economic punishment or reward. Thus, effective diplomacy must be back up by economic rewards or economic punishment. This is one reason why the economic aspect is treated as foundation and not as instrument. Military instrument, like diplomacy is a function of economic development. Government’s capability to acquire sophisticated military arsenal and build a strong and capable armed force depends on the country’s economic status. The modernization of the nation’s armed force requires the backing of its economic and technological forces, and the modernization level of national defense can only be improved gradually along with the enhancement of the country’s economic strength. Further, a capable armed force complements diplomacy. Often, when one carries a big stick, there is little room for discussion. The effectiveness of military and diplomatic instruments depends heavily on the state’s economic status. The question of when, how, and against whom these instruments will be used is a matter of choice of the people, as articulated by the government. Political unity and social cohesion, therefore, affects the manner, timing, and the object of the political instruments. The strength and effectiveness of the instruments depends on the strength and stability of the foundations of national security. 3.8 NATIONAL SECURITY INSTRUMENTS AND NATIONAL SECURITY FOUNDATION The elements of national power include social, politico-diplomatic, economic, and military aspects. Accordingly, national unity (consisting of social cohesion and political unity and solidarity), economic solidarity and strength, diplomatic and military strength and capability of the state are all identified in the literature as instruments, which the state may use in pursuing its national security objectives or interests [64] . Thus it is deems necessary to separate social cohesion, political unity, solidarity, and economic strength from the list of instruments. Although all of these are instrumental in the state’s successes or failures in pursuing national interests, it is important that they be distinguished, based on the functions they support. One reason is that the social, political, and economic aspects of security are often developed over a long period. Little can be done, at least in the short run, when the state’s reserves of raw materials, socio-political structure, and other initiatives require the formulation of a range of policy instruments that are not normally available. This distinction between the foundations and instruments of national security is perhaps best explained by the words of Malaysian Prime Minister Mahathir Mohammad when he defined security as follows, “Security is not just a matter of military capability. National security is inseparable from political stability, economic success, and social harmony. Without these all the guns in the world cannot prevent a country from being overcome by its enemies, whose ambitions can sometimes be fulfilled without firing a single shot [65] “. Political, economy and social stabilities are thus, contributors and essentials to achieve security. 3.9 SUMMARY In summary, in the literature, the people and the state are the only identified two distinct referents of security. This divide between the people and state is unwarranted. As it is, the people are an essential element of the state and that there are two organic/living components of the state: government and the people. The regime exercises authority over the people according to the political-legal ideology adopted by the state. However, there is an analytical utility in distinguishing the regime from the state. The usual equation of the regime with the state makes analysis difficult and the conclusions based on this analysis are often contestable. Sometimes, identified threats to state security are actually threats not to the state but only to the regime. Similarly, the interest of the regime is not equivalent to the interest of the state and the latter’s interests may in fact serve as threats to the security of the people. National interests composed of the people’s and the regime’s interests shall be the responsibility of the state (people and government) [66] . In the realm of international relations, the state shall be the key actor (state is represented by the government). Although he acknowledges the existence of non-state groupings (i.e., multi-national companies and non-government organizations), he believes that the government remains the final arbiter on the demands of these groupings. The interests of these groups shall be included in the aggregation process and shall be included in the security agenda of the state. The Meaning Of National Security Politics Essay

Chapter 2 Questions

Chapter 2 Questions. Paper details Answer the following questions to confirm that you understand the concepts presented in this module. Each question should be answered in one to two paragraphs, and your answers should be saved in a Word document titled Ch2_YourLastName..doc Give and an example of service firms that use the strategy of focus and differentiation and the strategy of focus and overall cost leadership. 2. What ethical issuses are associated with micromarketing? 3. For each of the three generic strategies (i.e. cost leadership, differentiation, and focus) which of the four competitive uses of information is most powerful ? 4. Give an example of a firm that began as world-class and has remained in that category. 5. Could firms in the “world-class service delivery” stage of competitiveness be described as “learning organizations’? 6. Compare and contrast sustainability efforts in service operations and manufacturing. 7. Conduct a triple bottom line evaluation for a hospital by identifying its social, economic, and environmental attributes that enhance the sustainability movement.Chapter 2 Questions