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Penn State University Tele Communication Discussion

Penn State University Tele Communication Discussion.

THIS IS A DISCUSSION POSTTURNITIN SCORE MUST BE AT OR BELOW 20%…as I will be checkingUse APA FORMATING with QUOTATION MARKS and Remembering to cite your sources please.Prior to beginning work on this discussion, view the video Betting on the Future, (Links to an external site.) read the required articles by Luxton, Pruitt & Osenbach (2014) and Novotney (Links to an external site.) (2011), and review the required websites. In addition, research a minimum of one peer-reviewed article from the Ashford University Library which reports research findings on the reliability or validity of mental health testing via telehealth. Do note that it is customary to include any of the following remote methods under the framework of “telehealth”: telephone, video conferencing, interactive websites, email, or online chat. For this discussion, you will take on the role of a mental health professional in private practice who is considering providing telehealth assessment services. You are researching the types of services you could provide in order to present your ideas to one of the world’s leading healthcare investors introduced in this week’s assigned video. In your initial post, begin with a paragraph briefly summarizing the types of mental health assessments which can be provided over the phone or through other remote methods such as video conferencing, interactive websites, email, or online chat. Analyze your peer-reviewed journal research article(s) and explain the types of testing and assessments that are best suited for telehealth delivery. Evaluate the ethical issues involved in providing psychological assessment and testing services via telehealth methods. Research typical costs for comparable in-person psychological assessment and testing services and report your findings to the class. Identify a menu of psychological assessment services you would like to offer and explain how your model would deliver cost-effective and competent assessment services in comparison to in-person assessment services. Distinguish any specific types of psychological testing that should not be administered remotely and explain your rationale.PEER EXAMPLE POST…Please do NOT copy Peer responses below…this is just to give you an understanding of what to do.It seems that telehealth practices have become more and more utilized over the last few years, not to mention an increase over the last 5 months due to COVID19 restrictions. With telehealth one can simply connect via the internet to offer video counseling right from their office or home to any place in the world. For example one can offer counseling to someone overseas and the next minute, do the same for someone stateside. Many articles found in the Ashford library also state the telehealth offers a potential cost and time effective solution (Hodge & Others, 2019, p.431). According to in 2017 telehealth practices were shown to reduce the cost of care/treatment by nearly 50% , as many in person visits cost approx $146, telehealth visits cost approx $79. Many of the most talked about methods of telehealth include; video conferencing, online chat or telephone.Mobile technology that may offer remote options for assessment administration, may include assessment such as Ecological momentary assessment (EMA), Patient Health Questionnaires (PHQ-9 and PHQ-2) or cognitive functioning tests (Arean, Hoa Ly & Andersson, 2016) . The EMA is used to capture a client’s emotions, functions and activity. Pearson Clinical gives more detailed information regarding the assessments that may be given via telehealth practice as well as material for purchase. Over time these types of tests have found to be just as reliable as those given the traditional way of pencil and paper. Speaking of reliability and validity; one of the most obvious noted differences involves the delivery of the information, if a client is in a room with a clinician it may influence how information is assessed. For example, nonverbal information can be very useful for many reasons to include emotional state and risk behaviors. It is also important to note the differences as there are some assessments not available for telehealth practices as they involve hands on interaction, such as the WAIS-IV.As there are ethical principles one must follow for in person care/treatment specified in the Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct, there are also guidelines for telehealth practices. For example, it would be inappropriate practice to select, develop, or modify assessment instruments or alter procedures for remoteadministration without evidence of sufficient scientific validation or the appropriate disclosure of limitations (Luxton, Pruitt & Osenbach, 2014, p.30) . It is also a requirement that both physical and electronic safeguards should be used to assure confidentiality during remote psychological assessments. END OF EXAMPLE RESPONSE POSTResources Below:Luxton, D. D., Pruitt, L. D., & Osenbach, J. E. (2014). Best practices for remote psychological assessment via telehealth technologies. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 45(1), 27-35. Retrieved from Summit Group [Producer] (2014). Betting on the future (Links to an external site.) [Video file]. Retrieved from
Penn State University Tele Communication Discussion

Norfolk University Importance of Marketing in Long Term Care Organizations Essay.

I’m working on a health & medical writing question and need a sample draft to help me understand better.

For this exam, you will write a critical analyses paper demonstrating understanding and application of key concepts learned on chapters 18-20. Your paper must be 3-4 pages in length excluding references pages, 12p font, and double spaced. Separate all major topics into individual headings for better flow and clarity. Adherence to APA 7th Edition formatting guidelines must be demonstrated where appropriate. Your paper will include a critical analyses of the questions below. A critical analyses entails a comprehensive examination of key concepts and/or theories.Please critically analyze the following:The importance of marketing in long-term care organizations.The relationship between strategic planning and marketing in long-term care.The major challenges that have faced the long-term care system in recent years.The success of the system in responding to the challenges outlined.The challenges and opportunities future long-term care managers are likely to face.
Norfolk University Importance of Marketing in Long Term Care Organizations Essay

Do you think his letter was effective in what he was trying to accomplish/convey? Please justify why or why not.. I need help with a Communications question. All explanations and answers will be used to help me learn.

Please read Dr. Martin Luther King’s letter from Birmingham Jail:Retrieved from on December 18, 2018.
Please answer the following question(s):
After reading the letter, please explain and provide examples where Dr. King used pathos, logos, and ethos. Do you think his letter was effective in what he was trying to accomplish/convey? Please justify why or why not.
Respond to the topic in an informed, rigorous, and professional manner. Your response should demonstrate an application of the concepts as well as a reflection of your personal experience.These should be around 100-150 words
Do you think his letter was effective in what he was trying to accomplish/convey? Please justify why or why not.

The Characteristics of a Good Presentation

Business is all about selling — a product, topic or concept. When making a business presentation, the most important thing is to know your material. If you do not know everything about what you are selling, it is not likely that the audience will be buying. Presentation is the practice of showing and explaining the content of a topic to an audience or . Presentations come in nearly as many forms as there are life situations. In the business world, there are sales presentations, informational and motivational presentations, first encounters, interviews, briefings, status reports, image-building, and training sessions. Presentations skills and public speaking skills are very useful in many aspects of work and life. Developing the confidence and capability to give good presentations, and to stand up in front of an audience and speak well, are also extremely helpful competencies for self-development too. Presentations and public speaking skills are not limited to certain special people – anyone can give a good presentation, or perform public speaking to a professional and impressive standard. Like most things, it simply takes a little preparation and practice. The formats and purposes of presentations can be very different, for example: oral , multimedia (using various media – visuals, audio etc), PowerPoint presentations, long planned presentations, educational or training sessions, lectures, and simply giving a talk on a subject to a group on a voluntary basis for pleasure. Even speeches at weddings and eulogies at funerals are types of presentations. They are certainly a type of public speaking, and are no less stressful to some people for being out of a work situation. Yet every successful presentation uses broadly the essential techniques and structures explained here. Aside from presentations techniques, confidence, experience – and preparation – are big factors. Characteristics of a good presentation Opening and closing phrases: It Should be carefully framed keeping in view the situation , audience and subject. The speaker must select an opener, which attracts listeners attention and interest by using relevant and neutral statements. Audibility of voice and words: The very first requirement of a good presentation is that . in any given circumstance, the voice and words should be audible. Bring out the meaning: It is not only the quality of the speakers voice and the clear way in which he express his ideas; it is also the variety in his voice and gestures. Any interesting subject may become boring if a speaker of the subject is dull. Simplicity: The speaker should deliver the speech in simple words and sentences. Simple words and sentences make the speech effective. Sincerity: Thought, feeling and imagination must stimulate a speech if it is to sound sincere. all the three elements should be present in a speech and the speaker must always think, feel and imagine before he speaks if he is to bring out the full meaning. Use of quotations: A speaker should be very cautious in using quotations. He should avoid too many as well as long, foreign or Latin quotations. When the quotations are used, they should be correct and full. Rehearsal: Fear of forgetting may result in stage phobia. A speaker with a stage phobia concentrations his mood excessively on himself than on the listeners of the message. Constant practice and self- confidence can, however, help in overcoming stage phobia. Environment for speaking while presentation For effective speaking the place of delivering the speech plays a very important role. The speaker must be aware of the size of the room where he or she has to deliver the speech for an oral presentation. Sometimes the room are large and echoing. Speaking in such rooms requires less resonating sound .the voice should be little muffled following the lower notes. However, it should have the required power. For the acoustically treated rooms the resonance of the speech in an oral presentation has an absolutely different kind of impression in the audience. The speaker should also check his or her voice in the rooms; find it out on his or her own, whether it reaches the last listener sitting at the back row. the room should be ventilated and illuminated. There should not be any distractions to both the speaker and the listeners. The distractions like noise and any interruptions should not be entertained. Timing for the speech in an oral presentation The efficient speaker arranges the text of his speech in such a way that till the end of the speech the listeners don not get restless. Also the time of the day affects the audience. The afternoon hours hardly make any listener interested to listen to a speech. But yet an efficient speaker may try to make that session interesting. For keeping to time an efficient speaker takes care of the concentration problem that audience has with regard to time. Initially the concentration level is not much. After a time duration it reaches its peak, then its starts falling. The end of the speech again increases the concentration level. However, the span of moderate concentration level may be attained by various concentration enhancing practices. Making The Presentation Preparation notes for the presentation For the speech in an oral presentation if the speaker writes out the complete speech and learns it by heart when exact speech is delivered it sounds stilted. He or she reduces it to short notes and puts them on cards. These notes are nothing but key words. The speaker does not require the paper weight to keep his or her papers as he or she can hold the cards very easily. the card should be prepared by the speaker in his or her own handwriting as during a speech or in an oral presentation if the speaker is not able to understand key item because of its illegibility, the complete speech of the oral presentation may be ruined. On each card he or she may write some message regarding making eye contact with the audience, making, no mannerisms, slowing down when speaking fast, stressing on key words, modulating the voice etc, so that they remind him at every ste and the speech is delivered successfully. How to begin a presentation? There are various ways of beginning a speech; the aim is to catch the attention of the audience. One may start with a question, a starting fact, a prominent statistic. One may begin with an anecdote or story, thus, “ladies and gentlemen, I am reminded of a story” one may make some personal references, expressing one’s great pleasure in being invited to speak and so on. A well planned introduction motivates and stimulates the listeners. Simultaneously it generates confidence in the speaker. The impact of an impressive introduction is as follows: It grabs the attention of the audience. It establishes rapport with the audience. It earns the trust and belief of the audience in the speaker. The introduction showing the speaker’s personalisation of the topic generates a feel in audience about its significance. It creates the first impression of the speaker among his or her audience. An effective introduction effects a smooth transition of the audience to the aim body of the speech. The speaker should not start with an apology or with a sense of doubt. the speaker may choose from the following methods in the introduction to involve the audience in his or her speech: By relating an incident to grab the audience. By making a statement to arouse the curiosity. By presenting facts to arrest thinking. By giving statistics to startle him or her. By asking questions to make them start pondering over it. By giving a friendly look to make them feel happy and energetic. By telling a story to motivate them to think its significance. By paying a compliment to the audience to flatter them to listen to the speaker. How to end a presentation? The conclusion of the speech leaves the final impression on the minds of the listeners. a well conceived conclusion not only signals the end of the speech but also reinforces the central idea in the mind of the listeners. A good speech may lose impact all its conclusion is loose. A strong ending leaves the audience brooding and cogitating the speech they have just heard. The techniques to draw an ending of the speech are: By giving verbal clues like “let me end by saying”, “before I conclude”, “One last point”, “in conclusion”, “to sum up”,”to conclude”, etc. By our manner of delivery decreasing the pitch of the tone to the lower notes. By slowing down the articulation of words and phrases. By going back to the story or incident with which the speaker started his or her speech. By making the summary of the speech By quoting an eminent personality. The speech should not end with the expressions like “I think that’s all i had to say”. In fact the conclusion should make it clear to the audience what they should do next. The conclusion should generate the last thought in the minds of the listeners regarding the issues taken up in the speech. INTRODUCTION OF STEVE JOBS Apple CEO Steven Paul “Steve” Jobs (February 24, 1955 – October 5, 2011) is well known for his electrifying presentations. He was an American entrepreneur. He is best known as the co-founder, chairman, and chief executive officer of Apple Inc. Through Apple, he was widely recognized as a charismatic pioneer of the personal computer revolution[ and for his influential career in the computer and consumer electronics fields. Jobs also co-founded and served as chief executive of Pixar animation Studios; he became a member of the board of directors of The Walt Disney Company in 2006, when Disney acquired Pixar. Jobs also co-founded and served as chief executive of Pixar Animation Studios; he became a member of the board of directors of The Walt Disney Company in 2006, when Disney acquired Pixar. Steve jobs is definitive gold standard when it comes to giving presentations. He is such an accomplished speaker people have been known to spend the night waiting in line freezing temperature just for the opportunity to get the best seat at one of his product launches for apple. Conformation of his popularity is found in the fact YouTube currently has more than 20,000 clips of Steve jobs. Steve is not a natural, he works hard at the methodically improving his presentation There are several key techniques that Steve jobs using during his electrifies Presentations: Set the Theme Make the theme clear and consistent Create a headline that sets the direction for your meeting Provide the Outline Open and close each section with a clear transition Make is easy for the listeners to follow your story Demonstrate Enthusiasm Wow your audience Sell an Experience Make numbers and statistics meaningful Analogies help connect the dots for your audience Make it Visual Paint a simple picture that doesn’t overwhelm Give them a Show Identify your memorable moment and build up to it Give your audience an added bonus to walk away with Rehearse, Rehearse, Rehearse Spend the time to rehearse When Steve jobs incorporate a product demonstration as part of his presentation, he hits all five of these qualities every time. Short: welcome adds-on to the main event. Simple and easy to follow. Face paced and interesting Sweet: show features which are impressive. Substantial: solutions to the real world problem His demonstration of a product is always memorable. After watching and analyzing the presentations of Steve jobs, I thought about five ways to distill Jobs’ speaking techniques to help anyone craft and deliver a persuasive pitch. 1. BUILD TENSION A good novelist doesn’t lay out the entire plot and conclusion on the first page of the book. He builds up to it. Jobs begins his presentation by reviewing the “revolutionary” products Apple has introduced. According to Jobs, “every once in a while a revolutionary product comes along that changes everything…Apple has been fortunate to introduce a few things into the world.” Jobs continues by describing the 1984 launch of the Macintosh as an event that “changed the entire computer industry.” The same goes for the introduction of the first iPod in 2001, a product that he says”changed the entire music industry.” After laying the groundwork, Jobs builds up to the new device by teasing the audience: “Today, we are introducing three revolutionary products. The first is a wide-screen iPod with touch controls. The second is a revolutionary new mobile phone. And the third is a breakthrough Internet communications device.” Jobs continues to build tension. He repeats the three devices several times then says, “Are you getting it? These are not three separate devices. This is one device…today Apple is going to reinvent the phone!” The crowd goes wild. Jobs conducts a presentation like a symphony, with ebbs and flows, build ups and climaxes. It leaves his listeners wildly excited. He Build up to something unexpected in his presentations. 2. STICK TO ONE THEME PER SLIDE A brilliant designer once told me that effective presentation slides only have one message per slide. One slide , one key point. When Jobs introduced the “three revolutionary products” in the description above, he didn’t show one slide with points or mind-numbing data. An image is all he needs. The simplicity of the slides keeps the audience’s attention on the speaker, where it should be. Images are memorable, and more important, can complement the speaker. Too much text on a slide distracts from the speaker’s words. Prepare slides that are visually stimulating and focused on one key point. 3. ADD PIZZAZZ TO YOUR DELIVERY Jobs modulates his vocal delivery to build up the excitement. When he opens his presentation by describing the revolutionary products Apple created in the past, his volume is low and he speaks slowly, almost in a reverential tone. His volume continues to build until his line, “Today Apple is going to reinvent the phone.” Be an electrifying speaker by varying the speed at which you speak and by raising and lowering your voice at the appropriate times. 4. PRACTICE Jobs makes presentations look effortless because he takes nothing for granted. Jobs is known to rehearse demonstrations for hours prior to launch events. Don’t lose your audience. Rehearse a presentation out loud until you’ve nailed it. 5. BE HONEST AND SHOW ENTHUSIASM If you believe that your particular product or service will change the world, then say so. Have fun with the content. During the iPhone launch, Jobs uses many adjectives to describe the new product, including “remarkable,””revolutionary,” and “cool.” He jokes that the touch-screen features of the phone “work like magic…and boy have we patented it.” If you’re passionate about a product, service, or company, let your listeners know. Give yourself permission to loosen up, have fun, and express your enthusiasm!

A Whisper Of Aids Mary Fisher English Literature Essay

nursing essay writing service The Effectiveness of Mary Fisher’s Speech In today’s world the mention of AIDS is still capable of instantly causing an overwhelming feeling of discomfort. It is not something that is easily snuck into conversation. With this being said, to be able to stand in front of millions of people and come out and say that you have AIDS in a time where it was even less openly spoken of is very bold. Mary Fisher did just that when she told the world she had this destructive disease at the 1992 Republican National Convention Address. She was prepared, the structure of the speech was successful, and her body language was specific to her purpose, among other characteristics of a well delivered speech. Mary’s speech was effective in a time where AIDS was a whisper. No one could have delivered this speech better than she did. The speech she made was well thought out and perfect for the audience she wanted the message conveyed to. To say that her speech was effective is an understatement. Women in the audience were crying and there was much emotion displayed in the faces of all others. An effective speech is one that is delivered, accepted, and accomplishes its purpose. Mary’s speech fit all these criteria. She was not the least bit intimidated by the large audience at the Republican National Convention in Houston, Texas and all the viewers watching as her speech was broadcast. She stood behind that podium and had the perfect pitch for the microphone that was stationary in front of her. One of the most crucial components of her success in delivery was the structure of her speech. Her introduction explained how she came to be speaking in front of that audience at that moment in time. She elaborated when she mentioned “Less than three months ago at platform hearings in Salt Lake City, I asked the Republican Party to lift the shroud of silence which has been draped over the issue of HIV and AIDS” (Fisher “A Whisper of AIDS”).Her main ideas involved ignorance in regards to the epidemic, the prejudice that exists around it, and the silence that needs to be broken among those who have dealt with it. She previewed her main ideas when she said, “We have killed each other with our ignorance, our prejudice, and our silence” (Fisher “A Whisper of AIDS”). These main points were easy to follow since she clearly explained what she meant with each. She also summarized these points separately. An example would be when she mentions loving justice and ignoring prejudice as something we must not do. These summarizations allowed her main ideas to be easily identified. Another identifiable example would be her saying that the nation is at risk unless her message is embraced. She can be so passionate as to her message since she herself is HIV positive, her mentioning this established her credibility. Her language was effective as she had no grammatical errors and was easily understood. Mary’s purpose was to inform her audience on the risk of its ignorance in dealing with the gravity of AIDS. An informative speech is one that is meant to reach its audience and not allow them to leave without new information they did not have prior to listening. The whole speech was made in order to create awareness and she accomplished that. It was not a conversational presentation. Mary was able to touch the lives of others by allowing them to see how she has overcome the infection and not allowed it to overcome her. Mary’s speech was moving and she pursued and achieved her purpose. She chose to inform others so that the prejudice around AIDS could decrease by the time her kids grew up and also to prevent others from going through what she did. Her goal was to inform ALL who were listening or watching of the deteriorating disease that is AIDS and that it should not be whispered for its consequences are so loud. It made much sense since in 1992 AIDS was not taken as seriously and was not spoken of as much as it is today. Mary’s message invoked emotion as she described her experience and elaborated as to how she does not fit the stereotype of a typical person with HIV. Her message commanded attention as she simply asked her audience to build alertness for their own safety and the safety of their families. Mary’s delivery was flawless. One thing that was not clear was whether or not she mastered memorizing her speech or if it was an extemporaneous speech. Based on her eye contact, it was not even obvious if indeed she was reading. Regardless of what method she used to deliver her speech, it worked as it proved to be highly effective. Her points were very clear and precise and the structure was also well organized. She was very well prepared to face the millions of people watching her and this was obvious with her body language, her tone, her pitch, and lack of anxiety. There was never any indication of a stutter or moment of which she did not hold her ground. Throughout the duration of her speech, Mary always kept her audience’s undivided attention. She accomplished this through her body language, appearance, and tone. The audience was acknowledged when she paused for applause. Mary also was able to maintain eye contact throughout the entire speech. Since her language needed no help, she also needed no gestures. Her vibrant language was accompanied by the proper attire for such an event as she was well groomed and defined in her appearance. Mary was never uncomfortable and maintained the right posture at all moments. The language used by Mary was very colorful as she built images in your mind as she spoke. She was especially touching when stating, “Though I am white and a mother, I am one with a black infant struggling with tubes in a Philadelphia hospital” (Fisher “A Whisper of AIDS”). She was able to maintain vocal variety through her pitch and loudness, the rate at which she spoke, and the pauses she took after stating some points for dramatic effect. The rate at which she spoke was appropriate as she did not speak too fast or too slow and her precision was shown with the right amount loudness. The audience’s reaction was the main method of which one could see how effective Mary’s speech was. Their reaction was excellent as she compelled them to cry, applaud, and fully embrace the message. As was previously stated, no one could have delivered this speech the way Mary Fisher did. She was touching because she spoke on what she was dealing with personally. The speech has built my awareness on AIDS even in this decade. I have always been avid in telling others to always be safe in all aspects in respect to AIDS. However, seeing Mary made me much less ill-informed since I held somewhat of a stereotype as to what a person with AIDS is like as well, a stereotype Mary would never fit into. I would have to state that this speech touched me. Mary allowed me to feel her pain and her passion when it came to the subject. She brought me to tears when she dedicated a part of it to her sons Zachary and Max. If I were to ever be placed in a situation like that I would hope to be so lucky as to have a tenth of the strength that Mary displayed. For her to state “I represent an AIDS community whose members have been reluctantly drafted from every segment of American society.” (Fisher “A Whisper of AIDS”) was just so powerful to me. For Mary to stand there and state she is that face was compelling. If I were selected to be the one to deliver this speech I would have tried to replicate Mary, for I felt her delivery was flawless. I was amazed at how she established credibility, her eye contact, and the composure she maintained when at moments it almost seemed she was holding back tears. I saw no weaknesses in her speech. The amount of passion she displayed in her message was emanating from my computer screen. The structure and delivery of her speech was made specifically for her audience which included all kinds of people looking in from everywhere, it was not just there in Houston. I would not have changed the audience or the venue as this message was broadcast to anyone willing to watch and listen. From my observation, Mary’s speech was perfectly structured. She previewed her main points and connected them successfully. There was not a single thing that I can say was missing. Personally, I can state that I would pay up to $100 to watch Mary speak because her speech was so compelling. She grasped me with her words and brought me to tears when acknowledging her family and how supportive they have been in her struggle. Mary is a survivor. “A Whisper of AIDS” by Mary Fisher was a success with its powerful message. Mary was an exemplary presenter as she touches the hearts of many with her illustrative yet remarkable words. Her structure is precise and she previews her main points effectively and then hits each point throughout impeccably. Her performance is one to envy based on the flawlessness and passion it contained.

How to Determine Reliable and Relevant Sources Essay

With the presence of so much information at the disposal of students, including information from the internet, it becomes relevant that they exercise necessary choices to access academic source material that is reliable, relevant and unbiased. This should be done in close association with their academic instructors who evaluate and re-evaluate their choices or annotated bibliographies and guide them through these choices (Ellis 2006). To determine reliable and relevant source materials, students should pre-evaluate the requirements and purpose of the essay i.e. whether it requires facts or opinion. They should compare with other sources to determine those that best suit the purpose of the essay and not settle on first choice on perception of credibility. Comparison enhances the determination of biased and suspicious source materials. In addition, the student should be open-minded and unbiased when selecting source materials for writing (Ellis 2006). Students should evaluate sources and their quality of information to provide information which serves as a basis for beliefs, decisions and knowledge. Unreliable and biased sources are not used in decision making because they compromise the information’s reliability and relevance hence weakening the essay. Source evaluation is an art with no perfect marker of source reliability. However, source reliability can be determined by comparison with other sources and objectives of the essay. For example, if one needs reliable facts, he is likely to select high quality and reliable sources (Harris 2010). Other approaches a person can use include use of Credibility-Accuracy-Reasonableness-Support checklist (CARS checklist). Though minimal sources are likely to meet requirements on this checklist, the writer should choose reliable sources and perform an in-depth analysis of the author’s credentials including his/her education, training, biography, reputation and position. This gives a picture of the author’s level of knowledge, reliability and truthfulness. For example, if internet sources are selected, the evidence of quality control should exist, for example peer-review (Harris 2010). Students should also compare meta-information for example abstracts summary, conclusion, reviews and ratings of various sources which give an overview of the author’s writings without having to read them completely. The student should be aware of the indicators of bias or lack of credibility such as anonymity, negative meta-information, and grammatical or spelling errors. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Determination of source accuracy is necessary because a source may be credible but outdated, hence the information it contains may not be palatable at a particular time. Therefore the student should ensure information is factual, up to date, comprehensive and detailed (Ellis 2006). Furthermore, one should have the knowledge of the target group and purpose of source material. This helps to determine whether the material is comprehensive or biased. For example, source materials which target children tend to be less comprehensive unlike those of adults. Unbiased sources strengthen essays and make information contained in them to be fair, reasoned, balanced and objective with no fallacies or conflicting interests. In addition, the chosen source should have listed sources, convincing evidence, and corroboration to support it, otherwise it will be biased, unreliable or irrelevant (Harris 2010). In conclusion, students should perform regular evaluation and re-evaluation of their sources to enhance accuracy of information which may be brought about by changes. This can be enhanced with the help of academic instructors who evaluate sources in the students’ essay or annotated bibliography (Ellis 2006). References Ellis, D. B. (2006). Becoming a Masters Student. 4th ed. Rapid City, SD: College Survival. Harris, R. (2010). Evaluating Internet Research Sources. Retrieved from

Comparison Of Persistence Framework Computer Science Essay

Compare and contrast the following persistence frameworks: Java Persistence API (JPA), Hibernate and Java Database Connectivity. What improvements were made in EJB3.1 and JPA2? Include topics of scalability, security, connection pools, connection factories, entity management, transactional context, query languages, ORM, JCA, JNDI, the DAO-VO design pattern and specifically persistence layer(s) on a distributed n-tier enterprise platform in your discussion. Java Persistence API (JPA) JPA is an abstraction above JDBC that makes it possible to be independent of SQL. The main components of JPA are: ORM: “Object relational mapping is a means to map objects to data stored in relational database” [1]. JPA uses annotations and/or XML descriptor files to map POJO based java objects to relational database tables. CRUD: An entity manager manages lifecycle of JPA entities. It performs database related operations like create, retrieve, update and delete. JPQL: Java persistence query language allows writing CRUD queries using an object oriented query language. JTA: Java Transaction API provides transactions and locking mechanisms while accessing data concurrently. Callbacks and listeners: They hook business logic into the life cycle of a persistent object. Hibernate Hibernate is an Object relationship mapping framework. Hibernate helps in mapping POJO Java classes to SQL database tables. It has the power of significantly reducing development time. Hibernate uses annotations and/or XML (mapping) descriptor files to map the POJO Java objects in the application domain to relational database tables. Hibernate implements polymorphism and inheritance. Hibernate generated SQL maintains the portability of the application to all SQL databases. This HQL (SQL) allows create, retrieve, update and delete operations on POJO. This framework allows development of persistent Java classes which includes object oriented features like encapsulation, inheritance, polymorphism, and collections frameworks. Hibernate Query Language (HQL): This is an extremely powerful query language similar to SQL. HQL is an object oriented SQL. Like SQL using tables and columns, HQL uses classes and properties. This means HQL uses object models for relational operations. Hence, it is less verbose as compared to SQL. JDBC JDBC is a standard java API for accessing relational database used for persisting state. It connects to database executes SQL statements and gets result. JDBC can also be used in a distributed environment. JDBC makes connection with an underlying data source using Connection Interface. It uses following mechanisms for connections: DriverManager – This class is the management layer of JDBC. DriverManager loads any JDBC 4.0 drivers when an application makes connection to a data source as a part of its initialization. Other JDBC drivers must be explicitly loaded. DataSource – DataSource can be a legacy database, file system or some other source of data. It is preferred over DriveManager as it allows the underlying data source to be apparent to the application. The two important extensions of the DataSource interface are as follows: ConnectionPoolDataSource – The connection pool names are configured in JNDI. They support caching and reusing of physical connections in a way improving application performance and scalability. XADataSource – XAdataSource uses XAConnection objects internally. It establishes physical connection with the database using the given user name and password. The connection thus obtained can be used in distributed transaction. Session bean and JDBC: Java architecture implementing session beans along with JDBC, any persistence request is delegated to the JDBC tier by the session bean. Upon request, the session bean calls JDBC layer to obtain a reference to object of type javax.sql.DataSource interface. The DataSource type object serves acts as a resource manager factory for java.sql.Connection objects (as outlined by JDBC specification) that implement connections to a database. Once a Connection object is retrieved, the following business logic and persistence code (reads, updates, looping resultset, transaction commit/rollback etc.) are JDBC code. JDBC drawbacks Java applications initially used the JDBC API to create/read/update/delete/ data into relational databases. The JDBC API makes direct use of SQL statements to perform data persistence activities (create, read, update, and delete). When JDBC code is implemented in Java classes, the business logic gets tightly coupled to the Java class. The JDBC embeddable java code relies on SQL, which is not uniform across databases. Thus the code is tightly coupled to one type of database and hence difficult to migrate. Transactional Support: By default, JDBC drivers work in auto-commit mode, where each database SQL (read, update) is an atomic transaction. It is very easy to disable auto-commit, execute SQL in batch mode (multiple queries/updates) and then commit or rollback the transaction. DAO-VO A typical DAO (Data Access object) provides an interface that describes its contract with external interfaces. This outlines a series of methods for data persistence (CRUD operations). Generally a DAO is defined with a base interface and its methods are implemented by entity classes. A VO (Value object) is a simple POJO to transfer the data across various tiers of Java architecture. JDO For every method Persistence Manager is obtained, a transaction is fetched, and operations are executed. By availing attach/detach and fetch-groups, persisted objects are made available outside the DAO layer in a seamless way. Hibernate and JPA JPA acts as an adapter over Hibernate. JPA provides the entire API to interact with Hibernate. In a way JPA acts as an abstraction between the java code and Hibernate. In such a architecture it is easy to replace Hibernate if need be. JCA Java EE Connector Architecture (JCA) is a Java-based technology solution for connecting application servers and enterprise information systems (EIS) as part of enterprise application integration (EAI) solutions. While JDBC is specifically used to connect Java EE applications to databases, JCA is a more generic architecture for connection to legacy systems. What improvements were made in EJB3.1 and JPA2 Improvements in EJB 3.1 With EJB 3.1, there is no need to define home/local interfaces. Now EJB can be defined simple with an annotation. Singleton beans were introduced with EJB 3.1. Singleton beans can be used for shared data at application level. Asynchronous EJB calls are now supported with @Asynchronous method-level annotation. Packaging and deployment can be directly done in a war file. Session beans with a local view can be accessed without a separate local business interface. EJB Timer Service enhancements are also included to support scheduling jobs; Stateful Session Bean timed objects and deployment-time timer creation. Embedded container: A new embeddable API is available for executing EJB components within a Java SE environment (for unit testing, batch processing, etc.). EJB Lite: This definition of a lightweight subset of functionalities can be provided within Java EE Profiles (such as the Java EE Web Profile). Portable JNDI name: The syntax for looking up EJB components is now specified. Example: A Stateless EJB @Stateless public class CustomerEJB { @PersistenceContext(unitName = “customerPU”) private EntityManager em; public Customer findCustById(Long id) { return em.find(Customer.class, id); } public Customer createCust( Customer cust) { em.persist(cust); return cust; } } Improvements in JPA 2.0 Collections of basic types. Collections of embeddable. A persistent ordering is now maintained using the @OrderColumn annotation. Orphan removal that allows removal of child object when parent object is removed. Pessimistic locking has also been introduced along with optimistic locking. Foreign key mapping were introduced with JPA 2.0 for unidirectional one-to-many relationships. Improved support for maps (java HashMaps). Criteria query API which allows queries to be constructed in an object-oriented manner. Improvements in JPQL syntax. JPA 2.0 allows nesting of embeddable objects into other embeddable objects and has entity relationships. JPA 2.0 Example: @Entity @NamedQuery(name = “findAllCust”, query= “select c from Customer c”) public class Customer implements Serializable { @Id @GeneratedValue private Long id; @Column(name = “cust_name”) private String custName; public Customer() { } //….Get and set methods @Override public String toString(){ StringBuilder sb = new StringBuilder(100); sb.append(“id : “);sb.append(id);sb.append(” ; “); sb.append(“custName : “);sb.append(custName);sb.append(” ; “); return sb.toString(); }

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