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PCN 540 GCU Importance of Research in The Field of Counseling & Psychology Essay

PCN 540 GCU Importance of Research in The Field of Counseling & Psychology Essay.

Research is important in the field of counseling and psychology  because it can help us to understand the profession, shed light on the  theories and concepts, and to determine if the application of theories  and concepts actually improve mental health. Research is the best  mechanism for determining if something is effective and if so, what  parts and why.
Write a 750-1,000-word paper about the importance of research in the field of counseling.
Include the following in your paper:

The relationship between research and counseling
The roles and responsibilities of researchers in the counseling profession
At least two scholarly resources to support your paper

This is the link for the book
https://www.gcumedia.com/digital-resources/pearson…

The username should be aberes and the password I think is Mandaz14

Let me know if that doesn’t work. 
PCN 540 GCU Importance of Research in The Field of Counseling & Psychology Essay

Wilkes University The Sorrow of Love by William Butler Yeats Interpretation.

Could you please choose one topic of these and write 3 pages about it? 1) Compare or contrast any of the Victorian writers with one modern writer on the treatment of women, or on the topic of women’s education. Do they seem to have relied on any of Mary Wollstonecraft’s ideas? If so, which ones do you notice. Do they take the notion of gender equality any further than Wollstonecraft, or are they largely indebted to her insights for their own ideas? 2) In some of Matthew Arnold’s poems, mainly, “Isolation” and “To Marguerite,” compare how he use images from science and geology to discuss the situation of “modern” people. How does this compare to some of Tennyson’s uses in the poems we read from In Memoriam?Offer an analysis of one poem from each writer which uses this type of imagery, OR take one motif (isolation, sadness, loneliness, ocean imagery, nature, or faith) and compare how he deals with it in relation to Tennyson.3) Having read both “Dover Beach” and “Dover Bitch,” why not let the silent auditor tell her side of the story?Write a verse poem, using Hecht’s as a model perhaps, in which the woman presents what really happened.Submit all draft versions for this, along with your final version.4) Lawrence’s “The Horse-Dealer’s Daughter” offers some seemingly strange notions about love.After careful reading of the story, would you argue that love really exists between the two main characters, Jack & Mabel, or not?Whichever side you take, defend your response and support the answer by interpreting key passages in the work.5) Select a poem, by Yeats, Hardy, or some other modern writer, and compare it with another work by that author which we’ve studied OR offer an in-depth interpretation of it. Select a poem which has caught your attention or intrigues you.6) Read excerpts of J.S. Mill’s “On Liberty” and discuss how he compares with Arnold or Carlyle on this topic of “freedom” in society, OR examine his ideas on “eccentricity/individuality.”Explain them a bit and reflect on whether society today has advanced at all in being able to tolerate difference.Use a few SPECIFIC examples from our culture to illustrate/develop your points.7) Much of the writing from the Victorian and modern eras focuses on aspects of “alienation.” Take 2 works from both periods to compare on this theme; do the authors offer any insight on why people feel this way? What is it about the modern world that leaves us feeling so disconnected? You might discuss a few pertinent situations or examples from our society to relate to what these writers might have been talking about. Be sure to cite relevant passages from the authors’ works in your analysis/discussion.***IF you use any research (which ought not be too done too much), be sure to cite the author’s ideas within the body or text, of the paper using MLA’s in-text citation method. This can be found on our Library page on the website, listed directly under the links on “Databases.” Also, follow the guidelines that attached while you are writing this homework.
Wilkes University The Sorrow of Love by William Butler Yeats Interpretation

Colorado Technical University International Financial System Questions.

A regional bank has decided to open an office overseas for serving those businesses that are expanding internationally.England is your country Will your presence in this country be helpful in your attempts to invest in other developing countries? Is this country involved in any regional integration efforts? How so? Why did you choose this location for your bank? As a manager, what would be your overall assessment about whether you want to pursue opening an office there? Are the financial risks worth taking? Will it be beneficial to all of the stakeholders?In pursuing this, what type of presence do you think would be best suited to your objectives?How should the plant be financed? Keep in mind that the country that the plant is in does not necessarily have to be where the financing is done. What is your final decision on the financial center you chose to work with? Write about the logic and reasoning for your decision?
Colorado Technical University International Financial System Questions

Evaluating the Organizational Structure of the Walt Disney Company

The Walt Disney Company is one of the companies which are successful and well known in the world. It was stating from 1923 at California and it is still so popular in movie, TV program, theme parks, resorts and destination, entertainment, and games. The Walt Disney Company is a diversifies worldwide entertainment company with operations in four major business parts which are Studio Entertainment, Parks and Resorts, Media Networks and Consumer Products. They have 11 theme parks around the world, cable television network like Disney channel and ESPN. They also have international website in 37 countries. I choose this organization because of huge information. Before, I had chosen other company but I found some difficulty on finding information. I send the email to have some information which I need to use in my assignment. However, they replied me a sorry message and told me they cannot help me cause of their policy. So I need to choose a big ad huge company which has a lot of information and most of all I need to find a company which I can focus on with my curiosity so I could not give up and finish it. Therefore, I find the welt Disney is suitable for me. mickey_corporate.jpg -4- Business demographics twdc_logo_corporate.jpg As this assignment mentioned about the Welt Disney Company has four major business segments which are Studio Entertainment, Parks and Resorts, Media Networks and Consumer Products and it numbered 11 theme parks around the world, cable television network and etc. In each of them has chairman or co-chairman on the every theme park, resort and media and under them they have communication team each. These communication teams manage the communication in and outside the place they take charge. Upper these small communication team, they have middle communication teams for major segments. For example, on park and resort, a person whose name is Leslie Goodman. Her position in the Welt Disney Company is Executive Vice President, Worldwide Public Affairs, Walt Disney Parks and Resorts. The Welt Disney Company said “She manages global issues and supervises a team of media relations, internal communications, government relations and community relations specialists to build upon Disney’s reputation as one of the worldwide leaders in the family vacation business” (the Welt Disney Company, n.g.). Middle communication teams which are in 4 major segments are under the communication team which is belonging to The Welt Disney Company. Therefore, under this system organizations can communicate each other even they are located in different place and countries. mickey_corporate.jpg -5- Organizational goals twdc_logo_corporate.jpg The Walt Disney Company’s aim is to be one of the world’s leading producers and providers of entertainment and information using its portfolio of brands to differentiate its content, services and consumer products. The company’s primary financial goals are to maximize earnings and cash flow, and to allocate capital toward growth initiatives that will drive long-term shareholder value. The Welt Disney Company wants to make the place, which every people can relaxes and have fun, with customers. They try listening customers’ voice and solve the problem they complained or recommendations. Therefore, they can reach the goal they want. mickey_corporate.jpg -6- Organizational culture and ethics twdc_logo_corporate.jpg In the Welt Disney company highlight on the respect other people and fair work. And if it is uncomfortable, they provide respective Human Resources representative, or the Corporate Legal Department. They are handling under the law on every this but the basis on respect other culture and ethics. “At The Walt Disney Company, our employees and cast members make the magic happen. We strive to create an optimal employee experience while meeting our business needs. Our culture and values reinforce our commitment and responsibility to the people in our organization. Company communications frequently highlight business initiatives and strategy, employee recognition, work-life assistance, volunteerism opportunities, business conduct and ethics practices and social responsibility practices” (the Welt Disney Company, n.g.). Even, on internship training, participants can take the voice of the Cast Members, act as business partner to achieve company goals, and constantly promote diversity and inclusion in company’s culture. Also, they comment especially on communication, Company communications often emphasize business initiatives and strategy, employee recognition, work-life assistance, volunteerism opportunities, business conduct and ethics practices and social responsibility practices experience from some educators to become a member of the company. Educators are train students professionally with their experience and knowledge. mickey_corporate.jpg -7- Management of knowledge resources twdc_logo_corporate.jpg In Welt Disney have college and university to learn about knowledge and share the experience. In the school, they have lots of experience and gather the information which they need on their work. The Welt Disney professional internship said “Disney Theme Parks and Resorts Professional Interns have the opportunity to learn from experienced Disney professionals. They can also take advantage of valuable resources at the centers, which are self-directed career resource centers located throughout the Walt Disney World Resort and Disneyland Resort” (n.g.). As it said educators are also have their own knowledge and experience, so student can do pre-experience trough the information givers’ story and lessen. Also, they provide the internship before start the work in their place. So, the student or people take internship are can share their information or knowledge and experience during working time or studying time. Therefore, people develop their skill with professional advice from educators or supervisors. mickey_corporate.jpg -8- Group Dynamics twdc_logo_corporate.jpg On the handing of conflict, the company put some information about their business concept and account things. It is every times update on their home page so it is give some answers to people who do the conflict to them. Also, they face some another new issue which is people provoke a quarrel with the Welt Disney company, all the directors and chairman and co-chairman are make a meeting to solve those problems. They take responsibility to answer some question, people asked. Also, he communication teams, which this essay motioned on business demographics, are handling those issues. They are all qualified and train to handling that kind of problem. Meeting management twdc_logo_corporate.jpg The Welt Disney has three types of meeting. One is association convention, Corporate/Incentive Meetings and Tradeshow

Food Safety

research paper help Food Safety. Paper details I attached the rubric. No need to search a topic. I was given Food Safety by the instructor. For #3 on the rubric, she would like the Chamberlain Library to be used. https://library.chamberlain.edu/home Also, the population the rubric is referring to needs to be based in the Houston, TX area.Food Safety

First National Bank: Leadership in Africa Report

Preamble The research paper aims to add information on the use and implementation of leadership programs in a South African context. The research also details the challenges brought about by inspirational leadership in Africa. The researcher uses the First National Bank (FNB) as a case study in this context. There is no thesis statement for this research paper. The choice of the bank was made based on the impact that the bank has on leadership and transformation. The reasons given for the choice of the institution might be genuine, but they come out as promotional because they are all advantageous. The report does not appear to have any valid thesis statement or it might be too weak to be of any significance. However, the researcher gives five distinct research questions. It suffices to mention that the researcher used the case study research method due to several reasons that are fully explained in the report provided. It is wholly agreeable that the method was the best suited for analyzing the management issues under observation. This essay examines the research presented. The article is divided into two main sections. The first section focuses on the evaluation of the research as it is. The section will show the strengths and weaknesses of the research and conclude on whether the research was significant or not. Moreover, some of the things that could have been done to make it better will also be presented. The second main section of the essay will focus on the organizational challenges faced by the First National Bank about globalization. The challenges presented will be futuristic. It means that the challenges are difficulties that are foreseen to cripple the institution in the next five years due to globalization. Evaluation of Research As mentioned previously, some outstanding things pop out in the provided report. This section analyses several aspects of the report based on academic qualifications and expectations. The research that was conducted was very comprehensive, which makes it easier to understand and believe. Five research questions are analyzed throughout the research study. The first question is quoted directly as: “Issues around spirit and soul in leadership are often seen as ‘touchy-feely stuff’ and related to religion. But spirit and soul are influencing private, but also the workplace, conduct, the quality of workplace relationships, and everybody is looking for a meaning in life and work. How is this contradiction solved in business?” The researcher has provided a bit of information on how the soul and business-related. However, it suffices to mention that the link is fragile. The researcher provides scholarly evidence to support the idea that understanding the human soul is essential to being successful in business. For instance, she explains that the soul is important in business because it denotes restlessness. Gokce, Guney, and Katrinli (2014) argue that anxiety can be both a good and a bad thing. He explains that restlessness is only good if it is accompanied by the anticipation of a product or service. However, it turns sour if it is violent and impatient due to a problem with the product. Hargarter (2005) explains that culture has a big role to play when discussing the soul and business. Brown and Ainley (2009), who argue that both individual culture and national culture are important in business, echo the same sentiments. However, the scholars take up the idea of culture and business as explained by Hawley. She asserts that the global culture has allowed people to be more aggressive in business than they have ever been. It is interesting to note that Hargarter (2005) does not give specific links between culture, soul, and business. The culture bit is only mentioned as a ‘by the way’. This leaves the reader questioning the importance of culture in the discussion. A deeper look into the second research question asks whether “Business seems to incorporate two sides of the story: Content (‘body’) and People Management (‘soul’). Why do different companies have different priorities; that is, either on vision or performance when implementing leadership programs? It seems that the focus is not constant; instead, it varies with gender and with the industry, sector, and the country. Is the predominant culture and the life-cycle of the company has been elaborated clearly? The researcher gives ample evidence on how the soul, described as people management, affects business. Additionally, the research question introduces a new concept into the study; the issue if priorities. Hsing-Chau, Thai-Form, and Feng-I (2005) argue that getting priorities right is essential for a successful business. At times, two highly demanding tasks are given and individuals have to choose which one they should do first and which ones should come last. The other three research questions have also been adequately explained. A general overview of the issues, however, shows that the researcher does not justify the question picked. Whereas this does not limit or create loopholes in the research study and the report, Terblanche and Grobler (2001) advise the justifications of the research questions to fully qualify the importance of the research. It suffices to mention that the research study provided revolves around three aspects. The first issue touches on research on leadership. The literature review section gives ample information on leadership. Hargarter (2005) observes that many foreigners get a bit confused with the leadership structure supported by African organizations. She ties this argument nicely with culture, thereby showing how different cultures understand leadership. Zydziunaite and Suominen (2014) and Holmberg and Lazarczyk (2015) reveal that intercultural communication is crucial in business. This type of communication allows people, foreigners to be distinct, to understand and live comfortably in different cultures. In business, intercultural relations are important because they affect profits negatively or positively. Borrowing from the current affairs in South Africa, the issue of xenophobia shows a significant impact of foreign culture on a country. All this is brought out in the research study report. The First National Bank appears to have an advanced type of leadership, which incorporates all types of cultures. This mix is an advantage because it allows people who have worked in other countries and gained extensive experience in a given field to feel comfortable working for the bank. A disadvantage of the same is the negative perception of the public that the bank does value pure African leadership. The second issue highlighted is organizational transformation. Again, culture has been used to discuss the aspect of the corporate transformation in a company. The researcher explains that culture is crucial to incorporate transformation, as the organization has to be collective. The firm has to be collective in the sense that the corporate culture has to be embraced by all the employees, even if it is not their persona culture. Lam and Choi (2013) emphasize the importance of having a healthy organizational culture by stating that corporate culture determines performance levels. People, who work together harmoniously, believe in their work and others in the company tend to be more productive than those who do not (Gilson et al. 2014). Also, Hargarter (2005) adds that the culture needs to be transformed to keep current. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The main problem with African leadership, according to the research, is that it does not keep up with the current affairs. For instance, technology can, and should, be incorporated in leadership, regardless of whether it is African leadership or not. New performance management techniques can also be applied in all types of leadership to achieve the best results. It would appear that the First National Bank has used some of these strategies, making it very successful. As mentioned, the FNB has changed the leadership culture in South Africa. Having said this, it is important to note that the bank has adopted a flexible organizational culture. This type of culture has both advantages and disadvantages. The biggest advantage is the increased performance levels in the employees, which is brought about by the wellbeing of the employees. Employees who are satisfied enjoy their work. The biggest disadvantage of a flexible organizational culture is constant change. The change can be necessary during the retirement or ouster of a leader in the organization. In turn, it can lead to a lot of confusion. Lastly, the issue of emotional intelligence has also been substantially discussed. More could have, however, been said on the topic. The researcher takes time before engaging in this part. The data provided states that FNB tried to improve customer service by doing things that the customers liked. Dunn and Lewis (2011) assert that emotional intelligence in an employee is valuable, especially if the institution in question works with customers regularly. It would, therefore, make sense for a bank to invest heavily in customer satisfaction. Temple (2012) explains that dealing with customers might not be easy, and only people with a high control of their emotions can be good for this type of work. The main advantage of monitoring emotional intelligence in the bank is that it allows the monitoring of customers, as well. For example, if the customer service providers are angry, then the customers will also get angry and, probably, complain. It suffices to mention that monitoring emotional intelligence among employees is the easiest way of knowing why a company is losing customers. On the other hand, the biggest disadvantage of using this aspect in the management of the bank is it tends to assume that only the employees hold the key to the success of the organization. Organizational Challenges Faced by FNB in the Next Five Years This is the second section of the essay, which will discuss the possible challenges that FNB might face in the next five years as the first thing. The section will also have a detailed discussion based on theoretical concepts on strategic recommendations that can be taken in the next phase of development for the bank. Possible organizational challenges One of the eminent corporate challenges the bank might face in the next five years is the challenge of integration of different cultures into one organizational culture. As mentioned, organizational culture plays a significant role in the success of a company. Botha (2012) argues that the feeling of being one allows the employees to stop senseless competition amongst themselves and work to benefit the whole organization. The workers tend to not only compete against one another negatively, but they also tend to be easily distracted by other things if there is one culture. Patterson and Edwards (2013) explain that the employees will feel dissatisfied due to the high competition, especially when their work is not appreciated as much as that of other employees. They will be less loyal to the organization and employee turnover will be very high. In addition to this, Manyibe, Manyibe, and Otiso (2013) assert that, indeed, a confusing organizational culture touches on all aspects of the organization and affects profitability in return. It affects leadership because it enhances bias and neglect. Also, uncoordinated organizations affect customer service, as people are confused to help even their clients. There will be no systematic workflow or chain of command, such that no one knows who to talk to if there is a problem. Even though the FNB bank is trying to incorporate one culture, it has first to understand the cultures of the employees. The case study provided shows that the bank has hired people from different countries; thus they have a different work culture and expectations of their jobs. Understanding this will help the management know-how to draft best an organizational culture that suits everyone. In the same breath, the African culture will also be a significant problem in the future if it is not addressed today. Given that the company is in South Africa, it is expected that everyone who works for the company has to conform to the culture of South Africa. However, globalization will allow FNB to open branches all over the globe. If the same culture is practiced, then the company will not do well as a universal company. Having a global culture that can be adopted in different countries will sustain the company in any part of the world it wants to ventures. In addition, the employees will be easily be sent out to the different countries of operations to manage the company. Communication breakdown is also a possible challenge in the future. Globalization has allowed different people to work in different countries (Bongila 2012). The main reason organizations need one organizational culture is to tame the other different cultures that are already installed in their employees, regardless of where they are coming from. Communication is also part of the culture; thus, it needs to be unified for it to work for the benefit of the company. The best way to install one communication design is through employee training on the same. Many companies will train new workers only. However, companies must change their communication strategy every often because communication is ever-changing. In the same vein, a company that currently has a rigid communication design will lead to communication breakdown in the future. The rigid structure has a lot of bureaucracies, something that is typical of African leadership. In turn, the bureaucracy limits the creativity and general ability of the employees. Globalization might have made communication a bit more difficult, but it also made it easier. For instance, universal languages were established due to the process. English is the first universal language. This means that no matter where one comes from or going to work, there will be people there who understand English. Creating an organizational communication strategy based on one language makes things much easier. A second possible organizational challenge is the interaction between the company and the community. Kegley and Raymond (2005) agree that a strong relationship between a business and the public is critical. Public image enhances the growth of the company because it institutes loyalty among the public. However, there are two major concerns when it comes to too much involvement with the community. The first is that the community will not forgive easily in the case of problems. Seeck and Rantanen (2015) argue that people make mistakes in businesses, and some of these mistakes end up giving negative publicity. Although this is, unavoidable companies are frequently encouraged to have a strategic crisis management plan, however, to minimize the damage. If a company is too involved with the public, then the public will feel betrayed by the problem. The second issue of concern is the loyalty the employees will develop the community. Presently, this commitment can be seen among the employees of the FNB. The author explains that a majority of the employees agreed that their business units had a significant impact on community uplifting. Thus, if the company was to have some conflict, then the employees might be quick to tell the public, regardless of whether the company has a plan on how to deal with the problem or not. We will write a custom Report on First National Bank: Leadership in Africa specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The concept of Umhlanganos might also prove a challenge later on. Hargarter (2005, p. 33) explains that the bank frequently calls for all the employees and puts them in discussion groups to analyze the company and the situation they are in at that particular moment. The main challenge with this type of management is that it clashes with some personalities. Some employees are shy when in the spotlight. Such employees also tend to work alone. Moreover, are excellent at it working alone. Employee personality must be considered in the hiring process in order to tap firstly into the right strengths of the employee and secondly enable the employees to be comfortable at the workplace. Vieira (2014) explains that many employers think they know the strengths of their employees, when in fact they do not. This assumption is brought about by the generalization of facts the companies see at the workplace. Just because the employee attended the meeting did not mean he or she was comfortable enough to raise issues that affected the company or give helpful suggestions of more efficient ways of solving problems. It is entirely agreeable that the way forward to minimize the impacts of all these challenges, if not eradicate them, is to change the leadership style. As Hargarter (2005, p. 40) explains, the best leadership style for the First National Bank should be flexible. Indeed, all companies that are looking to tap into globalization have to acquire a universal leadership structure to allow for easier management of country branches all over the world. In the same breath, a universal leadership structure should include a flexible communication strategy and a feasible crisis management strategy. Strategic recommendations In light of the challenges discussed in the previous sections, this section will highlight some of the recommended actions the company can take to ensure that the challenges are mitigated. The first suggestion is the implementation of a flexible leadership system. This will affect all other aspects of the company. In doing this, the bank can also use performance management measures to ensure that the leadership system they choose works. One such measure is the balanced scorecard (Esterhuyse 2013). The scorecard is typically an evaluation technique. Management will benefit from it because as it shows exactly what is working and what is not. It suffices to mention that leadership strategies also need to be occasionally revised, as per the situations that present themselves. The flexible leadership will also allow it to be adaptable to the different countries that the bank might be interested in investing. Changing the communication strategy often is also advisable (Nel 2014). As mentioned, communication changes now and then. To prove this, one just has to imagine how different communication is today, from the past. Initially, in early man, contact was made through natural signs. This evolved to manmade signs like fire, blowing off a horn to mean danger or a meeting, and so forth. After this, the communication became more complex with the formation of letters, words, phrases, and sentences. In the two or so decades ago, where people would communicate using fax and letters. Today, people communicate using all manner of technological devices. First came the mobile phone, and then came the Internet. Right now, people in two different continents can not only communicate together but also see each other using technological advancements like Skype. In the same breath, sending of information has been made much easier than ever. Messages are received instantly via emails and calls. Moreover, information can be shared anywhere in the world through social media sites and so forth. There is no doubt that communication changes now and then. To be on top of the economy, FNB will also have to have a very flexible communication strategy plan. It is also recommended that the company revise its hiring and firing policy. Botha (2013) argues that business owners tend to hire people they relate to. Thus, if the business owner is a generation X, he or she will most probably hire Generation X-ers (Chatterjee

Banksy’s Street Art: Reasons for Popularity Essay

Table of Contents Introduction Street Art as a Phenomenon Banksy and His Art Conclusion Bibliography Footnotes Introduction Street art is a popular form of contemporary art involving artists of various backgrounds, races and cultures in big cities all over the world. The question whether it should be considered a crime is still debated over. For legal reasons, street artists have to maintain anonymity. Street art is believed to be a form of political participation. According to Cedar Lewisohn, street art has to be judged by the same standards as the other art but these standards are unclear and hardly suitable for anonymous and illegally created artworks. One of the most known street artists is Banksy, whose real personality is covered. Banksy’s heritage includes graffiti, stencil images, art exhibitions, a movie, four books and at least seven cases of interventions into famous museums. The art of Banksy bears a political, particularly anti-capitalist and anti-war, message. To my opinion, Banksy is a good artist: his works provoke debates and make people reflect on the essential problems of politics and society. Street Art as a Phenomenon Street art is among the genres that are currently gaining popularity. Street art can be defined as the illegal establishment of artworks in public places so that anyone can see and assess them. Despite the fact that street art is often associated with spray graffiti and stenciling, it also includes “stickers, wheatpastes, laser projections, flash mobbing, guerilla gardening, yarn bombing, street installations and a host of other forms”1. Clearly, graffiti and stencil art are the most known and widespread forms of street art. These forms are believed to be the work of disadvantaged social classes but, in fact, street artists can be of any social background, as well as race, gender and religion2. Additionally, street art is most often considered a crime. It should be mentioned that the thinkers and public speakers, who put that label on street art, have a vague understanding of the concepts of “harm,” “offender,” “injury,” etc3. Legally speaking, it is still a question whether street art can be named a crime4. Street art exists in every big city in the world; there are cities, which are especially famous for their street art, such as New York, Amsterdam, Los Angeles, Chicago or San Francisco. Street art is believed to be political in nature. Alison Young mentions the following aspects of street art’s political nature. First, street artists are motivated by generosity: they do not require a reward for their art, it is a gift to the viewers. Second, street artists promote democracy, proclaiming that any person can become an artist5. To reach out to their (potential) viewers, protect themselves and post their works that can be wiped out any time, some street artists create anonymous pages online6. Studying the heritage of street artists is a complicated task due to its illegal (and punishable) nature and the anonymity of the artists7. In his book “Street Art: The Graffiti Revolution,” Cedar Lewisohn expressed a view that street art has to be assessed according to the common artistic standards8, i.e. if a poorly drawn picture is placed on a wall, it does not mean it is art. To my opinion, this statement is questionable. First of all, it does not look like all the viewers share some “common artistic standards.” If we speak about the canons of classic art, they apply to some graffiti pieces while they do not apply to the works of eminent non-street artists. We appreciate the works of cubist or futurist artists, even though they may look as “bad art” to us, since we know (or pretend to), what intentions the author had while creating this particular curved line or screaming face. In the case of street art, we do not know the intention, the names, the biographies but this does not make street art less valuable or valid. Banksy and His Art One of the most eminent street artists in the world is Banksy, a provocative British graffitist, left-wing activist and film director. However, his personality is still not uncovered; his real name is unknown. According to an investigation held by “Mail on Sunday” in 2008, he may be a former pupil of Bristol Cathedral School9. Kriston Capps believes that Banksy is a woman and Chris Healey thinks that Banksy is a team of seven artists10. Even his agent Steve Lazarides does not know anything about Banksy’s true identity. Tristan Manco, a friend of Banksy’s, claims that “Banksy, born in 1974, grew up in Bristol, U.K., son of a photocopier engineer, who was apprenticed to a butcher at a young age” in his book “Stencil Graffiti.”11. In fact, nothing can be said for sure. As The Guardian put it, “has retained an ageless, mildly subversive appeal, despite becoming an established part of the art market, holding exhibitions and featuring in auctions”12. The disguise, under which Banksy is working, is not surprising. First of all, Banksy protests against the existing power structure and being an “Anonymous” is a widespread pattern among political protesters; take, for example, Subcomandante Marcos, who keeps wearing a mask. The other explanation, a much more simple one, is that, if revealed, Banksy will have to face serious problems with the law of the UK, France and the United States. His art is considered vandalism (which, legally speaking, it is) and the policemen are eager to get him arrested. Michael Bloomberg, the mayor of New York City, has personally expressed his disapproval of Banksy’s actions13. The third possible reason for hiding is Banksy’s critique of the cult of genius that prevails in the art world14. However, if it were true, he would not have been signing his works. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Banksy started his “career” with working as a common graffiti artist. In the 1980-s, his art was clearly graffiti, or even vandalism, until the first half of the 1990-s. He was part of Bristol’s DryBreadZ Crew and Bristol underground scene. He moved to London by 1999. In the 90-s, he became acquainted with Steve Lazarides, a photographer, who would later become his agent. At that time, Banksy rarely used stencils, starting to use them frequently around 2000 to save more time while working. According to himself, the idea of stenciling came to his mind while he was hiding from the police under a lorry; he then noticed a stenciled serial number and decided to employ this technique. His paintings usually present no more than two tones: a light background along with a black spray15. After beginning to use stencils, he has become an eminent street artist in London and Bristol. Banksy’s first image to become popular was the 1997 “The Mild Mild West,” a huge painting on the wall of an abandoned building. It depicts a cute smiling teddy bear, who is about to throw a Molotov cocktail at three riot policemen while somehow still looking cuddly. The artist put his signature on the bottom and the title of the picture on the top of the painting. This work is the one people of Bristol are especially fond of16. The first “exhibition” held by Banksy took place in 2001, in a tunnel near a pub, where he and his friends created some images in 25 minutes. In 2003, his famous “Turf War” exhibition was launched in London17. Banksy also performed a series of the so-called museum interventions, when he entered at least seven museums in London, New York and Paris and hung his art on the walls among the exhibited works without permission18. He defined these interventions as a form of “brandalism,” i.e. a deliberate act of substituting well-known images to turn them into something provocative19. The messages of Banksy’s works are mostly anti-capitalist and anti-war. However, some of his images are considered racist. For instance, his 2014 work created in Clacton-on-Sea, Essex, depicts five protesting pigeons with placates saying “Migrants not welcome”, “Go back to Africa” and “Keep off our worms.” Apparently, the words on the placates are addressed to a little green swallow. The work was removed by the city council for being “inappropriate”20. To my opinion, this was clearly a mistake. When you look at the painting, you see five big, scary birds, looking even bigger and scarier with their placates, oppressing a tiny swallow, which clearly presents no danger. Considering Banksy’s usual leftist stance, I believe this to be a damnation of racism, meant to show racist individuals that it is they that look like a threat, not immigrants. It is interesting that Banksy especially favored the image of rats; he often depicted them in London, for instance, in such works as “Microphone Rat,” “Cutting Rats,” “Umbrella Rat,” etc.21 Banksy’s art represents the spirit of rebellion; he’s often called “guerilla artist” or even “art terrorist.” For him, it is essential to be illegal; despite having held several exhibitions of his works, Banksy prefers displaying them on buildings, cars, national monuments, museums (not being invited), i.e. everywhere, where it is forbidden. Most of his works are illegally painted in public places22. Therefore, a serious problem of Banksy’s art is that it can turn out to be a forgery, for it is hard to attribute properly graffiti made in public places. Banksy has a special block-like signature but it does not guarantee authenticity. Some street artists, for instance, his fans, may copy his signature to make us believe their art is created by Banksy. The only way to somehow reveal the truth is to ask the artist himself, i.e. to check the paintings Banksy claims to be his in his four books23. We will write a custom Essay on Banksy’s Street Art: Reasons for Popularity specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For Banksy, street art is more than vandalism; it is a means of expression for those, who are oppressed and suffer from poverty. As states, he perceives this form of art “as a way of linking criminality to beautification and enhancement of the urban environment.”24. As Banksy himself offered, Imagine a city where graffiti wasn’t illegal, a city where everybody could draw wherever they liked. Where every street was awash with a million colors and little phrases. Where standing at a bus stop was never boring. A city that felt like a living breathing thing that belonged to everybody, not just the estate agents and barons of big business. Imagine a city like that and stop leaning against the wall – it’s wet25. His attitude to this problem is reflected in his 2008 painting “Street Cleaner”: a man in a uniform wipes out the unique paintings created by cavemen. The reference to graffiti-removal is obvious: city authorities do not understand the value of the paintings (no matter, cave ones or graffiti) and order to clean them out. Banksy’s art and his behavior keep provoking ardent discussion on ownership, the definition of art, copyright, vandalism, law and order, etc. Now the question is whether Banksy can be considered a good artist. According to the mayor of New York City, he is not an artist at all26. As Charly Brooker states in an article in The Guardian, “his work looks dazzlingly clever to idiots”27. Banksy vulgarizes the wide-known pop images to make himself look “cool,” and Brooker criticizes him for using the pattern of “America… um… war… er… Disney… and stuff,” which people are already fed up with28. While he may be not wrong, there is another side of the coin. We are used to the fact that art is linked to the concepts of exclusivity, a limited amount of items, controlled sales and, finally, a known and identified genius, who creates it. Not a single one of this components is present in the case of Banksy. Hundreds of paintings on the street walls, being removed by the authorities every day and an unknown person (persons?) behind this. Nevertheless, it may be time to review our canons of art. As Banksy believes, art is not when you paint or when you benefit from your paintings but when you receive a public reaction, when you make people reflect on the things you show them. In my opinion, Banksy is a good artist, for his art does make a huge (thank the location on the streets) amount of people reflect on vital problems of politics and society. However vandalistic he may be, this is the way, in which Banksy fulfils his duty as a citizen and a member of society. Conclusion Street art is a popular contemporary form of expression existing in big cities. City authorities consider it a crime and because of that, the artists have to be anonymous or use nicknames. Street art can be a form of political activism. As Cedar Lewisohn believes, street art should be judged by the artistic standards. I disagree since these standards are vague and are not suited to apply to the works of anonymous artists. Among the most popular street artists is Banksy, who has created lots of graffiti and stencil images, wrote four books about his experience and filmed a movie. Banksy delivers anti-capitalist and anti-war messages to his viewers. As I am convinced, Banksy can be named a good artist: he manages to make hundreds of people reflect on the Important problems of society and politics. Bibliography Alpaslan, Zeynep. “Is Street Art a Crime? An Attempt at Examining Street Art Using Criminology.” Advances in Applied Sociology 2, no.1 (2012): 53-58. Antony, Andrew. “Banksy: the artist who’s driven to the wall.” Guardian (London, UK). 2014. Web. Not sure if you can write a paper on Banksy’s Street Art: Reasons for Popularity by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Baker, Lindsay. “Banksy: Off The Wall.” The Telegraph (London, UK). 2008. Web. Banksy. Exitstencilism: Black Book. London: Weapons of Mass Distraction, 2002. Barbour, Kim. “Hiding in Plain Sight: Street Artists Online.” PLATFORM: Journal of Media and Communication 5, no. 1 (2013): 86-96. Branscome, Eva. “The True Counterfeits of Banksy: Radical Walls of Complicity and Subversion.” Architectural Design 81, no. 5, (2011): 114-21. Brooker, Charlie. “Supposing… Subversive genius Banksy is actually rubbish.” The Guardian (London, UK). 2006. Web. Bull, Martin. Banksy Locations