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“Patrol Strategies” Please respond to the following:

“Patrol Strategies” Please respond to the following:.

“Patrol Strategies” Please respond to the following:
•Read the article titled “Proactive Patrolling through the Use of Patrol Scripts”, located here. You may also view the article at here. Review the three (3) elements of the crime triangle and give your opinion as to how they contribute to crime.
•Compare and contrast the main relative strengths and weaknesses of foot patrol and automobile patrol. Explore how police can combine these two (2) patrol methods to enhance the effectiveness of patrol efforts. Support your response.
•Imagine that you are the director of an inner-city school district’s school police. Propose how you would implement at least one (1) of the patrol strategies discussed in the textbook to improve the overall safety and security for the students that attend schools in your district.
Lecture: https://blackboard.strayer.edu/bbcswebdav/institution/CRJ/430/Week3/Lecture1/story.html?target=blank
“Patrol Strategies” Please respond to the following:

Understanding How Magnetic Storage Devices Work Computer Science Essay

A magnetic storage device includes a magnetic disk having a protective film and a lubricant layer formed on the protective film, a head stack assembly including a head operable to read information from and write information to the magnetic disk, and a suspension configured to support the head, a vibration detection sensor operable to output a detection signal to detect vibration of the head stack assembly, and an extraction unit operable to extract a specific frequency range from the detection signal outputted by the vibration detection sensor, the specific frequency range including a natural frequency of the head stack assembly but not including a natural frequency of an air film on the head. INTRODUCTION Magnetic storage and magnetic recording are terms from engineering referring to the storage of data on a magnetized medium. Magnetic storage uses different patterns of magnetization in a magnetisable material to store data and is a form of non-volatile memory. The information is accessed using one or more read/write heads. As of 2009, magnetic storage media, primarily hard disks, are widely used to store computer data as well as audio and video signals. In the field of computing, the term magnetic storage is preferred and in the field of audio and video production, the term magnetic recording is more commonly used. The distinction is less technical and more a matter of preference. Other examples of magnetic storage media include floppy disks, magnetic recording tape, and magnetic stripes on credit cards. How Is Data Stored on Magnetic Storage Devices? Analog Tape Magnetic recorders have been around in one form or another since the end of the 19th century and were used to make audio recordings long before any of their other uses. The first form to come into widespread use was the analog tape. In an analog tape, a strip of plastic coated with a thin magnet coating is wound between two reels. To make a recording, the motor in the tape recorder unwinds the tape past an electromagnet, called the write head, at a steady rate. The Write Head A current in the shape of the analog signal pulses through the write head. The current continuously goes from positive to negative as the sound wave being recorded goes up or down. This current creates a moving magnetic field in the write head, which induces a magnetic field in the nearby read head. The magnetic field stays on the tape, creating a recording of the sound. Digital Recording Digital tapes do the same thing as analog tapes except that, instead of storing a continuous signal, they store digital information. The current in the write head does not go from negative to positive in a continuous wave, but instead jumps quickly between two different values to represent the binary digits 1 and 0. Digital tapes are used as backup, but they are a bit too slow to use for normal day-to-day work, since the machine has to wind and unwind the tape to find every piece of information. Hard Drives Hard drives are much quicker than tapes and are currently the most important magnetic storage devices. They read and write in the same way tapes do, but they have a different physical structure. A hard drive has several different disk-shaped “platters” that are covered with grooves like records. Each has a write head that hovers above it as it spins very quickly. A control motor can move the head to any spot on the disk, where it retrieves the desired information from the disk as it spins. ACCESS METHOD Magnetic storage media can be classified as either sequential access memory or random access memory although in some cases the distinction is not perfectly clear. In the case of magnetic wire, the read/write head only covers a very small part of the recording surface at any given time. Accessing different parts of the wire involves winding the wire forward or backward until the point of interest is found. The time to access this point depends on how far away it is from the starting point. The case of ferrite-core memory is the opposite. Every core location is immediately accessible at any given time. Hard disks and modern linear serpentine tape drives do not precisely fit into either category. Both have many parallel tracks across the width of the media and the read/write heads take time to switch between tracks and to scan within tracks. Different spots on the storage media take different amounts of time to access. For a hard disk this time is typically less than 10 ms, but tapes might take as much as 100 s. Disk Storage Disk storage or disc storage is a general category of storage mechanisms, in which data are digitally recorded by various electronic, magnetic, optical, or mechanical methods on a surface layer deposited of one or more planar, round and rotating platters. A disk drive is a device implementing such a storage mechanism with fixed or removable media; with removable media the device is usually distinguished from the media as in compact disc drive and the compact disc. Notable types are the hard disk drive (which is today almost always use fixed media), the floppy disk drive and its floppy disk, and various optical disc drives and associated media. Data Storage Device A data storage device is a device for recording (storing) information (data). Recording can be done using virtually any form of energy, spanning from manual muscle power in handwriting, to acoustic vibrations in phonographic recording, to electromagnetic energy modulating magnetic tape and optical discs. A storage device may hold information, process information, or both. A device that only holds information is a recording medium. Devices that process information (data storage equipment) may either access a separate portable(removable) recording medium or a permanent component to store and retrieve information. Electronic data storage is storage which requires electrical power to store and retrieve that data. Most storage devices that do not require vision and a brain to read data fall into this category. Electromagnetic data may be stored in either an analog or digital format on a variety of media. This type of data is considered to be electronically encoded data, whether or not it is electronically stored in a semiconductor device, for it is certain that a semiconductor device was used to record it on its medium. Most electronically processed data storage media (including some forms of computer data storage) are considered permanent (non-volatile) storage, that is, the data will remain stored when power is removed from the device. In contrast, most electronically stored information within most types of semiconductor (computer chips) microcircuits are volatile memory, for it vanishes if power is removed. With the exception of barcodes and OCR data, electronic data storage is easier to revise and may be more cost effective than alternative methods due to smaller physical space requirements and the ease of replacing (rewriting) data on the same medium. However, the durability of methods such as printed data is still superior to that of most electronic storage media. The durability limitations may be overcome with the ease of duplicating (backing-up) electronic data. Many different consumer electronic devices can store data. A reel-to-reel tape recorder (Sony TC-630) the magnetic tape is data storage medium. The recorder is data storage equipment using a portable medium to store the data. Magnetic Storage Devices The diskette drives, tape drives and hard disk drives are examples of magnetic storage devices. These devices are used to write and read data to and from the diskettes, tapes and hard disks. The surfaces of diskette, tape and hard disk are coated with magnetic material such as iron oxide or ferrous oxide, which can be magnetized (i.e. which reacts to a magnetic field). The surfaces of disks and magnetic tapes are coated with millions of tiny iron particles so that data can be stored on them. Each of these particles can act as a magnet. The write/read heads of disk drives or tape drives contain electromagnets that generate magnetic fields in the iron on the storage medium as the head passes over the disk or tape. The presence of a magnetic field represents a ‘1’ bit and its absence represents a ‘0’ bit. The data reading process from magnetic disk or tape is reversed. In reading process, no current is flowing through the electromagnetic and read/write heads have no magnetic field. Because the storage medium has a magnetic field but the head does not. The storage medium charges the magnet in the head, which causes a small current to flow through the head in one direction or the other depending on the polarity of the field. The disk or tape drive senses the direction of the flow as the disk or tape passes by the head. In this way data is sent from the read/write head into memory in the form of electric pulses. The information stored in a disk can be read many times without affecting the stored data. So the reading operation is non-destructive. But the writing of new data erases data previously stored at that location of the disk or tape. Types Of Magnetic Storage Devices Tape Drive A tape drive is a data storage device that reads and writes data on a magnetic tape. It is typically used for off-line, archival data storage. Tape media generally has a favorable unit cost and long archival stability. A tape drive provides sequential access storage, unlike a disk drive, which provides random access storage. A disk drive can move its read/write head(s) to any random part of the disk in a very short amount of time, but a tape drive must spend a considerable amount of time winding tape between reels to read any one particular piece of data. As a result, tape drives have very slow average seek times. Despite the slow seek time; tape drives can stream data to and from tape very quickly. For example, modern LTO drives can reach continuous data transfer rates of up to 80 MB/s, which is as fast as most 10,000 RPM hard disks. Magnetic tape drive Magnetic Tape Sound Recording Magnetic tape has been used for sound recording for more than 75 years. Tape revolutionized both the radio broadcast and music recording industries. It did this by giving artists and producers the power to record and re-record audio with minimal loss in quality as well as edit and rearrange recordings with ease. The alternative recording technologies of the era, transcription discs and wire recorders, could not provide anywhere near this level of quality and functionality. Since some early refinements improved the fidelity of the reproduced sound, magnetic tape has been the highest quality analog sound recording medium available. Despite this, as of 2007, magnetic tape is largely being replaced by digital systems for most sound recording purposes. Prior to the development of magnetic tape, magnetic wire recorders had successfully demonstrated the concept of magnetic recording, but they never offered audio quality comparable to the recording and broadcast standards of the time. Some individuals and organizations developed innovative uses for magnetic wire recorders while others investigated variations of the technology. One particularly important variation was the application of an oxide powder to a long strip of paper. This German invention was the start of a long string of innovations that lead to modern magnetic tape. Hard Disk Drive A hard disk drive (often shortened as hard disk, hard drive, or HDD) is a non-volatile storage device that stores digitally encoded data on rapidly rotating rigid (i.e. hard) platters with magnetic surfaces. Strictly speaking, “drive” refers to the motorized mechanical aspect that is distinct from its medium, such as a tape drive and its tape, or a floppy disk drive and its floppy disk. Early HDDs had removable media; however, an HDD today is typically a sealed unit (except for a filtered vent hole to equalize air pressure) with fixed media. A Hard Disk Drive Technology HDDs record data by magnetizing ferromagnetic material directionally, to represent either a 0 or a 1 binary digit. They read the data back by detecting the magnetization of the material. A typical HDD design consists of a spindle that holds one or more flat circular disks called platters, onto which the data are recorded. The platters are made from a non-magnetic material, usually aluminium alloy or glass, and are coated with a thin layer of magnetic material, typically 10-20 nm in thickness – for reference, standard copy paper is 0.07-0.18 millimetres (70,000-180,000 nm) thick – with an outer layer of carbon for protection. Older disks used iron (III) oxide as the magnetic material, but current disks use a cobalt-based alloy. A cross section of the magnetic surface in action. In this case the binary data are encoded using frequency modulation. The platters are spun at very high speeds. Information is written to a platter as it rotates past devices called read-and-write heads that operate very close (tens of nanometres in new drives) over the magnetic surface. The read-and-white head is used to detect and modify the magnetization of the material immediately under it. There is one head for each magnetic platter surface on the spindle, mounted on a common arm. An actuator arm (or access arm) moves the heads on an arc (roughly radially) across the platters as they spin, allowing each head to access almost the entire surface of the platter as it spins. The arm is moved using a voice coil actuator or in some older designs a stepper motor. The magnetic surface of each platter is conceptually divided into many small sub-micrometre-sized magnetic regions, each of which is used to encode a single binary unit of information. Initially the regions were oriented horizontally, but beginning about 2005, the orientation was changed to perpendicular. Due to the polycrystalline nature of the magnetic material each of these magnetic regions is composed of a few hundred magnetic grains. Magnetic grains are typically 10 nm in size and each form a single magnetic domain. Each magnetic region in total forms a magnetic dipole which generates a highly localized magnetic field nearby. A write head magnetizes a region by generating a strong local magnetic field. Early HDDs used an electromagnet both to magnetize the region and to then read its magnetic field by using electromagnetic induction. Later versions of inductive heads included metal in Gap (MIG) heads and thin film heads. As data density increased, read heads using magneto resistance (MR) came into use; the electrical resistance of the head changed according to the strength of the magnetism from the platter. Later development made use of spintronics: in these heads, the magneto resistive effect was much greater than in earlier types, and was dubbed “giant” magneto resistance (GMR). In today’s heads, the read and write elements are separate, but in close proximity, on the head portion of an actuator arm. The read element is typically magneto-resistive while the write element is typically thin-film inductive. HD heads are kept from contacting the platter surface by the air that is extremely close to the platter; that air moves at, or close to, the platter speed. The record and playback head are mounted on a block called a slider, and the surface next to the platter is shaped to keep it just barely out of contact. It’s a type of air bearing. Floppy Disk A floppy disk is a data storage medium that is composed of a disk of thin, flexible (“floppy”) magnetic storage medium encased in a square or rectangular plastic shell. Floppy disks are read and written by a floppy disk drive or FDD, the initials of which should not be confused with “fixed disk drive”, which is another term for a (non-removable) type of hard disk drive. Invented by the American information technology company IBM, floppy disks in 8-inch (203 mm), 5 1⁄4 in (133 mm), and 3 1⁄2 in (89 mm) formats enjoyed nearly three decades as a popular and ubiquitous form of data storage and exchange, from the mid-1970s to the late 1990s. While floppy disk drives still have some limited uses, especially with legacy industrial computer equipment, they have now been superseded by USB flash drives, external hard disk drives, CDs, DVDs, and memory cards. APPLICATIONS As of 2008, common uses of magnetic storage media are for computer data mass storage on hard disks and the recording of analog audio and video works on analog tape. Since much of audio and video production is moving to digital systems, the usage of hard disks is expected to increase at the expense of analog tape. Digital tape and tape libraries are popular for the high capacity data storage of archives and backups. Floppy disks see some marginal usage, particularly in dealing with older computer systems and software. Magnetic storage is also widely used in some specific applications, such as bank cheques (MICR) and credit/debit cards (magnetic stripes). FUTURE PROSPECTIVE A new type of magnetic storage, called Magneto resistive Random Access Memory or MRAM, is being produced that stores data in magnetic bits based on the Tunnel Magneto Resistance (TMR) effect. Its advantage is non-volatility, low power usage, and good shock robustness. The 1st generation that was developed was produced by Everspin Technologies, and utilized field induced writing. The 2nd generation is being developed through two approaches: Thermal Assisted Switching (TAS) which is currently being developed by Crocus Technology, and Spin Torque Transfer (STT) on which Crocus, Hynix, IBM, and several other companies are working. However, with storage density and capacity orders of magnitude smaller than an HDD, MRAM is useful in applications where moderate amounts of storage with a need for very frequent updates are required, which flash memory cannot support due to its limited write endurance. REFERENCE CITED www.wikipedia.com www.google.com www.googlebooks.com www.physicsforum.com www.ebooks.com www.eskimo.com www.howstuffworks.com

Walden University Multiple Regression Moderation in SPSS Reflection Discussion

essay writing service free Walden University Multiple Regression Moderation in SPSS Reflection Discussion.

Use proper APA format, citations, and referencing for your analysis, research question, and display of output.Title page (NO RUNNING HEAD, NO ABSTRACT)Text reporting the research question, which data set was used, how the analysis was done, results of any tests of assumptions, the results reported in APA format, brief interpretation of findings. Professor is a stickler for APA format. There are examples of what the results should look like for each assigned analysis in the Warner textbook. This does not have to be longer than 2 pages.Reference pageAppendix which includes SPSS syntax and SPSS outputLatin statistical symbols (e.g., N, M, SD, t, p) should be in italics.There should be a space on each side of equals (and inequality) signs.Never say Sig in the writeup. The correct symbol is p.Multiple Regression Moderation in SPSSTo prepareReview the datasets provided.Construct a research question based on one of those datasets.Use moderation in your multiple regression analysis to answer your research question.By Day 7The AssignmentBased on the research question you created, complete the following tasks:Fit a multiple regression model, testing whether a moderating variable partly or completely moderates the effect of an initial causal variable on an outcome variable. Think about whether or not the model will meet assumptions.Fit the model, testing for moderation between two key variables.Analyze the output, determining whether moderation was significant and how to interpret that result.Reflect on possible implications of social change.Write an analysis in APA format, including title page, references, and an appendix, that includes your data output and addresses each of the tasks listed above. The content should be 2–3 pages, including setup of the assignment, results, and interpretation of results. Your SPSS output should be included as an appendix.Early in your Assignment, when you relate which dataset you analyzed, please include the mean of the following variables. If you are using the Afrobarometer Dataset, report the mean of Q1 (Age). If you are using the General Social Survey Dataset, report the mean of Age. If you are using the HS Long Survey Dataset, report the mean of X1SES. See pages 683 and 684 in your Warner textbook for an excellent APA-compliant write-up of a mediation analysis
Walden University Multiple Regression Moderation in SPSS Reflection Discussion

Cardiac Activity and Ventricular Tachycardia (VT) Waveform

Lachlan Donnet-Jones Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is one of the leading causes of mortality in Australia. One of the primary causes of SCD is cardiac dysrhythmias, such as, Ventricular Tachycardia (VT). The most effective treatment for life-threatening cardiac dysrhythmias is defibrillation. This essay will examine the relationship between cardiac activity and the Ventricular Tachycardia (VT) waveform, and discuss how defibrillation may terminate this dysrhythmia, allowing the heart to return to a normal rhythm. The typical healthy adult heart will have a resting heart rate of between 60 and 100 beats per minute (Saladin, 2011). When the heart beats abnormally fast, it pumps less effectively, which decreases the level of perfusion to the tissue of the body, including the heart itself. This rapid heart rate increases the hearts muscle tissues (myocardium) demand for oxygen, and without intervention, can lead to the death of myocardial cells, which is known as a Myocardial Infarction (MI) (Huazers, 20??). Each year in Australia approximately 55,000 people suffer a heart attack, or an Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI). This is equal to 150 heart attacks per day or one in every 10 minutes (Heart Foundation). The Australian Bureau of Statistics reported that over 350,000 Australians will suffer an AMI at some point in their lives (ABS, health survey). In Trappes’ 2012 research article, Trappe notes that there is no single factor that causes an AMI, it is a multifactorial problem, however, approximately ninety percent of AMI’s are caused by tachyarrhythmia’s (Trappe, 2012). Before one can gain a thorough understanding of dysthymias, it is necessary to develop a fundamental grasp of the heart’s electrical conduction system and the associated physiology and pathophysiology. The primary function of the electrical conduction system is to transmit electrical impulses from the sinoatrial node (SA node) (normal site of conception) down to the atria and ventricles, triggering a contraction of heart muscle (myocardium) and controlling the heart rate. In a normal sinus rhythm, originating from the SA node, there are three phases; atrial depolarisation, ventricular depolarisation and atrial and ventricular repolarisation. The SA node is found within the wall of the right atrium proximal to the entrance of the superior vena cava. Similar to all electrical nodes within the heart, the SA node is composed of pacemaker cells which generate automatic and regular electrical impulses. These electrical impulses travel through the walls of the right atrium, causing contraction of the heart muscle (myocardium), to the atrioventricular node (AV node) via internodal conduction tracts (anterior, middle, and posterior). A final SA node conduction pathway, known as Bachmann’s bundle (interatrial conduction tract), transmits electrical impulses across the heart to the left atrium. On an electrocardiogram (ECG) this atrial depolarisation is represented by the P wave. The fibrous annulus is a non-conductive layer of tissue which prevents the electrical impulse from travelling outside the perimeter of the atrium. The primary function of the AV node is to process the electrical impulses from the atria to the bundle of His in a way that slows the impulses arrival at the ventricles by approximately 0.12 seconds. This delay allows for the atria to empty and the ventricles to fill before the next contraction. After the bundle of His, the electrical impulse will travel down the right bundle branch and the left common bundle branch. These bundle branches continue to subdivide into smaller branches, the smallest of which connect to the Purkinje network, an elaborate mesh of minute Purkinje fibres which spread throughout the ventricles. In a normal functioning heart it will take an electrical impulse approximately 0.2 seconds to travel from the SA node to the Purkinje network in the ventricles. On an ECG, this is shown as the P-R interval. At this point the impulse causes the ventricles to contract, pumping the blood out of the ventricles and into the systemic circulation. This depolarisation of the ventricles is represented by the QRS complex. Immediately following a QRS complex, is a period of time in which there is no electrical activity in the myocardium. This is known as the S-T segment and is normally represented as a flat line, level with the isoelectric line of an ECG. The proceeding T wave represents the repolarisation of the ventricles to their resting state. If at any point in this process the electrical impulse is disturbed, it can create a cardiac dysrhythmia, such as if the SA node were to produce rapid electrical impulses, resulting in tachycardia (fast heart beat). Ventricular Tachycardia (VT) is a type of tachycardia that originates within the inferior chambers of the heart, called the ventricles. The ventricles are the primary pumps of the heart, therefore, when they are compromised it can quickly deteriorate into a life-threatening dysrhythmia, such as, ventricular fibrillation (VF) or asystole (Chou, 2008). The diagnosis of VT is made by examining the rhythm seen on a 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG). Although numerous diagnostic criteria have been developed, such as the ‘Brugada Criteria’ (Brugada, 1991), the following are the most commonly accepted (Riley, 2008). The rate of VT is above 100 per minute, typically 150 to 200, with a regular rhythm. The R-S complex is absent in precordial leads, and there are three or more consecutive Premature Ventricular Contractions (PVCs) present (AV dissociation). The ectopic pacemaker is below the Atrioventricular node (AV node), therefore, the PR interval is irrelevant. In addition, different ambulance services will have their own specific diagnostic criteria for VT, for example, Ambulance Tasmania (AT) Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPG’s) state that the rhythm must present with QRS complexes of over 0.12 seconds, and be sustained for a period of over 30 seconds (sustained VT). VT can be classified using three methods; morphology, episode duration, and symptoms. In regards to morphology, there are two primary categories of VT; monomorphic and polymorphic. Monomorphic VT has numerous causes, but is determined by consistent appearance across all leads of an ECG. A common reason that the beats from each lead appear the same, is because the impulse is being generated from an increased rate of automaticity in a single point from the left or right ventricles. This means that the pacemaker cells, such as the Purkinje fibres in the left and right ventricles, that are able to reach an action potential on their own accord (automaticity), have increased the rate at which they fire impulses (intrinsic rate). Another reason for monomorphic VT is due to the presence of a re-entry circuit within the ventricle. A re-entry circuit occurs when an electrical impulse constantly travels in a constricted circle within the heart, as opposed to moving from one end of the heart to the other, like a normal electrical impulse circuit. Although monomorphic VT has many causes and contributing factors, the most common cause is scarring of the myocardial tissue from a previous MI episode. The scarred tissue left behind does not conduct electrical impulses, and therefore, the potential for a circuit around the scar can result in tachycardia. This is similar to the aforementioned re-entrant circuit, and is a common cause of other dysrhythmias, such as, atrial flutter (Af) and supraventricular tachycardia (SVT). Scar-related monomorphic VT is predominantly prevalent in patients who have a previously survived a MI, particularly in those who have damaged myocardium as a result (John, reference). Unlike the consistent rhythm seen is monomorphic VT, polymorphic VT is an irregular rhythm that has constant variations in its morphology. A second method to define VT is studying the duration of the episode. Three or more consistent contractions on an ECG, originating from within a ventricle at over 100 beats per minute, is determined as VT. If the tachycardia rhythm terminates itself in under 30 seconds, it is considered non-sustained VT. If the rhythm continues beyond 30 seconds, it is considered sustained VT. The final method to classify VT is reviewing symptoms. When a patient is in VT, the loss of co-ordinated atrial contraction and high heart rate can impair cardiac output (CO), and therefore, they will not have a palpable pulse. This is known as Pulseless VT. Pulseless VT is concomitant with an absence of cardiac output (CO), and therefore, according to AT clinical practice guidelines, is to be treated as worst case scenario, which is ventricular fibrillation (VF), a shockable rhythm (CPG Reference). In a report from the American College of Cardiology, Zipes et. al note that VT can occasionally be accompanied by reasonable cardiac output and may even present as asymptomatic, however, the heart will not tolerate this rhythm for a sustained period of time, and will eventually deteriorate to pulseless VT or VF. Supraventricular Tachycardia (SVT) with a bundle branch block (BBB) or Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome is commonly misdiagnosed as VT (Trappe). This is due to the similar diagnostic characteristics, such as, wide QRS complexes and high heart rates, which are mutual in all wide complex tachycardia (litfl). It is important to differentiate the two because certain medications used to treat SVT could potentially worsen the patient’s condition. As Trappe notes in his research article ‘Treating critical supraventricular and ventricular arrhythmias’, it is always beneficial to treat for the worst case scenario, in this case, VT (Trappe, 2010). This opinion is mutual in regards to Ambulance Tasmania CPG’s, where it recommends treating for worst case scenario. Once a shockable dysrhythmia has been recognised, it is necessary to intervene with an external source of electrical activity to correct the hearts rhythm. Defibrillation is the standard and most effective treatment for cardiac dysrhythmias, such as VT and VF (Reference). Defibrillation is the process of using a device called a defibrillator to deliver a therapeutic measure or ‘shock’ of electrical current through the heart. The current delivered, aims to depolarise a critical mass (Critical mass theory**) of the heart muscle (myocardium), interrupting the dysrhythmia and allowing the heart’s natural pacemaker, the SA node, to return to a normal sinus rhythm. Defibrillators are becoming widely available in the form of transvenous, implanted (implantable cardioverter-defibrillator), or external (automated external defibrillators) devices. Despite the different forms a defibrillation device may present in, they all operate on the same principle. There are two different methods of delivering an electrical shock from a defibrillation device; monophasic and biphasic waveforms. Monophasic is the ‘old’ method in which the electrical current travelled in one direction through a patient’s chest. The second method is using a biphasic waveform, meaning the current is delivered to the heart in two vectors (two directions). Due to the use of two vectors, the peak electrical current needed to revert a dysrhythmia is decreased to 200 joules, as opposed to 360 joules of a monophasic waveform. Due to the high voltage (360 joules) used in monophasic waveform it can cause superficial burns to the patients skin. Additionally, _____ found the use of a biphasic waveform to be more effective at returning the heart to a sinus rhythm and resulted in less damage to myocardium, leading to better patient outcomes (Reference). ____ notes that for the aforementioned reasons, monophasic waveform defibrillation is quickly being replaced with biphasic (Reference). Page 1 of 5

Management Information Systems: Socio-Technical Aspect Essay

List the 5 Components of MIS and briefly describe how each relates to the study and optimization of systems in companies A standard MIS is composed of these five components: Hardware: This constitutes all the computers, machines, nets, and wires involved in the creation of a unified MIS. Optimizing hardware usually involves improving the capabilities of one or several components of the net to improve its overall output. Software: This component stands for programs that are used to operate the MIS, manage data, search and cipher through logs, and other related activities. Optimization of software typically involves adding features and functionality required to perform specific tasks while at the same time getting rid of unnecessary ones. Data: This component stands for the information introduced into the system. Optimization of data input usually involves making data more informative while at the same time excluding bits of information not necessary to perform a certain task. Procedures: Documentation and development. Procedural optimization typically touches information storage and the process of information being introduced into the database. People: The end users of the MIS. This component may describe individual users, groups of users, or entire organizations. Optimizing this component involves training the personnel in using and analyzing data. To the best of your knowledge, define TPS and describe some examples where Batch Processing is used and other cases where Real-Time Processing is implemented in today’s world. Besides, how has the implementation of TPS allowed companies and banks to save money? TPS stands for Transaction Processing Systems. These are systems used for managing, collecting, storing, and retrieving information. There are two most common types of TPS. These are: Real-Time Processing. This type of TPS suggests that the information about transactions and any other data is processed and modified immediately. This model is widely used in e-commerce, booking flights, automatic payments, ATMs, and other areas. It is the preferable choice of TPS where the speed of managing data is paramount. Batch Processing. This type of TPS involves collecting data over a certain period and sending it in batches. This type of payment is often used when the number of micro-transactions is too big to pay individually for every single one. Instead, batch processing involves calculating the expenses and putting out a bill at the end of a designated interval. Using TPS allows companies and banks to save money in numerous ways. The ATMs allow foregoing the cashier, as they are more economically efficient than having a person stand in a booth at the same location for an entire day. TPS systems allow for streamlining and simplifying MIS and saving money from it. MIS is defined as systems that are designed with a ‘socio-technical’ point of view in mind. What does this term refer to? Furthermore, by outlining the key areas addressed in the socio-technical model, describe how each one relates to the subject of MIS The socio-technical model is a kind of organizational development that acknowledges and focuses on the interactions between customers, employees, and technology. MIS is built within the parameters of the socio-technical model in the sense that all MIS are the intermediaries between humans and various technological processes. The model suggests four key areas that the MIS needs to address: Autonomy: The system must allow the user to perform the actions autonomously, without having to rely on another intermediary outside of the MIS. Adaptability: The MIS must be able to adapt to a plethora of constant and ever-changing demands from the users, employees, and customers. It must allow customization to represent the needs of the users more accurately. Whole tasks: The MIS must allow completing the tasks entirely by using the same system and not having to rely on any systems outside of it. Meaningfulness of tasks: The MIS must not obligate its users to perform tasks unnecessary for the performance of the required operations. Briefly explain the difference between data and information and describe how the stages of the MIS process work in terms of INPUT-PROCESSING-OUTPUT- FEEDBACK Data stands for unprocessed information – a set of words and numbers that did not undergo any analysis or structuration. Information is processed data, organized for easier use and assessment. Most MIS function in terms of the Input-Processing-Output-Feedback loop: Input: The data is introduced into the system either automatically or from user input from the external environment. Processing: The data is converted into information via software processing or some other means, to enable the users to make decisions based on said information. Output: The MIS transfers the information to managers, customers, and other decision-makers to be used in their activities. Feedback: Input received from various members of the process to improve the functioning of the MIS at its various stages. What is referred to by DSS and ESS? What level of management is each system intended for? Furthermore, what are some cases where DSS has proven to improve a company’s performance, specifically in the area of retail? DSS stands for Decision Support System. This system offers information required to make decisions, where the outcome of the decision itself is not always apparent. The MIS provides the manager with the information, such as competitor prices, stock prices, schedule optimization patterns, etc. Said information might come from the MIS itself or the outside sources. The DDS is typically used by middle managers. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More ESS, on the other hand, is the Executive Support System. Unlike the DDS, this system provides information that allows making long-term strategic decisions that have the potential to affect the entire company and not just one single operation. Typically, this system is used by senior managers, CEOs, and company directors. One particular example of DSS use in stores allows predicting customer response to increased or decreased prices on various products, based on analysis of historical data. This allows the managers to plan their pricing strategies when approaching high and low seasons. What does EAI refer to and what are some key objectives it hopes to achieve? Also, what are the two primary types of EAI networks? EAI stands for Enterprise Application Integration, and it serves for integrating the components of numerous enterprises into one interconnected web. This ensures that the manager receives a full report of the situation within a single document and from a single outlet, rather than several reports received individually from independent systems. There are two types of EAI networks: Mesh Networks: In this system, every enterprise is connected. This allows for data and information to be interchanged between every member of the system. Hub Networks: While achieving the same goals as mesh networks, all enterprises are connected to a hub, from which the information is processed and distributed to the members of the network, on-demand. Outline the 4 methods of MIS implementation and describe how each way carries its risks and costs There are four methods of MIS implementation: Direct approach – this approach involves the installation of a new MIS and complete removal of the old one. While this method of implementation is the quickest, it also means that the users will have a hard time adjusting and relearning the system. Parallel approach – the new MIS is implemented while the old one stays in place. This allows for the harmonious integration of the new MIS. However, the process may take time. Modular approach – the new MIS is implemented piece-meal, while other enterprises continue using the old system. While it allows for any potential incidents to be localized, this method causes plenty of confusion when integrating both systems. Phase-in approach – very similar to the modular approach, but allows for better integration between old and new systems. This approach allows for a more seamless transition but is slow and costly. Outline and describe the 4 main types of Enterprise Applications Systems Four main types of EAS: ERP. Stands for Enterprise Resource Planning. It allows collecting information about the day-to-day operations of the business and gives a clear and concise view of the processes. SCM. Stands for Supply Chain Management systems. Allows following trade routes, deliveries, orders, production, inventory levels, and the like. Is predominantly used in production and warehousing. CRM. Stands for Customer Relationship Management Systems. This system is used in marketing and customer management. It displays all the relevant information about customers, their attendance rates, preferences, distribution, support, service improvement, and the like. KMS. Stands for Knowledge Management Systems. Is primarily used for integrating, sharing, and distributing information acquired through various external sources. Describe some examples of malware and spyware. How are they different. Besides, what are some other forms of ‘ware’ in today’s IT systems industries? Malware stands for “Malicious Software,” which is a term used to describe programs that may cause potential harm to the computer’s software or hardware. An example of Malware is the famous Chernobyl virus that damages computer hardware by overloading it. Spyware, on the other hand, wants to steal important information about the user’s passwords, as well as personal data. An example of Spyware is CoolWebSearch – a group of programs that exploit the weaknesses of the Internet Explorer Browser. Other forms of “ware” present in the modern IT industry is Adware, Ransomware, and Scareware. How might MIS Specialists be able to save a company or firm in terms of infrastructure costs? MIS specialists could save the company some infrastructure costs through analyzing its current MIS, and the internal processes within the enterprise, and conduct necessary optimizations. Introducing new technologies, streamlining the processes, making the MIS less cumbersome and prone to redundancy, and cutting down on unnecessary employees by replacing them with TPS, which customers and employees could operate. For example, the introduction of ATMs in banks helped significantly reduce the number of cashiers required to perform the operations a customer could do on their own using an ATM. We will write a custom Essay on Management Information Systems: Socio-Technical Aspect specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More