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Passive Reconnaissance

It’s like spying on the target with binoculars or interviewing their acquaintances instead of speaking directly to them. The key is to gather as much information as possible without letting your target know you are gathering information. In a real-world situation, a hacker will conduct passive reconnaissance to gather information that can be used to formulate an attack against users and systems. Passive recon is typically followed by the scanning and enumerating phase, in which the hacker attempts to actively probe the systems identified during passive recon. Passive recon is also sometimes referred to as open-source-intelligence gathering (OSINT), as it uses publicly available sources to collect intelligence on a target. In this lab, you will form customized search queries using Google’s search operators. With WHOIS queries, you will learn how to query Internet registration authorities about registered domains. In the later parts of the lab, you will use two hacking tools, theHarvester and Maltego to collect and organize information from indexed databases. Finally, you will bypass LinkedIn’s privacy settings. In this exercise, you will practice research and writing about a technical topic, for a potential employer someday.  Perform research of each of these items and write a 600 word essay on the following items.  Develop headers and sections as appropriate.  Use 3rd person only.  Provide citations when appropriate, and a proper APA formatted reference in the references section.  In addition to the other references you may use, you are required to have at least 2 scholarly sources (peer reviewed journal articles) and 1 scripture citation (relate the concept applied and/or the impact of the action to your Biblical Worldview).  Do not use the lab instructions or any Liberty documents as your reference.  Add your work below in this template, including headers and references section.  Ensure you cover the following topics (in order).  Questions for each topic are given to prompt your thoughts, answer all of those questions, but don’t repeat them.  Feel free to give more content, just be sure to cover these items. Place your essay within this section, remove these instructions when you understand them.1)    Passive Reconnaissance  a)    What is passive reconnaissance?b)    Why do hackers use passive reconnaissance?c)    Can organizations prevent passive reconnaissance?  Why/How? d)    What are some of the search operators you can use in a Google search to query results from specific domains, Web sites, or links?e)    What would be the Google search syntax to search the site for Firefox exploits?f)    When using theHarvester, what are command switches -d and -b used for?g)    In the lab you used Maltego to graphically display what information?h)    If, while viewing LinkedIn profiles, you notice that a person’s name is shown as “LinkedIn Member,” how might you be able to view their full name?i)    How does this topic of passive reconnaissance and your understanding of satan’s attacks relate to your Biblical worldview?2)    Lab Assignmenta)    What did you learn in this lab that surprised you?b)    What was your favorite part and why?c)    What steps did you have issues with, or what challenges did you have?d)    What would you change in the lab, if anything?

“China is an emerging epicenter of world labour unrest”. Do you agree with such thesis? Explain.

“China is an emerging epicenter of world labour unrest”. Do you agree with such thesis? Explain..

 Emerging Issues in Chinese Societies Aims to enable students to analyze emerging social issues in contemporary Chinese societies with sociological theories, and to critically evaluate the social development strategies taken to tackle these issues, with a focus on Hong Kong and mainland China. You have to identify one emerging issue or problem in Chinese societies (Mainland China? and/or Hong Kong) and to apply the relevant theories or literatures to analyze it. Should submit a ONE-page outline that states their preliminary ideas and arguments of their final essay !! *The first page make an outline first, includes: intro, evidence point, sources, conclusion *The second page, start to write an essay (about 2,500 words, not including references and appendix.)

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Alessa 1 Name: Alessa Meshal Date: 10/23/2017 Prevention of denial of service

Passive Reconnaissance Alessa 1

Name: Alessa Meshal

Date: 10/23/2017

Prevention of denial of service attacks

Denial of service attacks are the modern criminal behaviors that are being witnessed in line with the digital era. In the society, there are avenues of hacking, phishing, or malwares. These serve to obtain data and eventually compromise the security of the operations. This has been a security threatening issue to the financial institutions, personal accounts, politics, and social groups. There is need to prevent this in the society and this study seeks to assess the solution for this. The study uses the sampled number of IT experts using stratified sampling technique. They are interviewed and questionnaires are filled. This quantitative data will be assembled and it is analyzed using the scientific package for social sciences version 20. The data will be analyzed and presented to the security organs and communicated to the relevant areas for immediate implementation


The study is crucial bridge to the persistent security concerns in the global perspective. The cyber security is needed by nearly all institution owing to fast integration of the digital systems and the sensitivity of the data that they often have. In most organizations, it will be critical to have a well-founded system, which will offer efficiency and should not compromise the security. This study is important in the solution needed in this great extent at the organizational level. Finally, it will be a useful and great incorporation of the expert opinion and suggestion where the tested approaches would be advanced.

Literature review

There is a great deal of information, which is known about cyber attacks. The modern globalization strategies pose a security concern in the digital platforms where the networks and connections may be interrupted and cause malfunctions. This defines the core roles of the organization and the server’s connectivity may be interrupted. An organization may have all its server transmission interfered with and eventually have the data transmission hindered. In this situation, the attack may result in alteration in the data send via that network (Govindarajan and David, n.p). For instance, the banking sector has incidences where the transitions are observed from the cloud-based hackers who alter the transactions and make substantial money. In this regard, it is a common problem in the modern computing system where the entire digital platform is encouraged to adopt mechanisms to prevent these attacks. . As per the Ministry of security, approximately 100,000 calls are made to 111 in each quarter. Call volumes influence the quality of security care and response-time to reach the client (Sisalem, Jiri and Sven, 26). Statistics show a majority of the incidents are non-life-threatening; considering the possibility of a security person assisting the client who lives close-by can reduce the first response-time. Additionally, if the attacks manage to access the client’s network, it will reduce the access time. This research is to encourage everyone to use secure networking methods, which would allow access to client data securely in an emergency. The security and privacy of user’s information will be a high priority when developing this system (Michiardi and Refik, n.p). The criminal grounds play a very critical role in ensuring the cyber issues are handled properly. These cyber attacks have been witnessed over a wide range of areas where the activists’ sites have been noted to face this challenge. The access to confidential information communication through the internet has been the order of the day. The users’ infrastructure is virtually unblocked and the complex issues, which one values as secretive, are accessed hence exposing privacy concerns. These attacks have been revealed by studies to be controllable and that it only takes early detection and spreading out the networks to prevent entire attack in the system. There is a literary gap into the most appropriate methods to prevent the cyber attacks. This study will evaluate the ways in which a solution may be offered to curb this problem.


The research will be taking an approximated period of four months where through data collection process, analysis and interpretation will be made and the communication will be made to the society. The study will use the IT experts in the modern security sites in the ministry and various departments to offer personal opinions based on their academic knowledge.


The study is expected to give a detailed description of the data characteristics while offering solution to the existing challenge. The suggestions are expected to be diverse and would range from establishment of firewalls, which would mitigate the spoofing, flooding, coercive parsing as well as port scanning. A security measure adopted from the suggestion is expected to solve the access to the cloud data and therefore limit the users from exposure to unauthorized access (Gupta, Srikanth and Michalis, n.p). The security measure adopted must therefore offer a solution to the extensive issues, which go to an extent of posing data losses in the banking sector, social sites, and the entire digital sphere. Scalable or centralized systems need to be adopted and the choice is therefore grounded on the anticipated use. The study is expected to give the expert and practical solution where algorithms as well as extensions may form a good foundation for the security measures adopted.

Work cited

Govindarajan, Priya, and David M. Durham. “Prevention of denial of service attacks.” U.S. Patent No. 7,254,133. 7 Aug. 2017.

Michiardi, Pietro, and Refik Molva. “Prevention of denial of service attacks and selfishness in mobile ad hoc networks.” in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks, Institut Eurecom Research Report RR-02-063. 2012.

Sisalem, Dorgham, Jiri Kuthan, and Sven Ehlert. “Denial of service attacks targeting a SIP VoIP infrastructure: attack scenarios and prevention mechanisms.” IEEE Network 20.5 (2016): 26-31.

Gupta, Vikram, Srikanth Krishnamurthy, and Michalis Faloutsos. “Denial of service attacks at the MAC layer in wireless ad hoc networks.” MILCOM 2002. Proceedings. Vol. 2. IEEE, 2012.