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Sociology Of The Family And Social Change Sociology Essay
Sociology Of The Family And Social Change Sociology Essay. Throughout history society and families have undergone huge changes and these have been argued by many different sociological perspectives. The reasons for the argued changes are as diverse as the theories themselves. In this essay I aim to raise, evaluate and analyse the arguments raised by Functionalist, Marxist and Feminist theories with regards to why and when these changes occurred and their impact on the family and society in general. Economic factors, war, changes in women’s rights, reduction in religious beliefs and increase in divorce and a more recent era of technology are just some of the factors that have affected society and thus changed the structure of the family as was previously known. All of these could be said to have being responsible for what is seen as a breakdown in the family unit as it was known but in this essay I will be looking at the effects of industrialisation on the family. Families have always been the foundation blocks from which we grow and learn, a means of support, who’s components can change differently over time depending on where the families exist. The extended family included three generations of kin. The members didn’t only share a household but also an important economic role which was to work together as a collective group, the purpose was to help keep the family alive and well, for example, the men would do more intensive labour such as subsistence farming, hunting and gathering, whilst the women would do crafts trades and domestic duties like cooking, brewing, caring for the offspring as well as perfecting the role of a successful wife and mother, which kept their husband happier and motivated to work hard for his family. Eventually, the era of technology was introduced to society. This made a vast alteration in history by replacing most manual and animal labour in many countries across the world, which eventually forced the agriculture industry into an industrial working society. In the 18th Century, industrialisation hit Britain and small industries started to rapidly grow across the country, specializing from metal production and mining to spinning, weaving and food production e.g. slaughter houses. More additional opportunities for employment were offered, altering the family structure dramatically, from as little as the age four, they were capable of working in factories. The growth of industrialisation resulted in more work for the unemployed. Wages were low, yet the house rent, food and living expenses increased. Many workers had no intentions of limiting their family size as their infant children continued to contribute to the family economy. Eventually the small cottage business’s started to grow into proto-industrial business’ and families started hiring more workers other than kin. Functionalism was the main branch in society up until the early 1960s, since then it has been increasingly criticized by other sociologists who favoured different sociology perspectives (Martin Holborn and Liz Steel -Collins Publications). Institutions such as schools and churches played a big part in society according to Functionalists and these institutions were functional for societies as a whole. The first main functionalists were G P Murdock and Talcott Parsons. Firstly, Murdock argued that the society was held together by four functions; Sexual, Reproduction, Economy and Education. Later on, Parsons’ theory (which was widely criticised by historical evidence, notably studies by Laslett and Anderson) was to study nuclear and heterosexual families, Parsons’ Fit Thesis states that the Modern Nuclear family evolved to meet the needs of an industrial society, Feminists argued that tradition roles of the family restricted opportunities in employment. They also argued that although women were employed, that they were also expected to carry out the triple shift at home, which consisted of housework, child care and emotional work. Marxists argued that family helped a lot of children accept authorities without questioning which prepared them to accept capitalist authorities in work places. Another Marxism argument was that without the growing population of the family, the demand for products would decrease capitalist profits. Marxist feminists agreed with these arguments but also pointed out that it was the women who were exploited most of all, they explained that the tradition role of the mother and housewife figure wasn’t fair, but as they are prepared for this role, it provided help to their husbands at low prices which resulted to male workers being employed at low wages. Marxists assumed the family had many roles which were beneficial to the Capitalist society, they belived that the family helped capitalism by being the major consumers of paid goods, this helped the bourgeoisie a great deal and proved that whilst the family exists, then the bourgeoisie would resume to make more profit. They also believed that the next proletariat generation were created by housewives, as more children were produced, more jobs were filled which were currently left open by the retired. They believed that the family helped the main income provider, which was usually the husband by relieving pressure from the previous evening allowing him to attend work the next day working and allowing the bourgeoisie to obligate a guaranteed workforce resulting in a beneficial outcome, the proletariat were less likely to rebel against the system due to little stress. To Marxists, education was considered the main source of socialisation, this was also beneficial to the bourgeoisie since the family and education system would teach the children how the society they live in is precise. Education made the proletariat believe the ideology of Capitalism which encouraged children to believe in the myth of meritocracy. Marxists believed that the bourgeoisie discouraged the proletariat extended family that once existed. Marxists believe that the proletariat had a mutual support system and acted communally as a support unit, which lead to many people becoming aware of which class they were in. This lead to the proletariat protesting against the capitalist ruling class for power, but as this was brought about by the extended family, the bourgeoisie taught the extended family to be immoral. Engels saw industrialisation negatively as it increased exploitation of the workers, but also in a positive light as it would eventually cause a communist revolution. The Marxist theories I have raised suggest that while Marx’s theory makes sense, it has also been disproven throughout history as almost all of the countries that were introduced to the communist revolution eventually collapsed and became capitalist governments Communists didn’t lead to freedom for the workers, but only to exploitive tyrannies that abused the proletariat more inferior than any bourgeoisie ever did, which concludes that although communism may well have been a great theory, it was never a practical one. ‘ Historically the feminist approach is primarily aimed at men, there view on the family has an economic system which encompasses an array of labour relation in which men benefit from the exploitation of women. “Marriage has existed for the benefit of men; and has been a legally sanctioned method of control over women … We must work to destroy it. The end of the institution of marriage is a necessary condition for the liberation of women. Therefore it is important for us to encourage women to leave their husbands and not to live individually with men … All of history must be re-written in terms of oppression of women.” (“The Declaration of Feminism” November, 1971) Many feminists came to the conclusion that when a member of the household worked, the income wasn’t to contribute towards the household, but to the man. They saw the family a way for the man to dominate the woman, as he would benefit from all the work the woman does to contribute towards the family e.g. cleaning, cooking, and bringing up the children and more. Which also includes other view feminists had involving the 57 varieties of unpaid service. Radical feminists believe that the main problem in society is patriarchy, they believe that a man’s point of view is dominance and power, that they aren’t respected like they should be. A Marxist feminist believes capitalism is to blame for the problem, they believe that capitalism weakens the society ( mainly women ) , and if they eliminated capitalism and introduce communism. A Liberal feminist believes that over time, sexism has started to diminish and society has started to improve. In conclusion there are many arguments regarding the industrialisation of the family and its affects. Many factors come into play and the many combinations of these along with the diversity of what family means to different people, I feel it makes it hard for any theory to, on its own, explain how and why these changes happened or to know if they would have anyway and are possibly down to evolution. External influences affect us all differently dependant in class, financial, social and emotional factors within a family unit. There is no norm and so to claim any one theory alone correct would not take this in to account. Sociology Of The Family And Social Change Sociology Essay
Franklin University Risk Management Insurance Paper
write my term paper Franklin University Risk Management Insurance Paper.
A recent public service advertisement developed by the insurance industry’s trade organization had the catchphrase, “Insurance Lets You Sleep Nights!” Reinsurance lets insurance company officers sleep nights. The principle of insurance is a diversification of risk so that no one, the insured or the company writing the policy, bear the full risk of loss. Through the purchase of reinsurance, the company avoids the prospect of a catastrophic loss or combination of losses which could potentially drain all of its assets and possibly bankrupt it. Identify a news article within the past 12 months which deals with reinsurance.Identify a news article within the past 12 months which deals with reinsurance.In a one-page (at least 350 words) paper, respond to the article, answering the following questions:What did you learn from the article about reinsurance?How does it support (or not support) the ideas presented in the text and/or in class?What additional ideas does the article present?Use APA format to cite the news article (see the APA library guide for assistance), and include a link to the article in your paper.
Franklin University Risk Management Insurance Paper
Social Justice Presentation
Social Justice Presentation.
Please do a slide show.Details:For this assignment, you will create a short (1-2 minutes) video or a 10-12 slide digital presentation (PowerPoint, Prezi, etc.) that you could share with students and their families that discusses why and how you will teach for social justice. Consider how your personal identity, worldview, and prior experiences affect your perceptions and expectations in interacting with students and their families.Identify a biblical verse that inspires you to teach for social justice. The following list may guide you:1. Matthew 7:12 (NIV)In everything, therefore, treat people the same way you want them to treat you, for this is the Law and the Prophets.2. Philippians 2:3 (NIV)Do nothing out of selfish ambition or vain conceit. Rather, in humility value others above yourselves3. Titus 2:7-8a (ESV)Show yourself in all respects to be a model of good works, and in your teaching show integrity, dignity and sound speech4. Proverbs 22:6 (NIV)Start children off on the way they should go, and even when they are old they will not turn from it.Discuss your selection of your chosen verse.If you have made a video for this assignment, upload your video to your OneDrive account and share the file in OneDrive with your instructor.APA format is not required, but solid academic writing is expected. This assignment uses a rubric. Review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.
Social Justice Presentation
Glaucoma Patient Study
Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp Anterior Chamber Angle Measurement with Schiempflug Cornea Topography and Selective Laser Trabeculoplasty ABSTRACT Background and Objective: To evaluate anterior chamber angle (ACA) with Scheimpflug corneal topography before and after selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT) treatment. Materials and Methods: A prospective cross sectional study performed on 55 eyes of 28 primary open angle glaucoma patients. A single session of SLT was done at previously untreated, phacic, non-operated, clear corneal eyes. Intraocular pressure and corneal topographic measurements were done before and after SLT treatment. Results: After follow up of 3 months, mean IOP and central corneal thickness measurements was found significantly reduced ( p= 0,00, p=0,003 respectively).On the other hand mean ACA measurements difference was found insignificant (p=0,194) Conclusion: SLT is an effective tool for glaucoma treatment. Although it is applied on trabecular meshwork it seems to cause no significant change at ACA measurements. Introduction Glaucoma is a progressive neuropathy localized in the optic nerve and it is among the leading causes of blindness worldwide(1). Intraocular pressure (IOP) control seems to be the best treatment that slows progression in glaucoma. There are several methods to reduce IOP such as pharmaceutical treatment, laser treatment and surgery. Selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT), described by Latina and Park in 1995 uses a frequency-doubled short pulse (Q-switched) Nd:YAG laser and the name “selective” has been given due to its targeting of pigmented trabecular meshwork cells while leaving the meshwork microstructure intact at anterior chamber angle (ACA)(2). Minimal mechanical damage was shown at histologic sections of ACA of human and primate after SLT treatment(3-5). Several instruments have been developed to image the anterior segment of the eye, one of them is rotating scheimpflug corneal tomography (SCT). SCT instrument uses a rotating camera that can image the anterior segment in 3 dimensions together with a second camera which captures eye movement for improved orientation of the images obtained by the rotating camera. Recently, there are some researches present about clinical usefulness and reliability of SCT at analysis of ACA and differentiation and fallow up of patients with glaucoma(6-9). With these knowledge, a question may arise in mind that is there any change happens at anterior chamber angle measured by the scheimpflug corneal tomography after SLT. The following prospective study was designed to determine whether ACA measurements done by the scheimpflug corneal topography could be affected by SLT. Materials and Methods A prospective cross sectional study was designed to evaluate the effects of SLT treatment at ACA measurements. The study was conducted from January 2014 to December 2014. All authors followed the Tenets of the Declaration of Helsinki. Local ethic committee approval was taken. Informed consent was obtained prior to treatment. Primary open angle glaucoma patients who were older than 18 years of age, previously untreated with laser or filtering surgery, were included in this study. Patients with anterior segment pathologies and who could not be followed for at least 3 months were excluded. Gonioscopic examination was done to every patient in order to rule out any angle pathology and to select patients with open angle glaucoma. 55 eyes of 28 patients were found eligible for this study. Complete ophthalmologic examination was done before SLT treatment and 3 months after the treatment. The IOP values before and after SLT were measured with a calibrated Goldmann tonometer .SLT treatment was given either for decreasing IOP levels at medically uncontrolled patients or for decreasing the amount of medical therapy. SLT treatment was performed by the same ophthalmologist.SCT measurements were taken by another ophthalmologist. SCT measurements were taken prior to SLT and after three months with SCT (Sirius™ Costruzione Strumenti Oftalmici, Italy). All measurements were obtained between 10:00 and 16:00 o’clock to minimize diurinal variation. Laser spots between 45 to 50 were applied at superior 180° segment with the SLT Solo laser (Ellex, Adelaide,Australia) to the trabecular meshwork. The energy levels were changed from 0.8 to 1.3 mJ until a bubble formation was observed. All patients continued with the same pharmaceutical treatment after SLT. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 11.0 for Windows. The normality of the data was checked by using the Kolmogorov–Smirnov test. Paired-sample Student’s t test and chi square test were used for comparison. A p-value of less than 0.05 was taken to denote statistical significance. Results Twenty eight patients were enrolled for this study but one of the patients was pseudophakic so her operated eye was excluded from the study. The number of male and female patients were 14. Ages of the patients were between 39 to73 (mean 57.49± 9.31)). Preoperative and postoperative third month IOP, anterior chamber angle and central corneal thickness (CCT) measurements were found to be normally distributed with Kolmogorov Smirnov test (p=0.14, p=0.23, p=0.79 respectively). Mean baseline best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was measused 0.12 ±0.19 (±2SD, n=55) LogMar. Third month after treatment, mean BCVA was found 0.13±0.23 (±2SD, n=55). BCVA of patients were not affected from the SLT treatment (p=0.53). Mean preoperative and postoperative IOP was 17.96 ±4.06 mmHg (±2SD, n=55); 15.75 ±4.16 mmHg (±2SD, n=55) respectively. Comparison of IOP values was found statistically significant (p=0.00). When successful treatment was considered more than 15 % IOP reduction, 58.2% of patients were found to be successfully treated. ACA measurements prior to SLT were changed between 28º to 54º (mean 40.18º ±5.97º (±2SD, n=55)).Third month after SLT, ACA values were between 28º and 53º (mean 40.51º±5.68º (±2SD, n=55)).Pre and post treatment ACA values were not significantly different (p=0.194). CCT measurements were ranging between 417µm and 624 µm prior to SLT treatment (mean 541.04 µm ±41.039 µm (±2SD, n=55)). CCT values after third month were changing between 410 µm and 630 µm (mean 537.71 µm ±43,802 µm (±2SD, n=55)).A significant reduction was observed between pre and post treatment values of CCT (p=0.003). Discussion Since its introduction for treatment of glaucoma SLT is one of the important treatment options of open angle glaucoma (10).Most of the studies about tissue changes after SLT treatment are histologic and showing small destruction of the trabecular meshwork(3-5). As a treatment option most of the previous studies reported good results with minimal side effects (11-14). Sayin et all reported a decreased mean IOP from 20.4±5.9 mmHg to 15.2±3.4 mmHg at third month(11). Kaya et all showed a decrease from 22.7±2.1 mmHg to 18.4±2.0 mmHg at patients with primary open angle glaucoma after third month of SLT treatment(12).At another study done by Rosenfeld et all a significant reduction of IOP at third month of treatment was found and this reduction was similar to patients treated with argon laser trabeculoplaty(13).Similarly, Cvenkel showed that in 44 eyes with medically uncontrolled OAG, 180º SLT resulted in IOP reduction of greater than 3 mm Hg in 79% of eyes and greater than 6 mm Hg in 40% after 6 months(14).Although our study was not mainly focused on IOP changes, in order to check our treatment efficiency we also analyzed IOP values. A more than 3 mmHg (≥15 %) IOP reduction at 58.2 % of patients was found with previous reports and this was correlated well with previous reports. There are a few reports on corneal changes after SLT. Ong et all reported a study analyzing 15 patients and concluded that effect of SLT on normal corneas might be transient and negligible(15). A similar result was found by White et all at another study (16). Lee et all was presented a transient reduction in endothelial cell count and CCT following SLT returning to baseline one month after single session of treatment (17).They have reported a significant reduction at CCT values after one month of treatment. In our study, we also find a significant reduction at mean CCT values (p=0.003). However, it should be noted all these previous studies were done with corneal specular microscopy which is a device to analyze corneal endothelial structure and CCT. Corneal specular microscopy gives no clue about ACA and trabecular meshwork which is the treatment site of SLT. As far as we know, this is the first report about ACA changes measured with a reliable imaging technique and we find no significant change between mean baseline and third month ACA measurements (p=0.194). Conclusion SLT is an effective tool for glaucoma treatment.This study showed no change at ACA measurements taken by SCT after SLT treatment. Additional studies using SCT or different imaging techniques may improve our knowledge about mechanism of action of SLT at ACA. Conflict of interest All authors declare no conflict of interest with any commercial or funding organization. Acknowledgements We thank Dr Muhittin TaÅŸkapÄ±lÄ± for his guidance. References 1.Bourne RR, Stevens GA, White RA, Smith JL, Flaxman SR, Price H, et al. Causes of vision loss worldwide, 1990-2010: a systematic analysis. The Lancet Global health. 2013;1(6):e339-49. Epub 2014/08/12. doi: 10.1016/s2214-109x(13)70113-x. PubMed PMID: 25104599. 2.Latina MA, Sibayan SA, Shin DH, Noecker RJ, Marcellino G. Q-switched 532-nm Nd: YAG laser trabeculoplasty (selective laser trabeculoplasty): A multicenter, pilot, clinical study11Dr. Mark A. Latina has financial interest in this technology. Ophthalmology. 1998;105(11):2082-90. 3.Kramer TR, Noecker RJ. Comparison of the morphologic changes after selective laser trabeculoplasty and argon laser trabeculoplasty in human eye bank eyes. Ophthalmology. 2001;108(4):773-9. Epub 2001/04/12. PubMed PMID: 11297496. 4.Melamed S, Pei J, Epstein DL. Short-term effect of argon laser trabeculoplasty in monkeys. Archives of ophthalmology. 1985;103(10):1546-52. Epub 1985/10/01. PubMed PMID: 4051857. 5.Rodrigues MM, Spaeth GL, Donohoo P. Electron microscopy of argon laser therapy in phakic open-angle glaucoma. Ophthalmology. 1982;89(3):198-210. Epub 1982/03/01. PubMed PMID: 7088502. 6.Smith SD, Singh K, Lin SC, Chen PP, Chen TC, Francis BA, et al. Evaluation of the anterior chamber angle in glaucoma: a report by the american academy of ophthalmology. Ophthalmology. 2013;120(10):1985-97. Epub 2013/08/28. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2013.05.034. PubMed PMID: 23978623. 7.Konstantopoulos A, Hossain P, Anderson DF. Recent advances in ophthalmic anterior segment imaging: a new era for ophthalmic diagnosis? The British journal of ophthalmology. 2007;91(4):551-7. Epub 2007/03/21. doi: 10.1136/bjo.2006.103408. PubMed PMID: 17372341; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPMC1994765. 8.Read SA, Collins MJ, Iskander DR, Davis BA. Corneal topography with Scheimpflug imaging and videokeratography: comparative study of normal eyes. Journal of cataract and refractive surgery. 2009;35(6):1072-81. Epub 2009/05/26. doi: 10.1016/j.jcrs.2009.01.020. PubMed PMID: 19465294. 9.Savini G, Carbonelli M, Barboni P, Hoffer KJ. Repeatability of automatic measurements performed by a dual Scheimpflug analyzer in unoperated and post-refractive surgery eyes. Journal of cataract and refractive surgery. 2011;37(2):302-9. Epub 2011/01/19. doi: 10.1016/j.jcrs.2010.07.039. PubMed PMID: 21241913. 10.Wong MO, Lee JW, Choy BN, Chan JC, Lai JS. Systematic review and meta-analysis on the efficacy of selective laser trabeculoplasty in open-angle glaucoma. Survey of ophthalmology. 2015;60(1):36-50. Epub 2014/08/13. doi: 10.1016/j.survophthal.2014.06.006. PubMed PMID: 25113610. 11.Sayin N, Alkin Z, Ozkaya A, Demir A, Yazici AT, Bozkurt E, et al. Efficacy of selective laser trabeculoplasty in medically uncontrolled glaucoma. ISRN ophthalmology. 2013;2013:975281. Epub 2014/02/22. doi: 10.1155/2013/975281. PubMed PMID: 24558611; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPMC3914165. 12.Kara N, Altan C, Yuksel K, Tetikoglu M. Comparison of the efficacy and safety of selective laser trabeculoplasty in cases with primary open-angle glaucoma and pseudoexfoliative glaucoma. The Kaohsiung journal of medical sciences. 2013;29(9):500-4. Epub 2013/09/11. doi: 10.1016/j.kjms.2013.01.005. PubMed PMID: 24018154. 13.Rosenfeld E, Shemesh G, Kurtz S. The efficacy of selective laser trabeculoplasty versus argon laser trabeculoplasty in pseudophakic glaucoma patients. Clinical ophthalmology (Auckland, NZ). 2012;6:1935-40. Epub 2012/12/12. doi: 10.2147/opth.s34193. PubMed PMID: 23225995; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPMC3514053. 14.Cvenkel B. One-year follow-up of selective laser trabeculoplasty in open-angle glaucoma. Ophthalmologica. 2004;218(1):20-5. Epub 2003/12/23. doi: 10.1159/000074562. PubMed PMID: 14688431. 15.Ong K, Ong L, Ong L. Corneal endothelial changes after selective laser trabeculoplasty. Clinical
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