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Overview of Pathogens and Disease

Overview of Pathogens and Disease. Lisa Langford A pathogen is a microorganism capable of causing infections diseases or illness to its host. Viruses thrive in various environments such as air, surfaces and soil. Many viruses gain entry via the respiratory route. Airborne pathogens such as the common cold (rhinovirus) and influenza, passed on from human to human, become suspended in the tiny droplets from the nose during sneezing and then travel down into the alveoli of the lungs of its new host. Food borne pathogens such as bacillus cereus can cause severe vomiting and diarrhoea and even death if dehydration is extreme. This kind of bacteria multiplies quickly in room temperature. The symptoms caused by bacillus cereus are similar to those caused by staphylococcus aureus though it can also be transmitted via the skin. Features Virus (Eukaryotic) Bacteria (Prokaryotic) Fungus (Eukaryotic) Protozoa (Eukaryotic) Cell Type Acellular Unicellular Muticellular Unicellular/multicellular Structure Nucleic acid (RNA, DNA), protected by a protein coat or capsid rather than a nucleus. Occasionally have a further lipid membrane surrounding them. Thick peptidoglycan layer outside the cell membrane for rigidity, a semi-permeable plasma membrane. Flagella or pili enabling movement in liquid. Filamentous, hypha bound by firm, chitin containing walls. Network of hyphae forms the mycelium. One celled animals. No cell wall, have pellicle instead Organelles Do not contain a nucleus Range of ribosomes. No recognisable organelles. Nuclei, mitochondria, ribosomes, gogli and membrane bound vesicles. Many organelles and at least one nucleus Structure/ Shapes Complex helical, polyhedral Spherical (cocci) (streptococcus), rods (bacilli) (salmonella) and spiral (spirochetes) Tubular, yeasts, moulds Many including flagellates, amoebas, ciliates Growth / Replication Attachment: Binds to host cell Penetration: virus inserts own genome (nucleic acid) into the host cell (latent phase) Encoating: Virus takes over control of the cells metabolism. Viral genome is replicated using nucleotides from the host cell. Assembly: virus particles are created when the nucleic acids are enveloped in the protein coats (capsids) Release: Virus completely invaded host cells and destroyed them, (lysis) Binary fission- rapid asexual reproduciton Spores allow fungi to spread Mycelium exploits a substrate followed by asexual/or sexual reproduction Binary fission, budding and multiple fission. Word Count: 204 TAQ 2 Stop the spread now! Cholera is an acute diarrheal disease which can rapidly result in profound, progressive dehydration and death. Native to the Ganges in India it is widespread in parts of Africa and South America. Cholera is caused by the gram-negative, comma-shaped organism V.cholerae. Infection and spread Cholera is referred to as a classic water borne disease, however it is also transmitted via contaminated food, drink and by hand-mouth contact (faecal –oral route) when the organisms are ingested. The disease easily and rapidly spreads in situations of poor sanitation, over-crowding such as refugee camps and in situations when water becomes contaminated. Cholera Cell Image drawn from sciene-art. [online] Available at: of Pathogens and Disease
BUS 370 Blaze Mining Case Study.

Case Study 1: Blaze Mining Case StudyOrganizational Problem:Blaze Mining is a mid-size, family-owned oil and mining company located in Louisiana. Over the past 10 years, leadership of the company has fractured and become antagonistic. Non-collaborative internal teams have caused great damage to the management and operation of critical functions within the organization. Recently, a new CEO joined the organization and was stunned by the discord within the leadership team and its effect on the bottom line.Organizational Design:Blaze Mining is family-owned and managed. There are multiple divisions and departments pertinent to the type of operation occurring: Mining, Oil, Off Shore, Human Resources (HR), Finance, Education, and Safety. Each section is led by a family member and a personally selected team. The CEO is the overseer of the company.Challenge and Request Criteria:For the company to survive, the problems within the leadership team must be identified and addressed in a professional manner. The CEO of Blaze Mining is requesting an OD intervention to interact with the leadership group and develop a cohesive team focused on the success of the organization. The intervention is to includethree workshop sessions, once a month, for three months;specialized intervention with each division/department; and a wrap-up session with all stakeholdersThe paper must be four to five pages in length, and include level headings to lead the reader through the specific areas of content. Level headings also provide the reader with an outline to ensure all areas of the project are covered. You may refer to the Introduction to APA (Links to an external site.) webpage, and read the information under “Level Headings” for assistance on level headings. The paper must include the course textbook as a reference, as well as four additional scholarly, peer-reviewed, and/or credible sources to support the content of the paper.The Action Research Case Study paperMust be four to five double-spaced in length (not including title and references) and formatted according to APA Style (Links to an external site.) as outlined in the Writing Center’s APA Formatting for Microsoft Word (Links to an external site.).Must include a separate title page with the following:Title of paperStudent’s nameAshford UniversityCourse name and numberInstructor’s nameDate submittedMust utilize academic voice. See the Academic Voice (Links to an external site.) resource for additional guidance.Must include an introduction and conclusion paragraph. Your introduction paragraph needs to end with a clear thesis statement that indicates the purpose of your paper.For assistance on writing Introductions & Conclusions (Links to an external site.) as well as Writing a Thesis Statement (Links to an external site.), refer to the Writing Center resources.Must use at least four scholarly, peer-reviewed, or credible sources in addition to the course text.The Scholarly, Peer-Reviewed, and Other Credible Sources (Links to an external site.) table offers additional guidance on appropriate source types. If you have questions about whether a specific source is appropriate for this assignment, please contact your instructor. Your instructor has the final say about the appropriateness of a specific source for a particular assignment.
BUS 370 Blaze Mining Case Study

Over the years, many companies have reduced their business cost and expanded their product lines through an aggressive supply chain strategy. Low cost-country sourcing, multi-tiered supplier networks and business process outsourcing are among supply chain initiatives that companies have employed. The benefits of these initiatives are apparent, companies are able to reduce cost of goods, develop new markets, and free up resources to focus on core value adding processes (PWC, 2010). However, these benefits are often accompanied by greater supply chain complexity and exposure to new risk. All supply chain are vulnerable to one type of risk or another (Snyder et al 2006). 1.1 General Overview of Hyundai Motors Hyundai motor company (HMC)was established in 1967 to design ,assemble and manufacture cars for local consumption and export (Wright et al. 2009). The company is South-Korea’s largest auto-maker contributing about 50% of their total automobile manufacturing output. It operates the world’s largest integrated automobile manufacturing facility in Ulsan, which has an annual production capacity of 1.6m units (Chung-Koo, 2010). Hyundai Motor company has manufacturing/assembly plants in parts of Europe, North America, Africa and Asia but mainly produces and supplies its main components from the Manufacturing plants in south-Korea. Labor relations has always being a confrontational issue between the top management and labor unions, with workers constantly demanding for better working conditions, increased wages and union’s involvement in management decisions. Complex organizations such as Hyundai are very interdependent, with a single disruption creating a ripple effect that can dramatically impact the entire operation(Peck, 2005). This essay gives an insight on the supply chain disruption at HMC in 2003 caused by a 47-day labour strike in their South-Korean plants, which led to about US$1.2 billion in loss sales (Globalinsight, 2003), with emphasis on the disruption caused by the strike on their European operations. 2.0 Literature Review Risk is defined as a chance of danger, damage, loss, injury or any other undesired consequence (Harland et al,2006). The royal society (1992) defined risk as the probability that a particular adverse event occurs during a stated period of time or result from a particular challenge. There are two broad categories of risk affecting supply chain Network. The first risk arising from the problems of coordinating supply and demand, also risk arising from disruptions to normal activities. Generally, disruptions need not to be physical in nature to severely interrupt the flow of goods, information or funds throughout the supply chain. For example, work stoppages, slow-downs e.t.c can be disastrous to the business that rely on those services to manufacture and distribute their products. Disruptions in supply chains can be caused by conscious acts by a person or a group. Depending on the intention, these acts can be classified as terrorist or non-terrorist. Terrorist attacks are often intended to destroy while non-terrorist acts are not. Wilson (2007) defined disruption as an event that interrupts the material flows in the supply chain, resulting from an abrupt cessation of the movement of goods. It can be caused a natural disaster, labour disputes, dependence on a single supplier, supplier bankruptcy, terrorism, war and political instability. However, organisations can mitigate all these risks by becoming more resilient, a resilient enterprise is better able to endure the vagaries of global trading. In supply chain, resilience measures the ability to, and speed at which they can, return to their normal performance level (Sheffi et al, 2005). 2.1 HYUNDAI GLOBAL OPERATIONS STRATEGIC ANALYSIS Hyundai motor company has investments in manufacturing plants in North America, Europe, Asia, Africa as well as research and development centers in Europe, Asia, North America, and the Pacific Rim. In 2009,HMC had a total financial sales returns of $57.2billion in South Korea making it the country’s second largest corporation, or chaebol (Chung-Koo, 2010). An examination of the globalization of HMC reveals three themes: See Appendix B for Global operations as at 2003 and SWOT Analysis 2.2 EUROPEAN OPERATIONS European market is HMC’s biggest export market (,2010). As at 2003,it had assembly plants in Turkey and Russia, the strategic objective was to profit from HMC’s success in Europe in the early 1980’s with the pony, when HMC became the largest auto importer into the continent. Sales to countries in Europe accounted for 30% of the company’s total production those years. By establishing assembly plants in Europe, HMC sought to boost its sales and avoid imposition of sales quotas. KOREAN PLANTS Russian Plant Turkish plant European UNION Fig. 2.2.2 2.3 THE EVENT In June 2003, following a fall-out with its Unionized worked force, a company-wide labour strike at the South-Korea based HMC, brought the automakers manufacturing and distributions operations to a grinding halt. Union workers put down their tools demanding wage increase, shorter working hours, fewer working days and its involvement in management decision making process. The labour strike/walk-out which lasted for 47 days cost the automaker about 1.26 trillion won ($1.1 billion) in loss production and sales, with another $630million in missed shipment (Korean Herald, 2003). The Automaker suffered a severe inventory shortages which led to a disruption in output, forcing the company to miss out on an upturn in domestic demand, which was revitalized following a cut in excise duty by the South-Korean Government, earlier in the month (KoreanHerald,2003). Shortages in production and inventory also led to a halting of operations in the automakers’ plants Russia. Also, plants in parts of China, Turkey and India were forced to cut their production capacity by 50% as their Korean plants were unable to meet the demands for critical components needed for production (Globalinsight, 2003). A Korean government official Choi-Kyoung, said the labour strike also had a hard knock on the country’s national economy and undermined the country’s international ratings (Dowjones Factiva, 2003). Fig 2.3.1 The European Market, which is of emphasis in this essay was terribly affected by the disruption caused by the labour strike. Apart from the total halting of operations in the automaker’s assembly plants in Russia and 50% reduction in production in Turkey plant which supplies all of Western Europe and parts of Africa, an originally planned test riding ceremony in Hungary as part of a Marketing campaign was also halted, leading to an unquantifiable loss in potential sales and growth in its European market. Fig 2.3.2 Diagram showing steep in distribution and sales in Europe due to halting of operations at the Hyundai’s Russian CKD plant in Mid July and a 50% operational level an Hyundai CKD plant in Turkey due to cut off in supply of essential components form Korean Plants. 3.0 Theoretical model Moving Ahead, a supply chain risk management framework would be used to map out the supply chain risk/security faced by the Hyundai motor company (Europe) in 2003,and building in resilience. The Framework is meant to Map out the supply chain, and identify the vulnerabilities in the critical nodes of the network Analyze the vulnerabilities and identify reduction mechanisms in the supply network Deploying specific actions to prevent and mitigate risk Generally, the first step in implementing any resilience strategy in a supply chain is mapping out the supply chain, identify the critical nodes within the supply chain and, finally identifying the vulnerabilities in the critical nodes of the s Expanding this framework, the first activity is to map out the supply chain risk/security threat as demonstrated below. The risk identified above, from the different nodes from the Korean plants to customers include: Labour Strike at plants Pilferage Parts Damage Ports closure Dispatch errors Changes in governments’ and European Union import

U.S. Health Care Systems

U.S. Health Care Systems. I’m studying for my Powerpoint class and don’t understand how to answer this. Can you help me study?

Week 5 – Final Presentation
The U.S. Health Care System: Part 2
[WLOs: 1, 2] [CLOs: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7]
Due by Day 6
Prior to beginning work on this assignment, review the textbook chapters we have covered thus far and the Appendix: The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) of 2010 and other required readings for this week: Crisis in U.S. health care: Corporate power still blocks reform; What do we know about the needs and challenges of health systems? A scoping review of the international literature; Health care reform in the United States: Past, present and future challenges.
For your Final Presentation, you will continue your Week 3 The U.S. Health Care Presentation: Part 1 assignment on the on the U.S. health care system by expanding on the information it presented. Imagine you are a community health director educating a group of new health care professionals about the U.S. health care system. You have been asked to create a PowerPoint presentation that includes elements about history, major developments, stakeholders, costs, reforms, and beliefs as well as a comparison of the U.S. health care system to another country’s health care system.
Note: You will be including the Week 3 The U.S. Health Care Presentation: Part 1 presentation slides for the first section of the Final Presentation. Please make sure to correct issues and address recommendations from your instructor’s Week 3 assignment feedback. Then continue adding Parts 2 through 5 as directed below.
Part 1: Include the slides from your Week 3 Presentation
Part 2: The Cost of the U.S. Health Care System

Describe three different reimbursement methods (e.g., capitation, fee-for-service [FFS], pay-for-performance [P4P], value-based, episode of care, prospective reimbursement, diagnosis related group [DRG], patient-centered medical home [PCMH]).

Explain why you think one of the reimbursement methods you discussed is more effective at reducing health care costs overall while still ensuring the delivery of quality care.

Describe the use of two technological advancements (e.g., electronic medical record [EMRs], electronic health records [EHRs], medical research, improved equipment like magnetic resonance imaging [MRI], mammography, personalized medicine, mobile services like e-prescribing, disease registries, ).

Explain why you think these advancements have reduced costs overall while still ensuring the delivery of quality care.

Part 3: The United States Versus Other Health Care Systems: An International Perspective

Contrast the S. health care system with another country (e.g., Canada’s universal health care or South Africa compared with the U.S. health care system, etc.). You can use the same country discussed in the Week 4 Health Care Systems Around the World discussion.

Discuss how the other country’s health care system is funded.
Discuss disparities in health care from your chosen country.
Include at least one positive aspect from the other country’s health care system that you would like to see added to the S. health care system, explaining why you would like this addition.

Part 4: Reforms and Improvements

Describe two potential reforms and improvements currently being debated at either the local, state, or federal You may want to review the Laws and Regulations Affecting Health Care discussion prompt to help you with this component. Examples could include any of the following:

Federal modifications (e.g., antitrust reforms, CHIP, HSA or HRA, Medicare reform, Medicaid expansion, PPACA repeal, pharmaceutical regulations, development of a universal system, veterans’ health care, crossing borders for health care, clinical trial research, )
State modifications (e.g., Medicaid reform, income tax credits, adoption of state level universal health care, etc.)
Increased consumer controls (e.g., patient-centered care, provider choice, complementary and alternative care choices, activism for changes at the state and federal level, etc.)
Reimbursement changes (Medicare, Medicaid, managed care plans, traditional insurance plans, etc.)

Part 5: Conclusion: The Future of the U.S. Health Care System

Examine what you believe the S. health care system will resemble in the next 10 years by recommending two changes and addressing access to care, quality of care, and cost of care, including an example of each in your vision of the future health care system.

Wikimedia Commons (Links to an external site.)can help you explore creative commons images. Also use the PowerPoint Instructions Handout to locate linked resources for properly building a PowerPoint presentation. You may also want to review What Is CRAAP? A Guide to Evaluating Web Sources (Links to an external site.).
Submit your Final Presentation via the classroom to the Waypoint Assignment submission button by Day 6 (Sunday) no later than 11:59 p.m.
APA Requirements:
The U.S. Health Care System: Part 2 Final Presentation

Must include Part 1 slides from your Week 3 Assignment presentation
Must be 15 to 20 slides in length (not including title and references slides) and formatted according to APA style (Links to an external site.) as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center’s (Links to an external site.) How to Make a PowerPoint Presentation (Links to an external site.).
Must include a separate title slide with the following:

Title of presentation
Student’s name
Course name and number
Instructor’s name
Date submittedFor further assistance with the formatting and the title page, refer to APA Formatting for Word 2013 (Links to an external site.).

Must utilize academic voice. See the Academic Voice (Links to an external site.) resource for additional guidance.
Must use the textbook and at least 3 scholarly or credible sources (at least one should be from the Ashford University Library).

The Scholarly, Peer-Reviewed, and Other Credible Sources (Links to an external site.) table offers additional guidance on appropriate source types. If you have questions about whether a specific source is appropriate for this assignment, please contact your instructor. Your instructor has the final say about the appropriateness of a specific source for a particular assignment.

Must document any information used from sources in APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center’s Citing Within Your Paper (Links to an external site.).
Must include a separate reference slide that is formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center. See the Formatting Your References List (Links to an external site.) resource i

U.S. Health Care Systems

Use of Force, Bill of Rights, and Criminal Defenses

assignment writer Introduction A controversial issue today in the American legal system is the justification of the use of force by police officers, given the actions and conduct of citizens. In this assignment, you will explore the requirements for use of force, constitutional rights pursuant to the Bill of Rights when it comes to free speech, and criminal defenses justifying actions.Instructions Write a 2–3-page paper in which you:Specify the key requirements for police officers in determining the lawfulness of the use of force in making an arrest and what is meant by “reasonableness.” Evaluate how free speech rights clash with the rights of others and the need for public order today. Argue for or against the regulation of the First Amendment when it comes to speech that could or might incite “imminent lawless action or conduct.” Analyze the defenses within today’s criminal law system. Evaluate the fairness of the common law defense of necessity when citizens use deadly force. Use at least three sources to support your writing. Choose sources that are credible, relevant, and appropriate. Cite each source listed on your source page at least one time within your assignmen

Boston College Drugs in Organized Crime and The Criminal Justice Research Paper

Boston College Drugs in Organized Crime and The Criminal Justice Research Paper.

Focus of the Research Paper Select a criminal justice topic related to “organized crime”/problem to define, describe the scope and consequences of the problem, and assess society’s responses to the problem (including public policies and other less formal responses). Papers should also present a clearly reasoned alternative that is supported by scholarly research. While the following example can be modified to suit your needs, using this outline as a guide will likely result in a high quality final paper:NO PLAGIARISM TitleAbstractWhat is the topic problem?Why does this problem qualify as a “criminal justice organized crime related issue/s”?What are the individual and social implications of this problem? Discussion of implications should be supported by accurate research data.What do the experts say about the problem?What have we, as a society, done about this problem? Again, consider public policies and other, less formal responses.How is this working?Describe an alternative.Discuss why the alternative is, or can be, an effective response to the problem. Remember to consider negative consequences of the alternative response.Conclude with reflections and thoughts about your chosen social problem. This is a good place to include personal opinions, assuming you wish to share them in a research paper. The Research Paper: Must be 10 to 12 double-spaced pages in length, and formatted according to APA style.Must include a title page with the following:Title of paperStudent’s nameCourse name and numberInstructor’s nameDate submittedMust begin with an introductory paragraph that has a succinct thesis statement.Must address the topic of the paper with critical thought.Must end with a conclusion that reaffirms your thesis.Must use at least five scholarly resources.Must document all sources in APA styleMust include a separate reference page, formatted according to APA style
Boston College Drugs in Organized Crime and The Criminal Justice Research Paper

Colonialism Plantation Slavery And Indentureship History Essay

Before emancipation, the caribbean featured three main types of classes in society, that you will see highlighted in the research paper later on. The three classes were,the white upper class, these were predominanlt the plantation owners and managers, who had all the knowledge and wealth, then we have the brown middle class, they were said to have skilled and semi skilled workers, traders and small groups of persons who owned and operated businesses. Finally, the lower class and they consisted of mostly black, unskilled workers in both the rural and urban areas. However, even though the Caribbean society featured these three main classes, studies conducted in the English speaking Caribbean suggested that stratification patterns was largely determined by a changing class structure that was shifting and expanding mostly in the middle classes, because the consistency of the skilled workers, pushing the means of production. I will critically examine the island of St Lucia. The origin of the name Saint Lucia cannot be found, for it is lost in history. The common notion that has been passed on to generations, like other caribbean islands,that Columbus first saw the island on Saint Lucy’s Day on the 13th of December in the year 1498,is uncertain, for there is no reliable evidence of his discovery. Saint Lucia had a long colonial history under both French and British rule. The island was colonised for the very first time around 500 BC by the Amerindian people coming from Venezuela also known as Ciboneys. They were also colonized by the Arawak Indians around 200 AD, and later again, around 900 AD, by the Caribs. Today,in the beautiful small island, there are very little remains of the culture of these original inhabitants in St. Lucia. From 1605 onwards,the French, British and the Dutch began colonising St.Lucia. By the year 1680, the Caribs had to give up there control of the island, and the European settlement began. Soon after, the French, British and the Irish colonisers brought in enslaved workers from the West-African coast to perform there demanding tasks associated to work on the sugar plantation. There was a major uprising in the 1790s, known as the Brigands’ War, and slavery continued in St. Lucia until 1838. During that period of the eighteenth century, the island changed hands fourteen times and was finally under the British in 1814. Culturally, however, St. Lucia still continues to demonstrate strong French influences as is highlighted by its predominantly French-based Creole, also informally known as ‘patois’. St. Lucia was emacipated in the year 1838, and remained in many ways compliant to the demands and needs of the capitalist world system. The social stratification of St.Lucia, like most other caribbean islands, was a small portion of white elite planters and merchants that maintained control over a large black workforce, with a small but expanding coloured middle-class mediating between the two classes. Some workers managed to establish themselves as peasants on lands not in use by the elite-owned sugar plantations, but many had to continue working on these estates for a livelihood. In those times, wages were said to be very low, until well into the 20th century, how ever there were alternative ways of making a living that remained. St. Lucians were limited to fishing, charcoal-making, wood cutting, shopkeeping or emigration. In the late 19th century, contract labourers from India were imported to work on the sugar estates, and this ‘East-Indian’ heritage has since complemented the African and European ethnic make-up of St. Lucian culture and society. In the mid-twentieth century, St. Lucian society went through a series of major changes. Plantation-based sugar cultivation was abandoned in the 1950s, and replaced by small-scale, farmer-grown banana production. Around the same time, thousands of St. Lucians decided to try their luck overseas: in Curacao first, and soon after in the U.K., Canada, the United States and elsewhere. In political terms, the birth of a labour movement (in the 1930s) gave rise in the 1950s to an increasing level of self-governance. Adult suffrage, various constitutional changes and closer cooperation within the Eastern Caribbean finally gave rise, in 1979, to political independence for St. Lucia within the British Commonwealth. Since the 1970s, subsequent governments have prompted diversification of the local economy, by stimulating investments in the tourism and light manufacturing sectors. Today, tourism and banana production form the mainstay of the island’s economy, with manufacturing and a range of other, smaller income-earners making up the rest. St. Lucia is a parliamentary democracy, boasting two political parties: The United Workers Party (which was in almost permanent power from 1964 until 1997, most of the time under the leadership of Sir John Compton), and the St. Lucia Labour Party, which was in power from 1979 to1982, and again since 1997, under current Prime-Minister Dr. Kenny D. Anthony. Traditionally, St. Lucia’s education system has been in the hands of the Catholic church. Due to perpetual clashes between the (French-oriented) church and the (British-oriented) government, development of the education system has long been a bone of contention. Until the 1960s, the island relied on only two secondary schools – St. Mary’s College for boys, and St. Joseph’s Convent for girls, in Castries. Since then, however, the expansion of primary and secondary schooling has steadily continued, and the aim of secondary education for all is now within reach. Extraordinarily, the absolute lack of educational opportunities has not prevented St. Lucians from attaining the highest honour any scholar can achieve: in 1979, Sir Arthur Lewis was awarded the Nobel Prize for economics and in 1992, Sir Derek Walcott received the same for literature. Besides that, numerous other St. Lucians are leading specialists, world-wide, in the fields of medicine, law, accountancy, history, chemistry, and other disciplines.