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Overview Of Macroeconomic Performance Of Pakistan Economics Essay

The economic position of Pakistan does not show a very promising picture where most of the revenue still comes from the agriculture sector thereby making the country an agrarian economy, though this agricultural share has slightly declined over the period of time turning to 19.3 percent in the year 2005 decreasing from 21.7 in the year 2001. The economically active population too is only moderately less than half reaching around 44.5 percent in the year 2005. The Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita for Pakistan accounts for approximately around US $820 (Role of Agriculture in the Development of Pakistan). The process of industrialization has set in and the industrial sector has been dominated by the textile sector and the construction industry majorly attributing most of the contribution from the exports of textile products and yarn. The tertiary sector on the contrary has still a long way to go where the only financial sector that has managed to flourish over the period of time has been the banks. 1.1 An Overview of macroeconomic performance of Pakistan According to the Economic Survey of Pakistan, the decade of 1990s was a lost decade as far as Pakistan’s economic progress was concerned. Recurrent political adjustments and lack of permanence in policies, poor governance and the 1998 developments had created very difficult economic conditions in the country by October 1999. Per Capita economic growth rates had dropped to between 1 and 1.5 percent. Investment rates had fallen down from 20 to 15 percent of GDP, poverty had doubled to 34 percent while external debt had doubled from USD 18 billion to USD 36 billion, debt servicing had increased to a height where it asserted 56 percent of revenues, fiscal deficits averaged about 6 percent of GDP, Development expenditures, particularly on education and health, were reduced by one half from 6 percent of GDP to 3 percent. In 1996, Pakistan was acknowledged as the second most corrupt country in the world. The challenge of prevention of such a status and to move the economy out of such critical conditions therefore was extremely intimidating. The mission was made even trickier by the initial response of the international community to the adjustment in the government and the contradictory demands of a range of segments of population. Accountability, whereby all those found culpable of corruption and misconduct in the earlier period, was one of the major demands expressed by the public at large and the media. This produced tension with the purpose of economic stimulation as the businessmen and bankers felt susceptible by such moves. The 2000s was a period of sound improvement. During the first half of the decade, economy boomed. However, soon afterwards the Global Economic Crisis got a grip on the entire World Economy in some way or the other. As per information on Pakistan economic environment in the financial year 2008, the value of Pakistani rupee had decreased because of political and economic volatility. Pakistan was one of the fastest developing economies in world. Even though it is a poor country, economic state of affairs in Pakistan point out that growth rate had improved than the worldwide standard rate of growth. Fiscal deficit in 2009 was benchmarked at 5.5 percent of GDP. This value was 7.4 percent in fiscal year 2008 (Economic Survey of Pakistan). Pakistan’s economic surroundings were not going to get enhanced in 2009 as it had been anticipated that inflation will decline to 20 percent by mid 2009. In the first quarterly review it was found that the situation became stable and an enormous sum was borrowed from central bank. Pakistan economic conditions did not get any better in 2009 as it had been projected that inflation will get down to 20 percent by July 2009. It had been found out in the first quarterly review of the year that situation became steady, though an enormous sum was borrowed from central bank. 1.2 Business expectations: Relevance of adaptive expectations view for Pakistan In modern economic theory, particularly in macroeconomics, expectations are given an essential place. The overt account of individuals’ expectations qualifies the endings of the static analysis. To an extent this important place is well founded, since expectations of prospect events do encourage present actions and hence influence social phenomena as they come about in actuality. However, contemporary macroeconomics goes further. It also maintains that a precise model of the development of expectations is vital in order to evaluate the function played by expectations and eventually to build economic theory all by itself. Adaptive expectations have been defined as follows; ‘The economic-behavior observation that people form their expectations of economic trends solely on the basis of what was the past magnitude and direction of those trends. If these expectations seem erroneous then, depending on the degree of the error, people revise and adapt their future estimates accordingly’. (Business Dictionary). The pull of the Adaptive Expectations channel is the simplification of its formulation which gives room for a variety of interpretations according to the worth given to the coefficient of review. ‘When we state that expectations affect reality, if he assumes them to be adaptive, he is ultimately assuming that history, not expectations, affects the future. Adaptive expectations always boil down to a hypothesis of how past variables affect current variables. Therefore, formalizing expectations adaptively is contrary to the very purpose of building a theory of expectations. No model based upon the AE hypothesis can portray the autonomous influence of expectations on current or future variables. We can even make the more universal criticism that any hypothetical explanation of expectations by other observable variables can but obfuscate their supposedly independent importance the model purports to exhibit’. (Gertchev, N, 2007) This study stresses on the impact of social unrest and disharmony that have been plaguing the Pakistan economy since its conception as an independent country. This has impacted business activity significantly with altering expectations for the future time periods. An analysis into the causes and consequences of such fluctuations of business activity due to societal distortions, based on past data on macroeconomic and social variables, may be particularly helpful in drafting a successful public policy for Pakistan, which will lessen the social gap and promote social stability in the country. With a unique blend of business expectations and ‘social’ disharmony, unrest and inequality in Pakistan, the growth of the economy seems to be at stake and needs to be addressed. 1.3 Rational expectations and formulating business expectations: MNCs perspective Expectations matter immensely for businesses and transformation of business outlook have important macroeconomic impacts at different phases of the economic cycle. The study of the business cycles dates back to the Classical Economists, beginning late 1700s, paving way for Neoclassical Economists and Keynesian Economists to further develop the concept. Contrary to the ‘Adaptive Expectations’ theory, the ‘Rational Expectations’ school of thought is considered when evaluating and forming such expectations. Robert Lucas, a renowned economist and a 1955 Nobel Prize winner puts forward the following Rational Expectations theory; ‘On average, people can quite correctly predict future conditions and take actions accordingly, even if they do not fully recognize the causal relationships basing the events and their own thinking. Thus, while they do not have perfect foresights, they construct their expectations in a rational manner that, more often than not, turn out to be correct. Any error that creeps in is usually due to random (non-systemic) and unforeseeable causes’. (Business Dictionary) The main inspiration behind the rational expectations hypothesis is to time and again extend the standard of individual rationality from the dilemma of the allocation of resources to that of the creation of expectations. The individual is expected to use all of the accessible pertinent information when designing his forecast of prices, interest rates, and even public policies. It is widely observed that MNCs take rational actions to their investment environments, revising investment assessment in the face of new information. Even in the theories of international finance, we see that the motivation from the parent company to give an initial helping hand to its subsidiary is limited by rational expectations. According to this view, rather than send back future income and pay taxes, multinational corporations prefer investing subsidiary income in supplementary expansion. Moreover, factors that influence the inflow of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in any country are the rate of return, tax system, the size of the fiscal deficit and interest rate and exchange rate regimes, to name a few macroeconomic variables. These have to be ‘rationally’ assessed and taken into consideration to evaluate the investment climate of the host country. However, according to the theory of rational expectations, it is quite impossible to estimate, for instance, the consequence of deficit-financed government spending on demand exclusive of specifying how people anticipate the deficit to be paid off in the future. This might affect the FDI decisions, even if slightly, but the theory does give an insight into the assessment of various factors used in such decision-making. Of the purposes of the study, it becomes imperative to look into the specific economic theories from different schools of thought, connect them to the real world state of affairs and current circumstances of the country, hence relating the theory to the harsh realities of realistic economy of Pakistan. 1.4 Data Vendors and the Investment Climate in Pakistan François Bourguignon, Senior Vice President
Reagan Cold War Assignment. Paper details

Question: Using ONLY the material provided in the lecture, thoroughly discuss in as much detail as you can provide the material discussed in lecture 12, which deals with Détente and the renewal of Cold War tensions in the early years of the Reagan presidency.

Here is the link to Lecture 12:

Detente and the Reagan Presidency.mp4?dl=0Reagan Cold War Assignment

Many archeologists have come to believe that chainmail was invented by the Celts because rusty masses were found in some Celtic graves, dating as far back as 400 BC, and they were identified as being remains of old chain mails. However, the earliest known record of chain mail armor is of a Persian solider who was wearing a chain mail shirt in battle around 359 BC. Also, some samples of Mail go as far back as to the Etruscans; however, it seems that the Etruscan mail is constructed in a pattern closely related to that of the Japanese and some Italian patterns, rather than the common European 4 in 1 pattern. Then, around the 2nd Century BC after the Celts had defeated the Romans, they had demanded a large ransom for leaving the Romans occupied territories. Despite their defeat in battle, the Romans found that the Gauls wore the first known examples of European Pattern chainmail shirts and found they were impressed by the Celts and their armor, and soon adopted the oval shield, chainmail, and helmets for their secondary troops. The Roman chainmail shirts were referred to as Lorica Hamata. The Roman Lorica Hamata is interesting in the sense that half of the links that made up the shirt were solid rings, punched from metal sheets. This technique can even be found in later European chainmail examples, but most European chainmail is made entirely from the drawn-wire links. Another example of chain mail with punched links is called “Theta” or “Bar Link” which comes from Persia and India. It is called “Theta” or “Bar Link” because the punched links have a bar going across their centre which makes them resemble the Greek letter and mathematical term “Theta”. From the 2nd Century of the Common Era, through the fall of the Roman Empire and into the so called Dark Ages, chainmail seems to have been a common armor all over Europe, including further down to what we now call the Middle East, and north into the Viking cultures and even into the far east where the Japanese began to develop their own styles of chainmail. The only culture that didn’t develop its own chainmail armor is China, even though they did wear imported chainmail from the Middle East. The common patterns of the Japanese were lighter and more open than the European patterns, but they were made of a superior quality tempered wire that wasn’t riveted. Some links in Japanese mail were double or even triple wrapped for strength. Much like the best European chainmail makers, the Japanese also paid good attention to which parts of the body the armor was supposed to be protecting. Chainmail over ones chest would be thing and strong, but on the elbows, were flexibility is important, the chainmail would be lighter. However, it is not completely fair to compare the chainmail’s from Europe and Japan because the fighting styles evolved on completely different tangents. European armor had to be heavier in order to deal with the crushing weapons which were commonly found in their battles, even though heat exhaustion was common because of the thicker and less breathable armor. Japanese fighting techniques required lighter and faster weapons, therefore making mobility a greater concern. As some countries were already developing their chain mail armor, the Vikings in northern Europe began to utilize this style of armor as well. A Viking warrior’s attire varied from the very basic to much more comprehensively equipped. The poorer Vikings had to make do with simple protective garments of padded leather; however, reindeer hide was reputedly even more effective than chain mail. Chain mail required a lot of intense labour to make and it was also extremely heavy, but very difficult to penetrate. Chain mail was even used in helmets which took immense skill to make. Some other warriors in the Viking era who used chain mail armor were the Anglo Saxons. Saxon mail was generally more decorative than the plain Viking style but by the 11th century, when warriors across northern Europe all wore similar chain mail, the Anglo Saxon swords and armor were the equipment of wealthy warriors. As mail evolved in some cultures it became common to use the flexible chainmail to link together larger protective metal plates. This was especially common in Persian examples of Plate and Chainmail armors. Persia also claims to have had some unique mail patterns of its own. In the Ottoman Empire in the 15th and 16th centuries, the armed forces were very diverse. However, much of the armor and weaponry, such as chain and plate mail coats, curved swords and round shields, were very similar to those found from the same period across a wide area of the Islamic world. A body armor known as a Zirh Gomlek was composed of both riveted and solid mail links with plates engraved with scrolling foliage. In an example found of this mail there was inscription on the plate mail which translated into “Power is in obedience. Wealth is in contentment. May the end be to the best.” At this point in time, chian mail had been intergrated into helmets, plate mail and gloves but the Ottoman had tried it with boots. Although they were heavy and uncomfortable, the boots made up of four plates fastened to each other with 3 columns of mail at the front, back and sides, with the mail continuing around and under sole, provided great protection for the wearer. In the early 18th century in Asia, a special armor jacket known as a Zereh Bagtar and an armor coat were the both interesting examples of combining chain and plate mail together. The Zereh Bagtar is a armor jacket which resembles a haubergeon but it has longer sleeves and all around the upper body area there are columns of small plates. The armor coat is an Indian style of combined chain and plate mail with four large plates at the front, two smaller ones at the sides and further plates at the back. This particular style was favored by Mughal emperors despite the fact it did not offer absolute protection. Any missiles and stabbing weapons could potentially penetrate the areas of riveted mail. Chain and plate mail combinations were in general use across the Islamic world from the Ottoman Empire to Central Asia by the 15th Century and they were the predominant armor of Mughal India. As plate armor began to develop in Europe, it became common to start using chainmail to protect areas that need to flex more that the metal plates would allow. Chainmail became very common in elbow joints, knees and so on. This plate and main “Transition armor” along with Persian Plate and Chainmail, are some of the Armors the cross classification. It wasn’t long before full plate armor became popular and with the invention of the fully articulated joints, chainmail began to lose its popularity. However, it still did hold a place in history as it was used as decoration and armor up until the First World War. In the present day, one can still find use for chainmail in certain industries. Butchers commonly wear fine mail gloves in order to protect their hands, and shark divers wear entire suits of fine mail. This fine mail is made from strong welded links and is woven on large machines. Other decorative and practical uses for chain mail can also be found, especially in the historical reenactments.

PSY 1010 CSU Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Discussion

PSY 1010 CSU Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Discussion.

Now, imagine that you are a university psychology professor. One of your students, John Doe, was recently diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), combined presentation. He has e-mailed you and requested your advice and assistance with better understanding his circumstances, diagnosis, and prognosis. You will reply to John by writing an e-mail in which you will offer him advice in the following areas.Indicate structures of the brain that are involved and biopsychology factors that could impact his emotions, learning, memory, and motivation related to your class.Describe ways in which his brain can perceive information from the outside world that could in turn impact his performance in your class.Identify suggestions that you have for John to increase his chances for success in your class as well his other courses.Your e-mail must be a minimum of 500 words in the body of the e-mail. You must use at least two sources, one of which may be your eTextbook, to support your advice. All sources used must be properly cited. Include the references at the bottom of the e-mail for your student’s reference. Please include a title page for the homework. The title page, citations, and references must be formatted in APA style.Resources
PSY 1010 CSU Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Discussion

Safety and Quality Improvement

essay help online Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp Christine R Wemyss My topic is safety and quality improvement. In the article by Sprayberry (2014), she states the seven concepts that are central to contemporary nursing practice based on the acronym FLOWERSTM , they include fundamentals of care, leadership at the bedside, ownership of outcomes, wisdom, ethics, relational competence and skilled caring.(p. 123). It is important for nurses to understand the relationship of these significant concepts how they relate to safety and quality improvement nursing practices today. Changes in healthcare in this technological age are swift and far reaching. Cause and effect can be detrimental and deteriorate very rapidly if nurses are unprepared in the ever-changing healthcare scenario. As stated in Hood (2014), “The hallmarks of quality health care are safety, timeliness, efficiency, equitability, effectiveness, and patient-centeredness” (p.490). Environments are either safe or they are unsafe It is pretty much black and while regarding safety. Something is safe or it is unsafe. It is the responsibility of the nurse to identify and determine the safety of the environment. With knowledge gained through basic nursing education and continuing education nurses should be adept at safety recognition skills. The Quality and Safety Education of Nurses (QSEN) is quoted in Hood (2014), “If QSEN meets its lofty goals, then the goals of all members of the interprofessional health care team will be attuned to safety issues in health care and use QI strategies to improve the quality and safety of health care delivery (p. 497). Within the healthcare team it is of utmost importance to attain these objectives of safety through communication. Open channels of communication must take place between nurses and patients, nurses and physicians, nurses and ancillary staff and nurses and administration. With the increasing ease and speed of technological communication today, competence in this arena should be achievable with minimal effort. It is important for nurses to have a thorough understanding of the extreme importance of not only creating an environment that is safe but to maintain that environment through quality improvement. As stated in Hood (2014), “Florence Nightingale can be considered the first nurse who engaged in quality improvement (QI) activities. During the Crimean War, Nightingale’s work at the Barrack Hospital demonstrated the effects of quality nursing care on wounded and infirm soldiers. The mortality rate at the Barrack Hospital was 60% when Nightingale arrived. By the time she departed, it had fallen to just a fraction over 1%” (p. 490). It is impressive what one person can do with determination. The QSEN as stated in Hood (2014), “Using basic principles of QI (identification of ways to improve, developing an action plan, implementing the plan, measuring plan results, comparing results with baseline data, and determining the effectiveness of the plan), the participants designed a program to improve the safety and quality education for the health professions, especially the nursing profession” (p. 496). The QSEN succinctly describes the outline for quality improvement studies. It is important to understand the process in order to create a continuing culture of safety. Implementation of a specific plan, assessing and reassessing data is the basis of any quality improvement study. Conclusion In conclusion, it requires strategies and critical thinking for nurses to develop environments for direct-care nursing to be conducive to safety and quality improvement. It takes nursing skill, gained knowledge and leadership of action to assess and implement safety measures across the continuum of care. Quality improvement studies will assure the increase in the safety of health care delivery for the days ahead. References Hood, L. J. (2014). Leddy

Santa Monica College Chapter 18 Managerial Accounting Concepts and Principles Paper

Santa Monica College Chapter 18 Managerial Accounting Concepts and Principles Paper.

I’m working on a accounting writing question and need guidance to help me learn.

REQUIRED: Post comments and reflections related to the chapter here. Also, post 3 questions related to the chapter. One of the questions needs to include a journal entry and/or computation. You may also comment on the chapter opener or the ethics question in the back of each chapter. This assignment is worth 5 points. See course calendar for the due date. You will not be able to see other students’ comments until you post an entry first. To receive full credit, you need to post comments (2 short paragraphs or more) AND 3 questions per chapter. After you have posted your initial comments, you can answer questions posted by other students.
Santa Monica College Chapter 18 Managerial Accounting Concepts and Principles Paper

Community Based Participatory Research Essay

Community Based Participatory Research Essay.

Answer the question below. Your answer should not be too long take a look at the two examples. I uploaded the CBPR file in case you don’t know what CBPR is. CBPRWhat would you say is the most important aspect of community-based participatory research, and why? First example: In my opinion, the most important aspect of CBPR is how it shares control between researchers and the community. This is important because it allows the community to have their voices be heard and actually have a say in the environmental issues and policies that impact their lives. The shift in power from institutions to communities can help the communities learn more about how to improve their environmental health and take action to find solutions. Second example:The most important aspect of CBPR is encouraging the participation of communities in the research that is conducted. This approach allows communities to weigh in on decisions concerning what research is conducted, such as what questions or which pollutants will be monitored. Thus, community members can tailor research methodologies to their specific concerns about certain industries or pollutants, which strengthens the relevance of the science that is produced.
Community Based Participatory Research Essay

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