India Real Estate is the second largest industry next only to agriculture in terms of the contribution it makes to the gross domestic product (GDP) and the employment generation. Moreover, its share of contribution to the country’s GDP is expected to increase only in the years to come. The GDP contribution of this sector at current prices is approx. 6.5% or Rs.1, 37,000 crores i.e., over 30 billion US dollars. Similarly the commercial property market has compounded annual growth rate of over 30% during the last 5 years across major cities in India along with a phenomenal increase in demand for office space. To be more precise, the next five years will see a rise of six percent from its present share of five percent contributed towards the GDP. The size in terms of total economic value of real estate development activity of the Indian real estate market is currently US$40-45bn (5-6% of GDP) of which residential forms the major chunk with 90-95% of the market, commercial segment is distant second with 4-5% of the market and organized retail with 1% of the market. Over next five years, Indian real estate market is expected to grow at a CAGR of 20%, driven by 18-19% growth in residential real estate, 55-60% in retail real estate, and 20-22% in commercial real estate. According to a report, India is one among the four countries (the other three being Brazil, Russia and China) that are likely to achieve a much faster growth rate in the domain of property development and housing construction activities as compared to the UK and US real estate markets. The BRIC report, as it is called, has also projected a higher real estate investment over a period of the next five years. The forecast for the year 2010 has put a significant portion of the Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) towards investment in the Indian real estate market. With around 1.1 billion people, India is the second most populous country after China and it is expected to overtake it by 2030. Its economic transformation over the past decade has pushed up real GDP growth to an average of 6 per cent per annum since1992. India is emerging as an important business location, particularly in the services sector. Its favourable demographics and strong economic growth make the country an attractive place for property investors, given that demand for property is determined chiefly by business development and demographic trends. Historically, the real estate sector in India was unorganised and characterized by various factors that impeded organised dealing, such as the absence of a centralized title registry providing title guarantee, lack of uniformity in local laws and their application, no availability of bank financing, high interest rates and transfer taxes, and the lack of transparency in transaction values. In recent years however, the real estate sector in India has exhibited a trend towards greater organisation and transparency, accompanied by various regulatory reforms. These reforms include: â€¢ Government of India support to the repeal of the Urban Land Ceiling Act, with nine state governments having already repealed the Act; â€¢ Modifications in the Rent Control Act to provide greater protection to homeowners wishing to rent out their properties; â€¢ Rationalization of property taxes in a number of states; and â€¢ The proposed computerization of land records The trend towards greater organisation and transparency has contributed to the development of reliable indicators of value and the organised investment in the real estate sector by domestic and international financial institutions, and has also resulted in the greater availability of financing for real estate developers. Regulatory changes permitting foreign investment are expected to further increase investment in the Indian real estate sector. The nature of demand is also changing, with heightened consumer expectations that are influenced by higher disposable incomes, increased globalization and the introduction of new real estate products and services. Demand Drivers These trends have benefited from the substantial recent growth in the Indian economy, which has stimulated demand for land and developed real estate across the real estate industry. Demand for residential, commercial and retail real estate is rising throughout India, accompanied by increased demand for hotel accommodation and improved infrastructure. Additionally, the tax and other benefits applicable to Seas are expected to result in a new source of real estate demand. The real estate industry is one of the fastest growing industries in our economy, with a Compound Annual Growth Rate of approximately 30%.(Ernst and Young) A US$ 16 billion industry at present, it is expected to touch US$ 60 billion in the next five years. (Ernst and Young) The sustainability of growth in the real estate industry has its roots in strong demand fundamentals: a. Rapid expansion of the IT/ ITES and business outsourcing industry (including knowledge process outsourcing and clinical testing outsourcing); b. Rising demand in the residential sector, encouraged by rapidly increasing income levels; c. Acceptance of shopping malls as “one stop destinations” for consumers; and d. Growing popularity of Special Economic Zones as preferred destinations for both manufacturing and service industries. Source: CMIE Industry Reports There is an estimated requirement of 80 million housing units over the next Fifteen years and 200 million sq. ft. of office space over the next five years. With a view to catalyzing the investment required to plug the aforementioned Supply deficits, the Government, has allowed FDI up to 100% under the automatic route in specified real estate development projects, including but not restricted to townships, built-up infrastructure and construction development projects. The investment is permitted subject to compliance with the following guidelines specified in Press Note 2 (2005): Minimum area to be developed under each project would be as under: i. In case of development of serviced housing plots, a minimum land area of 10 hectares. ii. In case of construction-development projects, a minimum built-up area of 50 ,000 sq.mts. iii. In case of a combination project, anyone of the above two conditions would suffice. The investment would further be subject to the following conditions: i. Minimum capitalization of US$ 10 million for wholly owned subsidiaries and US$ 5 million for joint ventures with Indian partners. The funds would have to be brought in within six months of commencement of business of the Company. ii. Original investment cannot be repatriated before a period of three years from completion of minimum capitalization. However, the investor may be permitted to exit earlier with prior approval of the Government through the FIPS. c. At least 50% of the project must be developed within a period of five years from the date of obtaining all statutory clearances. The investor would not be permitted to sell undeveloped plots. Source: Department of Industrial Policy
Research in action assignment. Paper details Use this “KWL chart” to complete this Research in Action assignment. 1. This time, in the “K” column, describe how a KWL chart could be used in the classroom with students. Include the grade, subject, technology available (at-home technology, in-class computer, computer lab, 1:1 school site, etc.). 2. In the “W” column, describe how a KWL chart can encourage developing technology-enriched learning environments that enable all students to pursue their individual curiosities and become active participants in setting their own educational goals, managing their own learning, and assessing their own progress (ISTE Standard 2B, 2008). Utilize what you have learned from this course and researching the Internet on the use of KWL charts. 3. Complete the “L” section describing what you have “Learned” about Educational Psychology throughout this course. Save your KWL chart as a PDF file and submit it to your instructor.Research in action assignment
HUM 10 CSUF Son of Peleus Guilty in the Great Athena Argumentative Essay.
My professor basically wants two essay in one kindof. So you can choose either one of the questions above just please let me know which on you choose please. So you have to choose TWO characters to argue both sides of the ONE question you choose, a page and half minimum from both of the characters so the paper can be 3-4 pages long. There is an outline you can use at the bottom of the doc i attached and if you do use it please let me know and send it as well. It will be greatly appreciated. If you have any questions please let me know. Thank you again!
Executive Summary The World Trade Organisation represents the unifying global association that brings divergent economies, legal systems, customs, internal policies and political systems into a sphere whereby a common ground in terms of a level playing field is established for all member nations. Favouritism, special interest, and other imbalances are eliminated to bring the term globalisation into a uniform as well as universal context. As is expected, the World Trade Organization has defined rules, regulations, procedures and processes to ensure this level playing field remains level, regardless of the size, influence or resources of its differing members. And therein lies the reason as to why it has been effective. And while there are critics who have their individualistic opinions and comments, some well-founded, and others not, no one has proposed another forum to improve upon and or replace the WTO, which dispute its imperfections, functions! The preceding represents the organisation that the Russian Federation is seeking admission to. Such has been a process that has entailed over a decade and is still not concluded. The reasons for the aforementioned shall be examine herein, as well as the changes, modifications and other facets that the country is being called upon to modify in accordance with accession rules. Given the past history of the Russian Federation, the transition to a market economy has and does represent substantive changes with regard to internal policies and practices impacting upon all areas of the country’s economy. Such transitional changes have been successfully broached by China as well as Vietnam and other former communist states, so the challenge facing the Russian Federation has precedent. This examination shall delve into the aforementioned accession process with respect to the Russian Federation, looking into the country’s most dominant and important industrial sections to gauge the impact the process has, is having and will have in terms of impact. Chapter 1 – Introduction In order to understand the context of the World Trade Organisation as well as its impact on Russia, and its industries, notably oil, gas, and construction, one must delve into the broad area of world trade in general as a foundational understanding for this examination. Globalisation has been utilised as a format to discuss as well as explain many issues, world trade of course being a major component of the foregoing. Mann (1993, p. 9) provides a broad understanding of the complexities and context of globalisation through his statement “In major transitions the fundamental interrelations, and very identities, of organisations such as ‘economies’ or ‘states’ become metamorphosed. Even the very definition of ‘society’ may change.” The broad reference in terms of globalisation as provided from the preceding points to the need to clarify this catch phrase as used by academia, politicians as well as journalists, and economists concerning its reference in terms of this examination to distinguish it in the context of utilisation. In its general sense, globalisation represents a short method “…of describing the spread and connectedness of production, communication and technologies across the world” (Smith and Doyle, 2002). The context that we utilise globalisation in this examination refers to the processes “…of reducing barriers between countries and encouraging closer economic, political, and social interaction” (Tabb, 1999). Globalisation is also described as “…the creation of international strategies by organizations for overseas expansion and operation on a worldwide level.” (BNET, 2007). As a word, and concept it, globalisation, entails the technological achievements in the fields of travel and shipping, airplanes, communications and data transfer, production and outsourcing, marketing and communications, regional trading organisations and trade blocks as well as economics that has called for the increased recognition of expanding the visions of countries, governments and multinational corporations to include the world view (Berger, 2005, pp. 33-38). It, globalisation, is the processes that refer to increased global interconnectivity as well as integration with respect to economic, social, cultural, political, technological, and ecological practices as countries and companies must utilise a common ground to make their products, goods, services, and ideals acceptable on the world stages in response to other countries and companies competing to expand their influence and economic power (Raskin et al, 2002, pp. 15-13). Theodore Levitt is generally credited with coining the phrase ‘globalisation’ in 1983 through his book “The Globalization of Markets” (Harvard Business School, 2006), however, the term, globalisation, can be traced as far back as 1944 with the ending of the Second World War. There are historians as well as economists who indicate that the process of globalisation is a centuries old phenomenon that tracks the process of human expansion, and civilisation which over the past fifty years has intensified dramatically, taking on a more structured foundation that is underpinned by economics, and the needs for uniformity (O’Rourke and Williamson, 2001, pp. 1-7). An while globalisation, and politics are interrelated, as a result of governmental involvement, Shaw (1999, p. 1) advises that “…politics has been seen as secondary to globalisation; political institutions, forces and ideas are generally believed to be responding to phenomena which are located primarily in other social realms”. This view is also shared by Gray (1998, pp. 34-54) as well as Hirst and Thompson, 1996, pp. 23-41). They explain that globalisation is a reflection of economy, sociology as well as culture, along with philosophy, which has been demonstrated through history in terms of expansionism in the ancient as well as medieval worlds, with politics as the secondary facet. Nicholson (1999, p. 23) amplifies the foregoing in stating that “…there were big population moves from Europe to America, both North and South, followed by the equally large but involuntary movements of Africans to the Americas (prior to 1770, more African slaves than Europeans went to the Americas …”, and that “…Europeans opened up sea routes to India and interactions began even if they were not always welcome …”. The point of the preceding as well as what follows in terms of globalisation, is to illustrate how deeply embedded it is in the global economy as an historical fact that has taken on increased intensity in the twenty-first century. The impact, in terms of increased trade, brought about by globalisation is illustrated in the decrease in poverty rates as shown by the following: Table 1 – Decrease in Global Poverty Rates (World Bank, 2006) Area Demographic 1981 1984 1987 1990 1993 1996 1999 2002 Percentage Change 1981-2002 Less than $1 a day 57.7% 38.9% 28.0% 29.6% 24.9% 16.6% 15.7% 11.1% -80.76% Less than $2 a day 84.8% 76.6% 67.7% 69.9% 64.8% 53.3% 50.3% 40.7% -52.00% Less than $1 a day 9.7% 11.8% 10.9% 11.3% 11.3% 10.7% 10.5% 8.9% -8.25% Less than $2 a day 29.6% 30.4% 27.8% 28.4% 29.5% 24.1% 25.1% 23.4% -29.94% Less than $1 a day 41.6% 46.3% 46.8% 44.6% 44.0% 45.6% 45.7% 44.0% 5.77% Less than $2 a day 73.3% 76.1% 76.1% 75.0% 74.6% 75.1% 76.1% 74.9% 2.18% The preceding represents a critical facet in understanding the contribution of globalisation to the increase of living standards through trade, and increased economic activity, which benefits developed as well as under developed countries. Within the context of this examination, the following points to the importance of world trade in terms of Russia in comparison with the rest of the world: Table 2 – Growth in the Value of World Merchandise Trade by Region, 2000 – 2005 (World Trade Organization, 2006) As shown by the above, the annual global percentage change in terms of exports during 2000 through 2005 averaged 1 percent, with Russia recording an average growth rate of 18 percent. More telling is that during 2004 and 2005, Russia recorded a percentage increase of 35 and 33 percent, respectively, while the global average increase during those years was 22 and 13 percent. The following Table provides closer insight into the foregoing. Table 3 – World Merchandise Exports by Region (World Trade Organization, 2006) Russia’s share of world trade between 2000, and 2005 increased by 18 percent in comparison with a global increase of 10 percent, with the country’s increases during 2004 and 2005 recording increases of 36 and 28 percent respectively compared against global trade increases during those years of 22 and 13 percent. The foregoing is the backdrop in terms if understanding the importance of global trade as well as its impact on the country’s economy as shall be further discussed in following chapters. Chapter 2 – Literature Review 2.1 The World Trade Organization The World Trade Organization (WTO) sets forth governing principles and uniformity regarding “… the rules of trade between nations at a global level …” (World Trade Organization, 2007a). It represents the primary international organisation to aid in the promotion of free trade through its foundation of rules governing the process on an international level to provide an equitable playing field that is applicable as well as just, and fair to all nations (Free Trade and Globalization, 2007). Organized in 1995, the WTO is the outgrowth of understandings as well as practices that began from the failed International Trade Organization in 1948 (World Trade Organization, 2007b). That attempt was a result of the ‘General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade’ that was created as a result of the Bretton Woods Conference representing a segment of the larger plan for economic recovery in the aftermath of World War II (Hoekman and Kostecki, 1995, p. 1). Its origin, GATT “…can be traced to the U.S. government’s Proposals for the Expansion of World Trade and Employment …” that was subsequently forwarded to all countries (Srinivasan, 1998, p. 9). The Soviet Union represented the notable exception in terms of accepting the preceding invitation, which had also elected not to join the World Bank (Srinivasan, 1998, p. 9). The council oversaw deliberations that resulted in a total of 123 bilateral agreements covering 50,000 items that were negotiated in over 1,000 meeting, which resulted in the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade being adopted on 18 November 1947, and signed by 23 countries (Srinivasan, 1998, p. 9). The foregoing was formalised in 1947 at the first meeting of the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations held in Havana, Cuba, and said Proposals for the Expansion of World Trade and Employment were adopted unanimously (Srinivasan, 1998, p. 9). At that meeting the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations “…appointed a preparatory committee for the conference consisting of the United States, Norway, Chile, Lebanon, and the fifteen countries invited by the United States for tariff-reduction negotiations. The Soviet Union again chose not to participate in the deliberations of the preparatory committee” (Srinivasan, 1998, p. 9). Between 1948 and 1994 GATT represented the only multilateral regulating body covering world trade in terms of uniform rules, requirements and measures, until it was replaced by the World Trade Organization in 1995 (Hoekman and Kostecki, 1995, p. 36). For the sake of clarity, GATT represented a set of rules for the conduct of international trade that operated without a solid institutional basis, having no provisional secretariat (UNESCO, 2007). In understanding GATT it is important to be cognizant that it, GATT, was a provisional agreement in terms of its legal status whereas the World Trade Organization, along with its agreements are permanent as well as mandatory (UNESCO, 2007). Another important distinction between the two is that GATT concerned itself only with the trade in goods, whereas the World Trade Organization covers trade in services, termed General Agreement on Trade of Services, trade related to intellectual property, which is called TRIPS as well as the trade in goods under GATT 1994, an updated version of the original GATT agreement of 1947 (UNESCO, 2007). In the World Trade Organization, its agreements are multilateral covering all member states, whereas under GATT the agreements were plurilateral, meaning selective (UNESCO, 2007). Finally, the World Trade Organization has a dispute settlement system that operates in a faster as well as more automatic methodology than the system under GATT, importantly, the WTO rulings cannot be blocked by any member states (UNESCO, 2007). The following provides a summarised illustrative timeline of GATT and the WTO: Table 4 – Timeline of GATT and the WTO (Crowley, 2003, p. 43) Consisting of 150 member nations, from its original 23, the World Trade Organization oversees an estimated 97 percent of all global trade (Crowley, 2003, p. 42). The progress of the organisation in aiding in the increase of world trade as a result of the uniformity of its agreements, measures, and dispute resolution is shown by the following: Diagram 1 – Growth of Trade Among WTO Members and Tariff Decline, 1946 through 2001 (Crowley, 2003, p. 44) Reasons that are attributed to the foregoing success are found in the fact that the World Trade Organization represents reciprocity as well as non-discrimination. Reciprocity is the procedure in GATT negotiating rounds whereby a country offers to reduce a trade barrier, and a second country reciprocates through offering to reduce one of its trade barriers (Crowley, 2003, p. 44). Non-discrimination refers to equal treatment. The preceding means that if one country offers a tariff concession, and or benefit to another member of GATT, said tariff concession, and or benefit must be offered to all GATT members (Crowley, 2003, p. 44). The foregoing two principles, reciprocity and non-discrimination, are termed by Bagwell and Staiger (2001) as the key reasons why the WTO has been successful in its role as the international arbiter of trade. In understanding the importance of the preceding, a brief discussion of tariffs within the WTO is in order. Tariffs are another form of tax, which raises the price consumers must pay for an item (goods), and either brings an imported item into price parity for a country’s domestically produced goods, or raises its price to make it more expensive in relationship to domestically produced goods (Adams et al, 1979, pp. 35-49). In the instance of smaller countries, they benefit from unilaterally lowering their tariffs as they are unable to affect the price of goods sold on the global market (Adams et al, 1979, pp. 35-49). In fact, raising tariffs for a small country would result in its being worse off as a result of the loss of welfare to consumers as transmitted by the higher prices resulting in a loss of efficiency in the market as a result of consumption distortion. In the instance of larger countries whereby their goods comprise a goodly share of the global market, a change in tariff pricing upward constitutes a different effect. This is reflected in the following figure: Diagram 2 – Impact of a Tariff on a Large Country (Crowley, 2003, p. 45) The resulting scenario is more complicated. In the instances of a large country import demand represents a large share of the global market (Crowley, 2003, p. 45). As a result, the imposition of a tariff by a large country reduces import quantity demand, and causes global prices to fall (Crowley, 2003, p. 45). In terms of trade the preceding makes a country better off as it now can purchase imports at a lower price on the global market (Crowley, 2003, p. 45). While the consumer pays a higher price on the imported good, the total welfare of the importing country is better off as government earns tariff revenues, and import competing producers thus earn higher profits (Crowley, 2003, p. 45). In terms of the preceding illustration, a key point that needs covering is the burden of the tax (tariff) resulting. The consumers in the subject large country pay a higher cost for the goods that are imported in this instance when the illustrative tariff is imposed, however they do not pay the full burden of the imposed tariff (Crowley, 2003, p. 45). The imposed tariff created a condition whereby the falling world price of the good impacts the foreign exporters who receive a smaller payment, thus the exporting country loses a portion of its purchasing power in terms of the global market in this scenario that worsens its trade (Crowley, 2003, p. 45). As a result some of the cost of the indicated tariff is off loaded onto the foreign producers in terms of the lowered price they receive (Crowley, 2003, p. 45). The foregoing is termed a ‘beggar tariff’ as the foreign producers suffer losses (Crowley, 2003, p. 45). The utilisation of this type of tariff by a large nation results in the importing country being better off, and thus the exporting country being worse off (Crowley, 2003, p. 45). Furthermore, the preceding produces what are termed as ‘inefficiencies’ in the global trading system that overall cause the net effect of said tariff to become negative as it produces inefficient distortions in production in both nations (Crowley, 2003, p. 45). The net / net of the foregoing is that the imposed subject example tariff is not good for the global economy as a whole, however, it benefits the importing country. The end of World War II provides an example of the preceding as many countries had high tariffs, which did not benefit the countries, and or consumers (Crowley, 2003, p. 45). Cooperative action on the part of countries as found under the WTO has increased the balance of good actions in terms of the foregoing dilemma. GATT, represented and represents the mechanism via which the short sighted self-interest equation has been balanced. GATT, and its reciprocal tariff reductions provided and provide such a mechanism (Narliker, 2003, pp. 12-14). In understanding the picture of global trade flows Hoekman and Kostecki (2001, p. 9) advise “Global trade flows are dominated by exchanges within and between the three major regions of the global economy (the so-called triad): Europe, North America, and East Asia. The principles and disciplines of the GATT helped governments to liberalize trade and to resist pressures for protection” the foregoing has aided in fostering increased integration of the world’s economy as a result of heightened trade levels. The centrepiece of the preceding is the World Trade Organization, which also works with the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank as well as Regional Trading Blocks, and member government nations. The complexities of world trade, developing nations, and nations ascending to membership in the WTO brings with it economic, social, institutional, policies, and monetary ramifications whereby the WTO does not operate in a vacuum. The process of globalisation in today’s terms means closer cooperation between various multilateral institutions in the critical roles of policy formulation as well as the differing elements constituting economic policy frameworks. The preceding means the participation and support along with assistance from the World Bank as well as the International Monetary fund in aiding developing, and ascension countries in meeting the rules, and policies to become a member of the WTO. In understanding the role of the World Trade Organization it is important to note that it does not define, and or specify outcomes for trade policies, it establishes a framework (Srinivasan, 1998, pp. 38-41). An example of the foregoing is provided by Article XXIX, Article 4 of the WTO, which aims “…to clarify the conditions under which a regional arrangement, free trade area, customs union or interim arrangement that, after a transition period, may give rise to a customs union or free trade area that is compatible with the GATT” (Landau, 2004, p. 88). The Article continues “…any preferential agreement between developed countries or between the latter and developing countries containing tariff preferences on a defined number of sectors is, on principle, compatible with the WTO. These arrangements must satisfy Article 4 of Article XXIV, in that they have been created in order to facilitate trade and not to form new trade barriers against non-member countries” (Landau, 2004, p. 88). It, Article XXIV, aims at ensuring regional trade arrangements result in the creation of trade as opposed to diverting it, and seeing that adverse effects are reduced to their minimums (Landau, 2004, p. 88). In addition Article XXIV “…stipulates that customs duties and restrictive trade rules must be eliminated substantially on all sectors of trade originating from the territories of the regional area” (Landau, 2004, p. 88). The main objectives of the World Trade Organization are, 1). Transparency, 2). Coherence, and 3). Tariff Negotiation via which it guide the process. 2.2 The Russian Federation The Soviet Union, now known as the Russia Federation, represents a landmass that is four times the size of Europe, but having less than half of Europe’s population, and by comparison it is as large as the entire continent of North America (Summer, 1943, p. 1). The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics came into being in 1917, signalling the “…Stalinist revolution of planned industrialization and collectivisation …” (Summer, 1943, p. 48). And while the change in regimes was dramatic, many things stayed essentially the same (Summer, 1943, p. 48): the “… great centralisation of power …”, the “… enormous range of state action …”, the “… massive bureaucracy …”, the “… extreme emphasis on the army …”, the “… drastic use of force and the secret police …”, and the “…semi-deification of the leader or sovereign …” In understanding the Soviet Union, one must be cognizant of four major facets that aid in the explanation of the preceding (Summer, 1943, p. 49): “…the problem of governing an immense area and a multitude of peoples with relatively low material and cultural standards …” “… the problem of defence …” “… the impossibility of a complete break with past customs, attitudes of mind and feeling, and ways of doing things …”, and “… the communist view of the state …”. Lenin’s contribution to Russia was the doctrine of communism that provided “…the goal of communism and the vision of man new made – and a revolutionary method – the dictatorship of the vanguard of the proletariat organized through the Communist party and linked up with the masses through the soviets” (Summer, 1943, p. 49). “The idea both of party and of soviets was new to Russia in 1917, but they are the two institutional bases upon which the revolutionary regime has been built up” (Summer, 1943, p. 49). One of the outgrowths of the new Russia was the development of the largest militarised economy ever seen (Gaddy, 1996, p. 1). The preceding is important in understanding the context of the former Soviet economy, and the implications inherent in its ascension to the World Trade Organization. The military represented a “…process that affected the very nature of the system in both its political and economic dimensions” (Gaddy, 1996, p. 1). The foregoing is explained by Gaddy (1996, p. 1) as supported and fed by “Continual references to a military threat from without, intensified immensely by the campaigns of glorification of sacrifice and patriotism surrounding the victory in World War II, played a major role in creating and perpetuating the climate of secrecy and control that was necessary to justify unquestioning acceptance of Communist rule”. It is important to understand that the militarist nature of the Soviet Union severely impacted, affected and underpinned the economic system within the country. The post – Soviet era in Russia has changed that underpinning, most notably the removal of restrictions on individuals (Gaddy, 1996, p. 1). The military industrial sector of the economy has been drastically reduced, with the armaments sector producing a very small portion of what it did in 1991 (Gaddy, 1996, p. 1). The importance of the preceding is that two out of three Russian workers who were engaged in military, and or weapons production in a system whereby militarisation represented the manner in which the State restricted free choice and allocated the country’s resources into its priority sectors (Gaddy, 1996, p. 1). While the foregoing is seemingly an issue of the past, the fact is in economic terms it is very much a part of the present, and thus germane to this examination of Russia’s economy, and its accession into the World Trade Organisation. The foregoing understanding with regard to the lingering effects of public debt was brought forth by Shutaro Matsushita (1929, p. 5) in the late 1920s through his analysis of “The Economic Effects of Public Debts”, where he brought forth the concept of ‘forced loans’ or obligations. The preceding represents when the state undertakes to pursue a path of economic debt. The following reference does not specifically apply itself to the status of events in the Soviet Union, yet its implications in terms of economic consequences is apparent (Matsushita, 1929, p. 85): “When these government notes are suddenly issued, there is an increase in the medium of exchange, without any commercial necessity for such an increase, — in other words, there, is an inflation of the currency. Prices will rise, commercial relations will be disturbed, and creditors will suffer severely. Prices rise because there is an augmented supply of money to carry on exchanges, without any necessary increase in the commodities to be exchanged. Commercial relations are disturbed because merchants and manufacturers must readjust themselves to the, sudden rise in the prices of goods. Creditors suffer, because the same nominal amount of money does not have as much purchasing power as before. Moreover, as is always the case in a period of rising prices, wage-earners suffer because the rise in wages always lags behind the rise in prices.” The size of the Soviet Union provides the country with a broad breathe of natural resources. At 22.4 million square kilometres the Soviet Union is almost four times the size of Europe, and only slightly smaller than North America (countrystudies.us, 2006). Given its vast expanse of land the country traverses a broad range of topography, thus providing it with exposure to differing types of natural resources as a result of the preceding. The country accounts for an estimated 20 percent of the global production of oil and natural gas, with large reserves of both (countrystudies.us, 2006). These reserves generate hard currency for the country, along with its vast reserves of “… iron ore, manganese, chromium, nickel, platinum, titanium, copper, tin, lead, tungsten, diamonds, phosphates, and gold …” as well as huge timber reserves located in Siberia (countrystudies.us, 2006). This underpinning of vast natural resources is the core from which Russia is able to build its new economy in the face of the collapse of the Soviet Union. From 1927 through 1987, the economy of the Soviet Union operated under the foundational premise as set forth by Joseph Stalin, “…with only incidental modifications made between 1953 and 1987” (countrystudies.us, 2006). The control of the Soviet economy under Stalin represented the utilisation of the ‘Five Year Plan’ that represented the means for the country to marshal its vast resources into materials for production (Ilin et al, 1931, p. 18). It was a backward country compared to Europe, primarily Britain, France, and the United States with relatively no internal infrastructure, factories, transportation systems, cities, and industry. The policies of the ‘five year plan’ have been argued as being one of the most effective means for pulling the then backward Soviet Union out of the eighteenth century, and into the twentieth century as it was such a vast undertaking (Ilin et al, 1931, pp. 27-31). In order to solidify their power the socialists had to find a means to implement real progress within the country as a demonstration of the vision, success, and foresight of their system in addressing the massive problems of the country In addition to the pressures from within, there were external pressures as represented by capitalists countries which were impacting upon internal pricing structures as a result of Russia’s inability to compete in terms of productivity, and market efficiencies (James, 1937, pp. 197-207). The ‘five year plan’ represented a means via which the state could plan the progress of the country as well as administer its control policies, and solidify its absolute power. It, the five-year plan, represented “…the chief mechanisms the Soviet government used to translate economic policies into programs” (countrystudies.us, 2006). For over sixty years the Russian economy was controlled by the state under the principles of centralised planning, which represented virtual control over all aspects of production, investment as well as consumption (countrystudies.us, 2006). The central planning concept also served to enable the country to marshal its resources quickly, as demonstrated by the invasion by Nazi forces. But, the problems of centralised planning, and its abuses were also evident in that Soviet industry was able to purchase raw materials such as oil, coal, and natural gas at prices that were below the global market levels, thus encouraging waste, and inefficiencies (countrystudies.us, 2006). The appointment of Mikhial Gorbachev as the General Secretary of the Community Party in 1985 is hailed as the beginning of the demise of the Soviet Union as a result of his reform policies of glasnost, democratisation and most of all perestroika (Graham, 2007). Glasnost (1990) represented a policy that called for openness, maximisation of publicity, and transparency concerning the activities of the state, along with the implementation of freedom of information (Bettaux et al, 2004, p. 8). The preceding was put into effect by Gorbachev in an effort to reduce the internal corruption at the head of the Communist Party as well as government, and Central Committee (Bettaux et al, 2004, p. 10-14). Democratisation in Russia, as brought forth by Gorbachev, implied increased public discussions, primarily on cultural as well as economic issues, along with the increased interaction of leaders of the Communist party with the populace, and some liberalisation of personal freedoms and censorship relaxation (Ross, 2002, pp. 18-20). Gorbachev stated in 1989 that the“… republics’ rights of sovereignty were largely formal in nature. Up to now”, and he noted, “Our state has existed as a centralized and unitary state and none of us has yet the experience of living in a federation” (Kux, 1990, p. 2). Of all of Gorbachev’s policies, perestroika is credited with becoming the unintended cat.
HUM 10 CSUF Son of Peleus Guilty in the Great Athena Argumentative Essay
Liberty University Borrower and Lender Relationship Paper
Liberty University Borrower and Lender Relationship Paper.
Part 2 (800 words minimum) After you have successfully reserved the key term that interests you the most, research a minimum of 5 recent scholarly articles that relate to the concept on which you wish to focus your research. Articles must be found in reputable professional and/or scholarly journals and/or informational venues that deal with the content of the course (i.e., not blogs, Wikipedia, newspapers, etc.).After reading the articles, select the 1 article that you wish to discuss. It is highly recommended that you use Liberty University’s Jerry Falwell Library online resources. A librarian is available to assist you in all matters pertaining to conducting your research, including what constitutes a scholarly article. For more details on what constitutes a scholarly journal (and what does not), visit Jerry Falwell Library’s “Scholarly Journals – What Are They?” page. Your thread must be placed in the Discussion Board Forum textbox (not as an attachment) and adhere precisely to the following headings and format: Key Term and Why You Are Interested in It (100 words minimum)Explanation of the Key Term (100 words minimum)Major Article Summary (300 words minimum)DiscussionReferences After reading the textbook, specifically state why you are interested in conducting further research on this key term (e.g., academic curiosity, application to a current issue related to employment, or any other professional rationale). Include a substantive reason, not simply a phrase. Provide a clear and concise overview of the essentials relevant to understanding this key term. Using your own words, provide a clear and concise summary of the article, including the major points and conclusions. In your own words, discuss each of the following points: How the cited work relates to your above explanation AND how it relates specifically to the content of the assigned module/week. This part of your thread provides evidence that you have extended your understanding of this key term beyond the textbook readings. (150 words minimum)How the cited work relates to the other 4 works you researched. This part of your thread provides evidence that you have refined your research key term to a coherent and specialized aspect of the key term, rather than a random selection of works on the key term. The idea here is to prove that you have focused your research and that all works cited are related in some manner to each other rather than simply a collection of the first 5 results from your Internet search. (150 words minimum) A minimum of 5 recent scholarly articles (not textbooks, Wikipedia, or other popular reading magazines), in current APA format, must be included and must contain persistent links so others may have instant access. In the event that formatting is lost or corrupted when submitting the thread, attach the Microsoft Word document to your thread as evidence that your work was completed in the proper format. Access the following URL from the Jerry Falwell Library for instructions on creating persistent links: How to Create a Persistent Link.
Liberty University Borrower and Lender Relationship Paper
Leadership styles, characteristics and management skills
assignment writing services The word leadership drives its meaning from the word ‘Leader’who is defined as a person capable of inspiring and associating others with a dream.” It is therefore important that organizations have a mission to strengthen the leadership of its directors. Leadership can be described as the “process of social influence in which one person can enlist the aid and support of others in the accomplishment of a common task”. Alan Keith of Genentech states that, “Leadership is ultimately about creating a way for people to contribute to making something extraordinary happen.” According to Ken “SKC” Ogbonnia, “effective leadership is the ability to successfully integrate and maximize available resources within the internal and external environment for the attainment of organizational or societal goals.” Leadership can also be defined as the act of organizing a group of people to achieve a common goal.” The leader may or may not have any formal authority. Leadership is also the manner or the process through which a person influences others in an organization to achieve pre-defined objectives in a cohesive and coherent manner. The leaders must have all the necessary knowledge and skills.Leaders should clearly express themselves, know what they want and communicate it to their subjects for cooperation. In general, management is the activity of resolving a disorderly situation into an intentionally orderly situation, to achieve pre-determined (i.e., purposeful) outcomes. Since disorder continuously arises from creativity, destruction, decay, variance, versioning, chaos, and other natural and intentional changes, resolving that disorder into an intended order requires continuous tracking and adjustments in the “architecture” of the intended order’s parts, part relationships, and part and relationship attributes. Management is a practice of utilizing all available resources to obtain a desired result. Management is necessary because A desired result must be established, Someone must be delegated, or assume the authority, to obtain, organize, guide, and direct those resources toward the desired result. Someone must “manage” the entire process. For that reason, all persons involved must agree to the desired result, and even if not in total agreement with the plan being advocated, still agree to the plan so as not to consciously or unconsciously sabotage the journey. I think it’s safe to say that the success of any managed project is determined in direct ratio to the control of all resources utilized, especially human resources. Management is also the art of getting things done from others. Management is a universal phenomenon and it exists in all the sectors. In case of private sector the management is very transparent. The goals are properly defined and all the employees are very well aware of their goals and are rewarded well for hard work. In case of public sector, there’s not that much transparency. Management can also be defined as the act or art of managing; the manner of treating, directing, carrying on, or using, for a purpose; conduct; administration; guidance; control;. LEADERSHIP CHARACTERISTICS OF A GOOD LEADER 1. Authenticity “After years of studying leaders and their traits, I believe that leadership begins and ends with authenticity.” 2. Desire to Serve Others “Authentic leaders genuinely desire to serve others through their leadership.” 3. Empowering People “They are more interested in empowering the people they lead to make a difference than they are in power, money, or prestige for themselves.” 4. Guided by Heart, passion and compassion “They are as guided by qualities of the heart, by passion, and compassion, as they are by qualities of the mind.” 5. Recognize their shortcomings “Authentic leaders use their natural abilities, but they also recognize their shortcomings and work hard to overcome them.” 6. Lead with Purpose “They lead with purpose, meaning and values.” 7. Build Enduring Relationships “They build enduring relationships with people.” 8. Clear Where They Stand “Others follow them because they know where they stand.” 9. Refuse to Compromise “When principles are tested, they refuse to compromise.” 10. Develop Themselves “Authentic leaders are dedicated to developing themselves because they know that becoming a leader takes a lifetime of personal growth.” LEADERSHIP STYLES There are four Main Leadership Styles Autocratic Bureaucratic Laissez-faire Democratic Autocratic Leadership Style This is often considered the classical approach. It is one in which the manager retains as much power and decision-making authority as possible. The manager does not consult employees, nor are they allowed to give any input. Employees are expected to obey orders without receiving any explanations. The motivation environment is produced by creating a structured set of rewards and punishments. This leadership style has been greatly criticized during the past 30 years. Some studies say that organizations with many autocratic leaders have higher turnover and absenteeism than other organizations. The studies say that autocratic leaders: Rely on threats and punishment to influence employees Do not trust employees Do not allow for employee input Yet, autocratic leadership is not all bad. Sometimes it is the most effective style to use. These situations can include: New, untrained employees who do not know which tasks to perform or which procedures to follow Effective supervision can be provided only through detailed orders and instructions Employees do not respond to any other leadership style There are high-volume production needs on a daily basis There is limited time in which to make a decision A manager’s power is challenged by an employee The area was poorly managed Work needs to be coordinated with another department or organization The autocratic leadership style should not be used when: Employees become tense, fearful, or resentful Employees expect to have their opinions heard Employees begin depending on their manager to make all their decisions There is low employee morale, high turnover and absenteeism and work stoppage Bureaucratic Leadership Style Bureaucratic leadership is where the manager manages “by the book¨ Everything must be done according to procedure or policy. If it isn’t covered by the book, the manager refers to the next level above him or her. This manager is really more of a police officer than a leader. He or she enforces the rules. This style can be effective when: Employees are performing routine tasks over and over. Employees need to understand certain standards or procedures. Employees are working with dangerous or delicate equipment that requires a definite set of procedures to operate. Safety or security training is being conducted. Employees are performing tasks that require handling cash. This style is ineffective when: Work habits form that are hard to break, especially if they are no longer useful. Employees lose their interest in their jobs and in their fellow workers. Employees do only what is expected of them and no more. Democratic Leadership Style The democratic leadership style is also called the participative style as it encourages employees to be a part of the decision making. The democratic manager keeps his or her employees informed about everything that affects their work and shares decision making and problem solving responsibilities. This style requires the leader to be a coach who has the final say, but gathers information from staff members before making a decision. Democratic leadership can produce high quality and high quantity work for long periods of time. Many employees like the trust they receive and respond with cooperation, team spirit, and high morale. Typically the democratic leader: Develops plans to help employees evaluate their own performance Allows employees to establish goals Encourages employees to grow on the job and be promoted Recognizes and encourages achievement. Like the other styles, the democratic style is not always appropriate. It is most successful when used with highly skilled or experienced employees or when implementing operational changes or resolving individual or group problems. The democratic leadership style is most effective when: The leader wants to keep employees informed about matters that affect them. The leader wants employees to share in decision-making and problem-solving duties. The leader wants to provide opportunities for employees to develop a high sense of personal growth and job satisfaction. There is a large or complex problem that requires lots of input to solve. Changes must be made or problems solved that affect employees or groups of employees. You want to encourage team building and participation. Democratic leadership should not be used when: There is not enough time to get everyone’s input. It’s easier and more cost-effective for the manager to make the decision. The business can’t afford mistakes. The manager feels threatened by this type of leadership. Employee safety is a critical concern. Laissez-Faire Leadership Style The laissez-faire leadership style is also known as the “hands-off¨ style. It is one in which the manager provides little or no direction and gives employees as much freedom as possible. All authority or power is given to the employees and they must determine goals, make decisions, and resolve problems on their own. This is an effective style to use when: Employees are highly skilled, experienced, and educated. Employees have pride in their work and the drive to do it successfully on their own. Outside experts, such as staff specialists or consultants are being used Employees are trustworthy and experienced. This style should not be used when: It makes employees feel insecure at the unavailability of a manager. The manager cannot provide regular feedback to let employees know how well they are doing. Managers are unable to thank employees for their good work. The manager doesn’t understand his or her responsibilities and is hoping the employees can cover for him or her. Factors Affecting Leadership Styles While the proper leadership style depends on the situation, there are three other factors that also influence which leadership style to use. 1. The manager’s personal background. What personality, knowledge, values, ethics, and experiences does the manager have. What does he or she think will work? 2. The employees being supervised. Employees are individuals with different personalities and backgrounds. The leadership style managers use will vary depending upon the individual employee and what he or she will respond best to. 3. The company. The traditions, values, philosophy, and concerns of the company will influence how a manager acts. MANAGEMENT Management Management success is gained through accomplishment of mission and objectives. Managers fail when they do not accomplish mission and objectives. Success and failure are tied directly to the reasons for being in business, i.e., mission and objectives. However, accomplishing mission and objectives is not sufficient. Success requires both effectiveness and efficiency. Managers who accomplish their mission and objectives are said to be effective. Efficiency describes the relationship between the amount of resources used (input) and the extent to which objectives were accomplished (output). If the cost of accomplishing an objective is prohibitive, then the objective is not realistic in the context of the firm’s resources. Additional planning is necessary. Management is creative problem solving. This creative problem solving is accomplished through four functions of management: planning, organizing, leading and controlling. FUNCTIONS OF MANAGEMENT Planning is the ongoing process of developing the business’ mission and objectives and determining how they will be accomplished. Planning includes both the broadest view of the organization, e.g., its mission, and the narrowest, e.g., a tactic for accomplishing a specific goal. Organizing is establishing the internal organizational structure of the organization. The focus is on division, coordination, and control of tasks and the flow of information within the organization. It is in this function that managers distribute authority to job holders. Staffing is filling and keeping filled with qualified people all positions in the business. Recruiting, hiring, training, evaluating and compensating are the specific activities included in the function. In the family business, staffing includes all paid and unpaid positions held by family members including the owner/operators. Directing is influencing people’s behavior through motivation, communication, group dynamics, leadership and discipline. The purpose of directing is to channel the behavior of all personnel to accomplish the organization’s mission and objectives while simultaneously helping them accomplish their own career objectives. Controlling is a four-step process of establishing performance standards based on the firm’s objectives, measuring and reporting actual performance, comparing the two, and taking corrective or preventive action as necessary. Each of these functions involves creative problem solving. Creative problem solving is broader than problem finding, choice making or decision making. It extends from analysis of the environment within which the business is functioning to evaluation of the outcomes from the alternative implemented. IMPORTANCE OF MANAGEMENT · It helps in Achieving Group Goals – It arranges the factors of production, assembles and organizes the resources, integrates the resources in effective manner to achieve goals. It directs group efforts towards achievement of pre-determined goals. By defining objective of organization clearly there would be no wastage of time, money and effort. Management converts disorganized resources of men, machines, money etc. into useful enterprise. These resources are coordinated, directed and controlled in such a manner that enterprise work towards attainment of goals. · Optimum Utilization of Resources – Management utilizes all the physical
Communication in Entrepreneurship Research Paper
Communication in Entrepreneurship Research Paper. Research Background Information flow within an organization has always been the subject of unceasing interest for researchers (Welch, 2011). Entering into the global economy has posed new challenges to the communication process and at the same time provided new avenues for addressing standard communication issues. However, when descrying communication as a crucial part of an organizational performance, one rarely considers it from the perspective of personal performance. On the one hand, disregarding individual communication concerns seems quite legitimate, as operating within global economy means viewing every element of the entrepreneurship as a part and parcel of the corporate mechanism. On the other hand, neglecting the individual needs of the staff and, therefore, their personal efficacy may result in a range of minor conflicts amassing to a major crisis within entrepreneurship. The communication issues, which the entrepreneurship is facing at present, will be addressed from the perspective of organizational performance and corporate values. Research Question This research will attempt at proving several key statements concerning the role of communication on the efficacy of the staff’s performance within entrepreneurship. Specifically, the research will seek the answer to the question whether efficient communication is the key to the organization of the entrepreneurship’s key processes and the successful implementation of the corporate goals, including the ones regarding production and expansion. In addition, the paper will provide the answer to the question concerning efficient communication as the essential tool for addressing conflicts in the workplace, especially those arising due to a culture clash. Finally, the significance of communication in terms of increasing the productivity of the organization in general, as well as the need to deploy the latest technological innovations in order to facilitate the environment for an impeccable communication process, will be defined. Literature Review Communication and personal effectiveness Researchers show that there is an obvious link between communication and personal efficiency. For instance, the study carried out by Welch (2011) points at the fact that employee engagement and, therefore, motivation is among the key products of enhanced communication process (Welch, 2011). This does make sense, seeing that most organizations require quality data processing in order to function properly in the era of information technology. At this point, it should be noted that the process of communication may be viewed from two perspectives, i.e., the process of information transfer among the members of the staff, and the one of data transfer between an employee and a manager. The latter, in its turn, is traditionally structured in a more cohesive manner, yet more complex at the same time. Welch (2011) has discovered in their study that the communicational pattern chosen in the second scenario has a palpable impact on the personal efficacy of each member of the staff: according to the researcher, there is “a conspicuous dearth of contributions from corporate communication and public relations disciplines and highlights foggy usage of the term employee engagement in previous communication literature” (Wlch, 2011, p. 341). Long and detailed commentaries on the functions roles and responsibilities of the staff result in ma more efficient personal performance (Welch, 2011), yet are admittedly more time-consuming. The dilemma turned out to be quite challenging and rather inspirational at that, seeing that it has led to the design of a new management model, in which the leader “sought to be well informed of major changes and events, but also sought to keep all meetings and communications as brief and concise as possible” (Clarcq, DeMartinoCommunication in Entrepreneurship Research Paper
You will need the Services.rtf downloadfile to complete this Hand-on activity.
You will need the Services.rtf downloadfile to complete this Hand-on activity..
I’m working on a computer science question and need a sample draft to help me learn.
You will need the Services.rtf file to complete this Hand-on activity. Download the file using the link before you start the activity. The activities use the Place to Place case as background for the activities.Case: Place to PlacePlace to Place, a moving concierge in Lansing, Michigan, provides a full range of services for people and businesses that are moving from one location to another. For example, Place to Place packs, unpacks, hires moving vans and cleaning services, and sets up utilities, electronics, and furnishings. Rachel Grogram is the owner of Place to Place. When she needs to complete office work, she conducts much of her business on a Windows 10 PC. As her assistant office manager, you are responsible for maintaining the hardware and software at the business.Backing Up and Restoring FilesNo one is safe from computer problems that result in data loss. Problems such as a power surge, a power loss, a failed section of a hard disk, or a computer virus can strike at any time. Rather than risk disaster, you should make copies of your important files regularly.To back up files in Windows, you use the File History feature. Backing up files is different from copying files because File History compresses the files when it copies them, keeps track of their original locations, and saves changes you’ve made to the files as different versions. On the other hand, copying simply duplicates the files.Setting Up File HistoryBy default, File History is turned off because it needs information from you before it can start backing up your files. Backing up files with File History involves the following general tasks:Selecting a backup location (or medium)Selecting folders and files you want to back upSpecifying how often the backup should occur and how long you want to keep the different versions of the backupsOnce you select a backup location, Windows turns on File History so it can back up your files.Backing Up FilesAfter you set up File History by specifying a backup location and selecting folders to back up, you are ready to start backing up files. In the following exercise, before backing up files for Rachel, you should copy files to a folder on Rachel’s computer so that File History includes them in the backup. You will store the files in a folder named Rachel so that you can file them easily later.To copy files to the Rachel folder:Open File Explorer and then navigate to and select the Desktop folder on the hard disk of your computer.On the Home tab, in the New group, click the New folderType Rachel as the name of the folder, and then press the EnterCopy the Services.rtf file from the Module9 > Module folder provided with your Data Files (or from the link at the top of this exercise) to the Rachel folder.Close all open folder windows.To back up Rachel’s file, your computer needs access to a USB drive. In this exercise, the USB drive is named Removable Disk on drive D. Substitute the name of your USB drive for Removable Disk (D:) as necessary. Keep in mind that when you use File History to back up your personal files, you can choose an external hard drive or a network folder instead of a USB drive.To turn on File History:Click the Start button to display the Start menu, and then click Settings to start Settings.Click Update & Security and then click Backup to display the Back up using File History settings option.Insert a USB drive in a USB port, and then click the Add a drive button to search for and display acceptable locations for the backup, including the USB drive. Trouble? If a folder window for the USB drive opens, click the Close button.Trouble? If a slider button named Automatically back up my files is displayed instead of the Add a drive button, File History is already set up on your computer. Skip Steps 3 and 4.Click Removable Disk (D:) in the Select a drive list.Trouble? If the name of your USB drive changes to Recovery or a similar name after you select it, continue to substitute the name of your USB drive for Removable Disk (D:) as necessary in the remaining steps.Changing Backup OptionsBy default, File History backs up copies of files every hour, which is considered a continuous backup cycle. It keeps saved versions of files forever, so you can restore any saved copy of a document if necessary. In the Back up using File History settings, click the More options link to open the Backup Options window, which you use to change these and other settings as follows:Back up my files—Use this setting to set the frequency of backups.Keep my backups—Use this setting to set the duration of saved versions.Backup these folders—If you want to back up folders other than those listed in this section, you can click the Add a folder button and then navigate to the folder you want to include.Exclude these folders—To bypass a folder so it is not included in the Backup, click the Add a folder button and then navigate to the folder you want to exclude.Back up to a different drive—If the backup medium is full, click the Stop using drive button in this section, and then attach a new removable drive to your computer, if necessary.Rachel wants to back up files only in the Rachel folder for now. You will show her how to exclude the Documents, Downloads, Music, Pictures, and Videos folder and OneDrive from the backup. Because the Rachel folder is in the Desktop folder, File History will back up the contents of the Rachel folder by default.To exclude a folder from the backup:Click the More options link to display the Backup Options windows. Scroll the window to the Exclude these folders section, and then click the Add a folder button to open the Select Folder window, where you select the folders you do not want to include in the backup.If necessary, click This PC in the navigation pane. Click the Documents folder, and then click the Choose this folder button to add the Documents folder to the Exclude these folders list. Click the Add a folder button in the Exclude these folders list, click the Downloads folder, and then click the Choose this folder button to add the Downloads folder to the Exclude these folders list.Click the Add a folder button in the Exclude these folders list, click the Music folder, and then click the Choose this folder button to add the Music folder to the Exclude these folders list.Click the Add a folder button in the Exclude these folders list, click the Pictures folder, and then click the Choose this folder button to add the Pictures folder to the Exclude these folders list.Click the Add a folder button in the Exclude these folders list, click the Videos folder, and then click the Choose this folder button to add the Videos folder to the Exclude these folders list.Review the settings and then change them, if necessary, so that File History excludes all folders except the Contacts, Desktop, Favorites and OneDrive folders.Now File History will not back up any files in the Documents, Downloads, Music, Pictures, or Videos folders. It will back up files stored in the Desktop > Rachel folder along with any favorites and contact files.To show Rachel how File History saves versions of files, you can set File History to back up more often than every hour, and then start backing up files.To select advanced backup settings:Scroll to the top of the Backup Options window, and then click the Back up my files box to display a list of time intervals for backing up files. Click Every 10 minutes to have File History back up files in the specified locations every 10 minutes.Click the Back up now button in the Backup Options window. File History reports that it is backing up your data. Keep in mind that these are backup copies of your files, not copies you could create yourself using the Copy command.Close the Backup Options window, if necessary.The first time File History backs up your files, it creates a folder named FileHistory in your backup location, and then copies all of the files saved in your personal folder, except for those folders you excluded from the backup. This is considered a full backup of your files. Do not delete or move the FileHistory folder in your backup location. If you delete the FileHistory folder, you will lose your backup files. If you move the folder, File History can no longer use it to track the files that have changed on your computer.After making the first full backup, File History works in the background to back up only files that have changed since your last backup.To demonstrate to Rachel how File History maintains separate versions of backup files, you can change the file stored in the Rachel folder. The Services file lists the services Place to Place offers to its customers. You can research the services of any moving company and then add a service to the list in the Services file.To modify the Services file:Click the File Explorer button on the taskbar to open a folder window, and then navigate to the Desktop > Rachel folder.Double-click the Services.rtf document in the Rachel folder to open the document in an app such as WordPad or Microsoft Word, and then scan the list of services.Start Microsoft Edge and search for information about moving concierge companies like Place to Place and the services they offer to customers.In the Services document, select the text in the first bullet (“Supply boxes and other materials.”), and then replace it with text describing a service you found.Save the Services document. Take a snip of the edited Services document. Save the snip as FileHistory1firstnamelastname.png.Close the app window. Close Edge.When you saved the Services.rtf document, you saved a different version of the document. The original version includes “Supply boxes and other materials.” as the text for the first bullet, and the updated version contains your replacement text. The next time it backs up files, File History will include the updated version of the Services document and store it separate from the original version.Restoring Files and FoldersAll hard disks eventually fail, even if you maintain them conscientiously. When a hard disk fails, you can no longer access the files it contains. For that reason alone, you should backup your personal files regularly.File History makes it much easier to restore the right version of a file because you use File Explorer and its familiar interface to find the file you want.To restore a file from File History:Display the contents of the Rachel folder, if necessary.On the Home tab, in the Open group, click the History button if 10 or more minutes have passed since File History made the first backup, the folder window shows the latest version of the file, which is the one you updated based on your research.Trouble? If Windows reports that File History is still backing up your files, close the window, wait for the backup to complete, and then repeat Step 2.Click the Previous version button to display the previous version of the file. If necessary, continue clicking the Previous version button until you display the original version of the file, which contains “Supply boxes and other materials.” as the text for the first button. Click the Restore button to restore the file to its original location, which is the Rachel folder. The Replace or Skip Files dialog box opens because you are restoring an older version of the Services file into a folder that already contains a file named Services.Click Replace the file in the destination to finish restoring the Services file.Take a snip of the restored Services file (Open in Word, if necessary.), and name the snip, FileHistory2firstnamelastname.png.Close all open files
You will need the Services.rtf downloadfile to complete this Hand-on activity.