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Outsourcing the Cleaning Services of Abu Dhabi National Oil Company Report (Assessment)

Executive Summary This report presents a business case for outsourcing the cleaning services of Abu Dhabi National Oil Company (ADNOC), which is a leading energy conglomerate based in Abu Dhabi. Founded in the 1970s, the firm primarily operates in the exploitation, refinement, and distribution of petroleum products on behalf of the Abu Dhabi Government. Based on the rising cost of doing business and the increased pressure to enhance the company’s performance, ADNOC is struggling to get vital services, while at the same time reducing its overheads. Cleaning is an essential service and there is no clear understanding regarding whether to provide it in-house or through outsourcing. This report presents a business case for outsourcing this service, from a procurement and supply perspective. Key sections of this report show that a well-designed procurement plan would help ADNOC to minimize the cost of cleaning by identifying the right third parties to provide this service. It would also help the organization to develop the best supply chain policies to follow in the outsourcing plan and assist the company’s managers to identify the right type of relationship to be developed between the company and its outsourcing partners. The importance of outsourcing cleaning services is also discussed, including the impact that such a strategy would have on the firm. In the last section of this report, recommendations are made to develop long-term relationships with partners who have the same vision for the organization and respect the three bottom-line factors guiding procurement processes – people, environment, and price. ADNOC is also encouraged to design the outsourcing process by carefully balancing the needs of the organization and those of the cleaning service providers. These recommendations broadly underscore the need for the conglomerate to have a well-functioning procurement department to oversee the outsourcing plan. Outsourcing Abu Dhabi National Oil Company’s Activities from a Procurement Perspective Introduction Abu Dhabi National Oil Company (ADNOC) is a conglomerate of energy firms located in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The state-owned corporation is listed as an energy company, which comprises 17 entities (Abu Dhabi National Oil Company Inc., 2017). The firm is in the oil exploitation business and has interests in the entire hydrocarbon value chain (Abu Dhabi National Oil Company Inc., 2017). In line with this market positioning, the conglomerate has a network of fully integrated enterprises that span across a selection of business spheres, which include “exploration, production, storage, refining, distribution, and development of a wide range of petrochemical products” (Abu Dhabi National Oil Company Inc., 2017, p. 1). Currently, ADNOC is looking for new and innovative ways of reducing its overheads but at the same time maintaining vital operations, such as cleaning services. Underpinning this goal is a quest by the company to be more efficient to meet the demands of a dynamic, volatile, and robust energy industry through outsourcing. This document outlines key parts of the company’s outsourcing plan for cleaning services with a special focus on explaining why the model is important to the company’s operations. The scope of this report includes an investigation of the potential impact of the business process outsourcing plan on the organization’s operations and an examination of the role of procurement and supply chain management in supporting the outsourcing process through efforts to reduce associated costs of cleaning services. In this review, information about outsourcing and ADNOC’s internal processes will be reviewed to understand how the strategy would help it to improve its efficiency. To support this position, the company’s database will provide information, which will be used to understand the benefits of outsourcing, as opposed to an in-house cleaning program. Comparatively, the findings will be linked to both current academic and professional reviews surrounding the topic of investigation by identifying the strengths and potential limitations of outsourcing. This report excludes aspects of the company’s operations that do not relate to procurement processes. A key assumption of the study is that the findings of this review will help ADNOC to harness existing opportunities associated with outsourcing. However, before delving into the details of this analysis, it is essential to understand the importance and impact of outsourcing to ADNOC. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Importance and Impact of Outsourcing to ADNOC According to the APICS Supply Chain Council (2016), outsourcing refers to the engagement of a third party to provide specific services to a business. The adoption of prudent procurement and supply chain management processes at ADNOC could help in managing the price and cost of outsourcing cleaning services by reviewing suppliers’ financial information to make sure that they have adequate resources to do the work. Such a requirement minimizes the risk of insolvency when an outsourcing arrangement fails (Khushlani, 2017). Procurement and supply processes, if implemented well by ADNOC, could also lower the risks and costs associated with confidentiality breaches because the cleaning staff at ADNOC is usually granted access to “secure” areas within the company. In line with the above aim, outsourcing ADNOC’s cleaning services would help to improve the company’s efficiency by minimizing its operating costs and maximizing its effectiveness. In the context of this analysis, outsourcing would help the company to utilize category management techniques to promote inter-firm value creation through the integration of third-party cleaning services into the company’s value chain. Relying on third-party vendors to provide cleaning services would help the company to accomplish more goals within a shorter period and with fewer resources. For example, at an inter-firm level, ADNOC’s managers rarely dedicate enough time to improve the cost-effectiveness of the company’s cleaning services. Consequently, there are instances of incompetence associated with in-house cleaning services. Outsourcing a professional cleaning service company to do the job would instill the seriousness needed for the job. Therefore, management could divert more resources into other aspects of operational performance. Outsourcing should make the firm more efficient and capable of meeting its shareholders’ needs. Stated differently, outsourcing is a tool for serving its customers’ needs and generating enough cost savings to not only meet its operational requirements but also support its growth. Broadly, the potential benefits of procurement, if effectively adopted, could help ADNOC to meet its shareholders’ needs through the triple-bottom-line approach practiced in procurement, which emphasizes the need for companies to be mindful of people, the planet, and profits. Figure 1 below represents it. Figure 1. Triple-Bottom-Line Approach in Procurement (Adapted from CIPS Study Materials). It is important to understand how outsourcing ADNOC’s cleaning services could improve its efficiency because several researchers have demonstrated its efficiency in improving corporate operations (Chartered Institute of Procurement and Supply 2014; Spiller, 2015). The potential benefits of outsourcing cleaning services come from a paradigm shift in procurement and supply chain management. Professor Richard Lamming defines the change as a willingness to rethink procurement as an important part of a wider organizational ecosystem (Spiller, 2015). In other words, suppliers are not only an offshoot of the organization but integral parts of it. However, the decision regarding whether to outsource the firm’s cleaning services or provide them in-house depends on a few selected considerations. For example, there should be a proper understanding of the core importance of cleaning services to ADNOC’s managers and a good comprehension of whether there are enough contractors with the competence to carry them out, relative to the size and scope of the firm’s operations. The matrix outlined in figure 2 below could be an assessment tool for understanding these considerations. Figure 2. The Outsourcing Matrix (Adapted from CIPS Study Materials). As highlighted above, the decision regarding whether to outsource ADNOC’s cleaning operations or provide them in-house requires a careful balance between promoting the core importance of the organization’s operations and merging it with the competence of a contractor. Similarly, as highlighted in figure 2 above, when the core importance of the cleaning services to be outsourced is high and there is a low competence of contractors to provide the same service, the outsourcing process should occur in-house. At the same time, the model suggests that outsourcing should occur if cleaning is not an essential service and existing contractors have a high competence to provide it. Based on the above analysis, the decision regarding whether ADNOC should outsource its cleaning services depends on its ability to determine the importance of its cleaning services and to understand whether there are enough contractors with the competence to provide them without compromising on quality. If these considerations are assessed in the matrix mentioned above, ADNOC’s outsourcing plan falls in the “outsource/buy-in” category. This decision is premised on the fact that cleaning services are non-core in nature and there is a high competence of contractors who can provide them. The matrix highlighted above also suggests that non-core activities, which competent contractors can provide, should be outsourced. Based on these findings, ADNOC needs to recognize that the process of achieving a perfect balance between its core competencies and maintaining the importance of the activities to be outsourced requires an appreciation of the role of procurement and supply chain management in its processes. Role of Procurement and Supply Chain Management in ADNOC’s Operations Although outsourcing is the current focus for ADNOC, associated risks, such as cost overruns and compromised quality standards, are linked with the strategy. ADNOC’s outsourcing proposal is susceptible to such areas of vulnerability because the company’s operations are vast. Therefore, low-quality cleaning standards could negatively affect its image. For example, on one occasion, the company suffered reputational damage after a journalist who was interviewing one of the employees took photos of dirty equipment in one of the company’s warehouses. The incident forced the managers to fire the floor supervisor for incompetence. We will write a custom Assessment on Outsourcing the Cleaning Services of Abu Dhabi National Oil Company specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The initial stages of outsourcing come with various costs, such as those associated with choosing a vendor, relationship building, overcoming cultural differences, eliminating productivity lags, improving internal processes, and managing outsourcing relationships (Spiller, 2015). These expenses are often unavoidable because outsourcing will make ADNOC dependent on the quality of third-party relationships, thereby increasing its exposure to the operational weaknesses of vendors. The above-mentioned issues often exist because of movements in market forces. These forces are in two categories: microeconomic and macroeconomic groups. Macroeconomic forces are those that are outside of the company’s control but still affect its productivity. Comparatively, microeconomic forces are those within the company’s locus of control and affect its productivity as well. These two forces have the potential to influence the success of ADNOC’s outsourcing plan. Notably, they could impact the price and cost of the strategy (Spiller, 2015). The purchasing environment, which is described in figure 3 below influences this price and cost model. Figure 3. The Purchasing Environment (Adapted from CIPS Study Materials). Based on the model described above, ADNOC’s purchasing function could affect its microenvironment. Similarly, it could influence the company’s purchasing activities. All these factors should be contextualized within the larger framework of the macro-environment. At the same time, they need to be reviewed within the broader procurement framework that most organizations follow when trying to achieve their goals. Doing so requires a careful understanding of the procurement lifecycle, which typically guides firms through their outsourcing plans. The first step in the procurement lifecycle involves an understanding of the company’s outsourcing needs and the development of a high-level specification to undertake its outsourcing functions (Chartered Institute of Procurement and Supply, 2014). Broadly, there are 13 stages in the procurement lifecycle, which could characterize the process of outsourcing ADNOC’s cleaning services. At the center of the procurement process is the integration or use of e-commerce systems, stakeholder engagement processes, sustainability reports, risk assessment and mitigation processes, continuous improvement activities, people, and skills needed to achieve procurement goals (Chartered Institute of Procurement and Supply, 2014). Sustainability and continuous improvement are key processes that have been supported by the company’s new management in light of growing global concerns about the impact of the energy industry on the environment and the role that technology could play in addressing this problem. Impact of Markets in Securing Cost Savings In line with the above views, experts suggest that companies should analyze to understand the segmentation of variables, which affect the outsourcing process (APICS Supply Chain Council, 2016). Relative to this suggestion, their recommendations highlight the need to understand situational factors, demographic variables, operating variables, and purchasing organization variables affecting company processes (APICS Supply Chain Council, 2016). These factors need to be taken into consideration because market forces are not the only ones that could affect outsourcing; national and global forces have the same impact. This analogy points to the need for a comprehensive analysis of factors that would influence ADNOC’s outsourcing plan in the end. These influences can be analyzed using the SWOT analysis below. Strengths Outsourcing ADNOC’s cleaning services would allow the company to better focus on the economic, social, and political development of Abu Dhabi and the wider UAE region (Abu Dhabi National Oil Company Inc., 2017). Its economic contribution to the emirate is profound because it has played an instrumental role in exploiting and preserving its hydrocarbon reserves on behalf of the Abu Dhabi government. By outsourcing a non-core function, such as cleaning, the company would better achieve this goal by redirecting its resources to its core functions. Weaknesses Although the importance of outsourcing to ADNOC is clear, the company has to meet the needs of different stakeholders, including the local community, its neighbors, customers, and the environment (Abu Dhabi National Oil Company Inc., 2017). In other words, the company has to balance the interests of all these stakeholders. These interests are enshrined in the company’s vision, which is to create a diverse, knowledge-based economy in the UAE and improving the quality of life for local and international stakeholders (Abu Dhabi National Oil Company Inc., 2017). Through these insights, it is difficult to be successful if the interests of all stakeholders are unaddressed. Opportunities Outsourcing provides an opportunity for ADNOC to align its operational processes with its five key values, which are progression, collaboration, respect, responsibility, and efficiency (Abu Dhabi National Oil Company Inc., 2017). Therefore, the recruitment of third-party vendors in the company’s operational process would make sure that its managers only partner with service providers who share the same vision as the company. Not sure if you can write a paper on Outsourcing the Cleaning Services of Abu Dhabi National Oil Company by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More ADNOC should also focus on understanding purchasing organization variables, regardless of whether they fall in the market, national, or global categories. At the same time, the procurement function of ADNOC should follow a centralized structure because the company intends to leverage its group positioning to get optimum value from the outsourcing process. If the managers select a decentralized structure, it would be difficult to realize the full benefits of outsourcing because the organization would be unable to leverage its group competencies, as each subdivision of the conglomerate would be outsourcing its functions. The impact of such a strategy is that the third-party vendor in the outsourcing plan should provide cleaning services to all of the company’s subsidiaries. Threats Since ADNOC engages in the exploitation, production, refinement, and distribution of energy products, it can be reasonably assumed that the firm and third-party vendors would incur costs related to production overheads and setting up the outsourcing relationship in the first place. Prime costs may involve direct expenses, materials, and labor costs, while production overheads may include indirect expenses (such as administrative costs), materials, and labor costs. Collectively, these expenses amount to the overall production overheads for setting up the outsourcing relationship between ADNOC and companies that could potentially provide cleaning services. Prudent procurement and supply chain management could help to manage such risks. Table 1 below summarizes the findings of the SWOT analysis. Table 1. SWOT Analysis (Source: Developed by Author). Strengths Directing resources to core functions Weaknesses A delicate balance of shareholder needs Conflicting interests of shareholders Opportunities Centralization of the procurement function Align processes with values Threats High Costs Conclusion and Recommendations Conclusion This document demonstrates that outsourcing is a function that combines different aspects of ADNOC’s performance and operations. At the firm level, the outsourcing process involves complexities that revolve around logistics planning, investing in third-party relationships and contract management. These factors emerge at a time that the organization is seeking to improve its efficiency by seeking the services of third-party vendors to provide cleaning services. Based on the insights highlighted in this document, the organization must outsource its cleaning services because it could enjoy immense benefits from implementing them. Doing so would make it possible for ADNOC to send invitations to bidders or outsourcing partners who meet their specifications. Those who pass the pre-qualification or shortlisting process should be formally considered as partners in the outsourcing model, based on the tender specification criteria. Using best practice tendering processes, the best contractor should also be identified and engaged in a post-tender notification meeting. Here, discussions may address several issues, but matters relating to contract terms, key performance indicators (KPIs), and service level agreements need to be prioritized. Subject to the successful completion of these deliberations, the best applicant should be awarded the contract. Thereafter, a working relationship could be established with the chosen supplier. Overall, if ADNOC properly implements its outsourcing function, it would not only improve the outcomes of the company’s cleaning services but also meet the needs of all its shareholders. This view is in line with the triple-bottom-line approach in procurement management, which emphasizes the need for companies to be mindful of people, the planet, and profits. This model would also improve the odds of the firm getting maximum cost savings from its outsourcing operations because the savings made from the plan could finance core activities. Such financial gains could also translate to increased profitability for ADNOC because outsourcing its cleaning services would mean that the company gets the service at a lower cost than it would have otherwise paid for. In line with this goal, the subsection below recommends ways in which the firm should implement this strategy. Recommendations Understand All Variables That Would Affect the Outsourcing Plan ADNOC should conduct a feasibility study that generates materials for developing a case for outsourcing cleaning services. Here, a cross-functional team could be developed to understand the impact of integrating a third-party vendor on the company’s value chain process. Doing so could help in developing a requirements list describing the performance or technical expertise needed to gain approval to provide cleaning services. Draft contracts, key performance indicators could also be identified in the same manner and so is the process of developing a statement of resource requirements (SRR), which could be instrumental in-market testing. Develop Purchasing Policies Employing prudent purchasing and supply chain management techniques would also help ADNOC to select the right kind of purchasing policies to follow in the outsourcing plan. By deciding which procedures to follow, the firm will be in a powerful position to determine whether to collaborate with cleaning companies that prefer long-term contracts, or those that only provide short-term services. Similarly, by doing so, it would be easy for the conglomerate to choose whether to partner with companies that have a flexible working relationship or a rigid one. The decision should be anchored on a succinct understanding of ADNOC’s business processes. This way, it would be easier to establish the criteria for seeking outsourcing partnerships based on an assessment of whether the company is seeking quality, availability, or low price when choosing to outsource its cleaning services. Select the Most Qualified Supplier ADNOC should establish a rigorous supplier selection process to make sure that the right vendors are singled out. Relative to this need, Khushlani (2017) says it is important for organizations to solicit bids from a variety of potential third-party planners and choose one whose products and requirements align with those of the organization. The selection process could involve different stages, such as reference call selection and on-site presentation (among others). Potential suppliers that could be integrated into the organization’s outsourcing plan could also be chosen from those who responded to the SRR. Appraisal and prequalification could also be done using dialogue, reference checking, and site visits (among other techniques). Reference List Abu Dhabi National Oil Company Inc. (2017) About Us Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. Web. APICS Supply Chain Council (2016) Creating Value through Procurement and Sourcing Efforts in Integrated Supply Chains Chicago, Illinois. Web. Chartered Institute of Procurement and Supply (2014) Procurement and Supply Cycle London, United Kingdom. Web. Khushlani, A. (2017) Business Process Outsourcing and the Role of Procurement Bombay, India. Web. Spiller, P. (2015) Creating Value through Procurement Outsourcing New York City, New York. Web. Egol, J. (2016) Top Benefits of Outsourcing Procurement New York City, New York. Web. Walters, R. (2018) Benefits of Outsourcing London, United Kingdom. Web. WOU (2009) Procurement’s Role in Outsourcing New York City, New York. Web.
Health & Medical Question.

To help you to better understand why case mix is important to managed care and reimbursement methods; here are some fictional heart attack mortality rates for three different hospitals. Consider the national average for heart attack death rates to be 16%.HospitalMortality RateNational Mortality RateHospital A16.1%16%Hospital B18.6%Hospital C15.7%Part IWrite a 3-4 page report in which you answer the following questions:Explain case mix and why it is important in evaluating different health care providers.Refer to the table of heart attack mortality rates for Hospitals A, B, and C. From your reading this week, what variables might be impacting the rates in the table? Please explain and discuss the use of data analysis for evaluating this kind of information.Part IIYou are a staff member at Hospital B, which has the worst mortality rate from heart attacks as seen in the table. Imagine that the administrator for Hospital B has asked you to appear at a Press Conference to share your knowledge about case mix.HospitalMortality RateNational Mortality RateHospital A16.1%16%Hospital B18.6%Hospital C15.7%After participating in the Press Conference, write a 2-page summary to explain the use of date for decision-making purposes, and how the technology department performs critical core business processes essential to the managed care organization.
Health & Medical Question

PSYC 515 Liberty Intrinsic Spirituality and Job Satisfaction Discussion.

Lab Project Introduction Discussion Topic Assignment Instructions Overview The first portion of your lab project is to design a research study, share it with your peers as a Discussion topic. To get started on this multi-stage assignment, please review the Lab Project Overview, Lab Project Survey Development, and this document. Once you’ve determined which variables you will use and the questions you will use to quantify these variables (using the Lab Project Survey Development document as a guide), you will need to find four relevant articles that serve as background and justification for your study. By reading and discerning which articles are relevant to your research proposal, you should further develop your understanding of the systematic organization inherent in research articles, as covered in PSYC 510 and in your recent required readings of the APA Manual. You will begin practicing this standard organization when writing your Introduction (this assignment). It will need to be systematically organized, succinct, yet thoroughly provide a justification for your study. Instructions The first phase of your Lab Project will be submitted as your first Discussion topic. For this portion, you will be writing an Introduction section for your research project, a Reference section, and will need to include a copy of your survey as an Appendix. The following steps are provided to help guide you through this assignment.
PSYC 515 Liberty Intrinsic Spirituality and Job Satisfaction Discussion

Week 2 reading and research strategies reflection essay.

Last week, you were introduced to effective writing process and examined your own writing for strengths and opportunities. You also shared your thoughts and goals with your colleagues.This week, you will begin to compose your evaluation of a scholarly article by critically assessing the author’s main points. After reviewing the Learning Resources for this week, you will post a reflection on your research methods and ways in which you evaluate an essay for its author’s main points. You will select one journal article from a preselected group of articles to review. (Please note that for the rest of the course, you will base your assignments on your one selected journal article.)The activities this week mirror the beginning stages of the writing process for an evaluative essay. In the following weeks, you will continue with the more iterative processes of drafting and revising but for now, you are at the prewriting stage.Learning ObjectivesStudents will:Examine overall writing processApply prewriting principles to critically read and research one online journal articleApply prewriting principles to identify three main ideas from one selected journal articleDiscussion: Reflecting on Your Writing: Reading and Research StrategiesBeginning an essay can often be the most difficult portion. However, when separated into small steps, this process becomes well defined and much more manageable. During these first steps, any writing that takes place is likely to be minimal and rough. This is acceptable, as you realize you are in the prewriting stage and that you have more writing and revising ahead of you.For this Discussion, you will reflect on your own approach to reading and how you have (or, perhaps, have not) used a strategy, such as note-taking, underlining, highlighting, etc., in the past to gather and assess the main ideas from a journal article. Based on what you have learned from the week’s Learning Resources, you will share your thoughts and experiences on reading and researching.To prepare for this Discussion:Review the Learning Resources on arguments and critical reading, and the infographic on Analysis.Reflect on your research process in relation to understanding an author’s argument or main idea.You may reflect on past or current examples of your reading and research process.By Day 3Post a 1- to 2-paragraph reflection on your reading and research process, describing strategies that you currently use, as well as any strategies that you could use more effectively. (Note: You may choose to reflect specifically on your approach to this Discussion in relation to reading and research.)https://academicguides.waldenu.edu/writingcenter/m…https://academicguides.waldenu.edu/CAEX6060https://academicguides.waldenu.edu/CAEX6061https://academicguides.waldenu.edu/writingcenter/w…https://class.waldenu.edu/bbcswebdav/institution/U…https://class.waldenu.edu/bbcswebdav/institution/U…https://academicguides.waldenu.edu/writingcenter/t…https://class.waldenu.edu/bbcswebdav/institution/U…
Week 2 reading and research strategies reflection essay

participation

participation.

Hi dear, thank you for last work you have done.I have an assignment, I need to participate and write a comment on a group a case study assignment, it is due tomorrow SUNDAY you have more than 30 hour. I will send you the group study case assignment, the case studies they worked on, and the case study questions they did. it is very important to show level of academic, understanding the material, and research then write a point of view comment.Please accept if you can deliver it on time, this assignment close tomorrow and cant take any delay. I also do have multiple assignment we will work on pretty soon.you will find in the attachment: the grading rubric, 3 PDF files (case study) Group 4 assignment (the case study we write comments from)Instructions and comments( first part is the case questions, second is the instructions from syllabus, and the last part is students comments from previous assignment, you can check examples how they write it).let me know if you have and questions. Please make it $10, it should be around half page
participation

Reading Response

essay writer free Reading Response. Need help with my Economics question – I’m studying for my class.

It’s time to apply what you are learning to understanding real world events. Pick an article that considers a current economic issue and analyze, using what you’ve learned so far in macroeconomics (and micro!) ) For this assignment you are to read the article, answer the following questions, and explain the economic significance of this article. In 2-3 pages (space and a half) you should:

briefly summarize the article
explain the economic issues in the article- what topics are addressed and what do they mean in terms of the article (i.e. what do the changes in this article represent in terms of the market)
explain what impact you think this might have on the US and/or global economy in the near future explain your answer.
be sure to provide a link so I can read the article

2-3 pages, due MONDAY night
* if you want, you can always choose another article that I’ve posted this quarter to write about. Use the same basic guidelines.
Rubric
paper rubric (1)

paper rubric (1)

Criteria
Ratings
Pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning Outcomepaper shows you engaged the material in a meaningful way (i.e. related to course topics.)

5.0 ptsFull Marks
0.0 ptsNo Marks

5.0 pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning Outcomepaper shows some thought and effort to relate to the material

3.0 ptsFull Marks
0.0 ptsNo Marks

3.0 pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning Outcomebasic response turned in on time

22.0 ptsFull Marks
0.0 ptsNo Marks

22.0 pts

Total Points: 30.0

Reading Response

Four Marketing Practices That Cause Noise Pollution Report (Assessment)

Marketing in a crucial strategic practice in organizations; in Porters 4Ps of marketing, promotion is one of tool that form a base for an integrated marketing communication; however when marketers are promoting their products, there are chances that they emit pollutants. This paper discusses four practices with promotional campaigns that cause noise pollution. List four things that cause noise during the promotional process and how they cause noise Loud messages on road shows In aggressive promotions, companies engage in road shows where they show case the kind of products and services they offer, to attract a large population, they have to speak in loud voices using speakers; this causes noise to the surrounding people. Illustrated songs Depending with the angle and type of advertisement that an organization has, there are times that companies come-up with songs that promote their products; when the songs are played, depending with the person who is listening to them they may qualify to be called noise. Television and Radio adverts Depending with the kind of people that a certain television and radio messages land to, they may amount to noise; if people who are not interested hear them or those who have little to care about in the products will find the advert as nuisance. When developing a promotional material, the focus should be on the target market and the segmentation that the company aimed at reaching, so when the information lands to someone outside this circle, then it is noise. Electronics billboards When using electronic billboards, companies create some sounds that are likely to capture the attention of the target customers, for example if the target customer are kinds, the marketers may have some common cartoon say something that attract the child. This amounts to noise and thus an environmental pollution[1]. Give three examples of word-of-mouth communication that you personally have received about some product. What was the nature of the communication and what impact did it have on you? Nivea beauty products have been marketed to me more than once using word of mouth, what the marketers does, they lay a table in the streets and when they see someone passing, they get to him or her and market the products on a direct word-of-mouth marketing. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More When Apple Inc. developed I-phones, their marketers camped in our college compound during inter-college games and one marketer got the chance to market the product to me through the word of mouth. He took his time to advertise for me how the product is superior to others in the market. At the supermarket, I have also gotten a chance to be sold for using the work of mouth, mostly this happens with electronic where companies like Samsung send their marketers to the stores to sell their products. When the approach to marketing has been used on me, it has created a relationship with the market, if I don’t by the product on the spot, when I need such a similar products, I find myself contacting the marketer for some advice and sometimes I buy the products. When using word-of –mouth as a marketing tool, the marketer engages in a dialogue with the potential buyers and explains the strong features of his or her products. On the other hand, the buyer gets a chance to ask questions and seek clarifications on certain areas that he/she thinks were not well understood[2]. Reference List D Fred, Strategic Management: Concepts and Cases, Pearson Education, New Jersey, 2008. R Kerin

“Hamlet and His Problems” by Thomas Stearns Eliot Essay

Table of Contents Introduction The Thesis Hamlet’s Instability and his Mother Coriolanus and his Mother Mothers – the Bearer of Tragedy Works Cited Introduction T.S. Eliot in his famous essay points out that the character of Hamlet in Shakespeare’s play Tragedy of Hamlet, should not be solely linked to the “guilt of the mother” unlike Coriolanus, whose characteristic pride was acquired from his mother (Eliot 98). Eliot categorically refutes the idea of Hamlet’s character being solely shaped by Gertrude’s guilt. Eliot is correct when he says that Hamlet’s character cannot simply be expressed through his mother’s guilt. However, I believe, the maternal influence creates various complexities in his character that cannot be explained solely by the guilt theory. The inclusion of the maternal figure in Hamlet breaks the fragile compact that otherwise allows Shakespeare to explore familial and sexual relationships. Hamlet assumes the role of both the father and the son and the need to detect his identity about his idea of the father becomes problematic in the presence of his mother. Further, the presence of the mother figure and the sexual power she has over her son creates a clash in Hamlet’s character. Therefore, Shakespeare gives Gertrude, Hamlet’s mother, the power to contaminate her son’s heart with hatred such that her presence creates a dramatic conflict in Hamlet’s character. Similarly, the character of Coriolanus in Shakespeare’s play of the same name is also influenced by the presence of the maternal figure. Here, I must disagree with Eliot in his assertion that Coriolanus was the product of his pride. Though pride was the reason for his demise when his life is put under the microscope it becomes apparent that his pride was the mirror image of that of his mother, Volumnia. Her indulgence of her son’s pride and rage, even as a child, had shaped the man he had become. I believe that in both the Shakespearean tragedies, the maternal figure plays a strong role in the mold of the characters of their sons. In Hamlet, Gertrude’s hasty marriage to Claudius and in Coriolanus, Volumnia’s encouragement of her son’s ego resulted in the decisive tragedy in both the plays. The Thesis The paper will enumerate the relationship between the mother and son in Hamlet and Coriolanus. The objective of the paper will be to understand the relation between Hamlet and Gertrude, and that between Coriolanus and Volumnia. The mother-son relation has a strong influence on the characters and the outcome of the son’s fate. Further, the mothers in the two plays are flawed in their role as a traditional mother and wife that creates an identity crisis in their sons. Promptly discarding her widowhood, Gertrude fails to become the mother who remains the source of the “father’s ideal image” (Adelman 13). She does not mourn him; instead, she marries her dead husband’s brother. Thus, Hamlet fails to assume the masculine identity through the image of his dead father by killing the false father (Claudius), as he remains incapable to distinguish between his father and brother because his mother fails to distinguish properly between her two husbands. Gertrude’s inability to differentiate creates a considerable strain on Hamlet. Her loss of memory creates the necessity in Hamlet to rely on his memory to reconstruct his dead father and assuming the burden of differentiating and affixing the past in the present. He, therefore, takes a vow to avenge his father’s death as a tribute to this static memory. Thus, Gertrude’s failure results in Hamlet’s madness. Coriolanus, unlike Hamlet, is the creation of the omnipresent mother and her affection. For Coriolanus, Volumnia becomes a source of extreme masculinity as her overbearing personality forces him to become blatantly ferocious, to guard his helplessness in her presence. Coriolanus becomes the product of his mother’s will and therefore, in search of his male identity, he assumes the excessively aggressive masculine demeanor. Thus, Coriolanus’s ego and masculinity are a means of escape from the over-exerting maternal presence that cannibalizes his mind, actions, and identity. The other difference in the framing of the mothers, in these two plays, is that in Coriolanus the mother figure is androgynous. In this paper, I propose the thesis that in both Hamlet and Coriolanus, Shakespeare uses the threat of maternal power to create the crisis of manhood in the persona of Hamlet and Coriolanus that arises as a result of the absent father. Hamlet’s Instability and his Mother Ernest Jones believes that to understand the personality of Hamlet, it is necessary to use the Freudian theory that opens a window into the “unconscious” part of his mind that had remained buried since his infancy, signifying the mental conflict still operational in his adulthood (Jones 140). Lacan, Miller, and Hulbert study Hamlet’s character in the presence of the Mother as the Other, and the identity crisis that asserts itself in hamlet’s character is due to the desire of the mother confronted by the idealized and exalted dead father-figure and on the degraded uncle as the despicable father (12). Thus, a psychological analysis of Hamlet shows a definite affinity of Hamlet towards his mother that he had experienced even as a child. Gertrude is an affectionate mother and so she has been since Hamlet’s childhood. However, when he has to share that affection with his treacherous uncle, something he had found hard to share even with his father, fails to endure it and his subliminal jealousy grips his persona, driving him to insanity. Memory plays a vital role in the resurrection of these repressed feelings after the death of his father and his mother’s hasty marriage to his uncle. In the whole process, he blames his mother for being disrespectful of not only of his father’s memories but that of his affection towards his mother. Thus, the feeling of affection towards his mother and his desire for her that was repressed in childhood emerged after his mother’s second marriage. But now, it was no longer a source of love but that of hatred and repulsion. Thus, his long-repressed desire to take his father’s place and become the unchallenged recipient of his mother’s affection pushes him to hate the one person whose affection he has craved since childhood. Thus, when his father’s Ghost declares that he was murdered, Hamlet’s stability is disturbed. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The awareness of his mother’s marriage to the murderer of his father becomes another source of instability in Hamlet’s character. However, it must be born in mind that Hamlet’s instability does not arise out of his desire for his mother, as Freudian analysis would suggest. Instead, it is due to his mother’s desire that becomes the cause of Hamlet’s instability. After his father’s death Hamlet is thrown into melancholia and in his despair seeks his mother’s affection. When in depression, the general tendency of a man is to identify himself with the object of his affection, and when this object fails to stand up to his esteem, it creates a crisis in his identity. Thus, Hamlet feels dejected and betrayed upon hearing his mother’s decision to marry his uncle and his frustration finds a voice in acrimonious irony: “Must I remember? why she would hang on him, As if increase of appetite had grown By what it fed on; and yet, within a month, Let me not think on ’t: Frailty, thy name is a woman!” (Hamlet 1.2.143-146) His mother’s presence is absolute in all that he speaks. His mother is omnipresent in Hamlet’s fantasies about Gertrude with Claudius or in his memory of her love for his dead father. Gertrude’s “overhasty marriage” (Hamlet 2.2.57) to his uncle is the primary source of Hamlet’s anger towards his mother. While describing his ardent feelings on the death of his father, Hamlet ends up describing his disgust of his mother’s second marriage. He loathes the hastiness of her decision to remarry and calls her relation to Claudius incestuous: … within a month, We will write a custom Essay on “Hamlet and His Problems” by Thomas Stearns Eliot specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Ere yet the salt of most unrighteous tears Had left the flushing in her galled eyes, She married. O, most wicked speed, to post With such dexterity to incestuous sheets! (Hamlet 1.2.153-157) Hamlet’s aversion towards his mother’s second marriage is made abundantly clear in the excerpt from his soliloquy. The passage indicates that Hamlet is more distressed with his mother’s marriage than his father’s murder. Hamlet feels that he has lost the affection of his mother just when he had acquired sole access to it. Further, his second marriage brings forth the question of his mother’s sexuality that leads to an intense sexual revulsion that has been expressed with the usage of the phrase “incestuous sheet”. The anger and jealously he feels towards his mother at the sight of her giving herself to another man whom he is not obliged to love or respect. This creates Hamlet’s distrust and extreme resentment against women that is abundantly shown towards Ophelia. Hamlet reproaches Ophelia’s puritanical hypocrisy that makes her follow all her father’s wishes. He hates her affiliation with another man. Consequently, Ophelia too falls from his good opinion, just the way his love for his mother is poisoned. Hamlet is suspicious of Ophelia and convinces himself that she has been sent to deceive him by another man. So when he admonishes Ophelia, he is expressing his bitterness towards his mother. Thus, Hamlet’s mother’s second marriage creates a dichotomy of the maternal image he had painted in his infantile mind. The child sees his mother as the virginal Madonna, solemnly pure and beyond carnal allure. However, when his mother marries another man that image is shattered marking the birth of his stifled sensual awakening. Hamlet is thus, a product of his repressed feelings towards his mother, a misogynist who resents both the pure and the sensual image of women. His relation with his mother is the key reason behind the insecurity and madness of Hamlet’s character. Coriolanus and his Mother Coriolanus’s character is shaped by his subliminal desire to ward off the dominating maternal presence to hide his weaknesses (Adelman 130). Coriolanus’s mother, Volumnia, is a Roman aristocrat. By her birth and status, she shows a highborn attitude in the nurturing of her son. She has a large ego like her son, but she does not have her son’s temper. Volumnia is the androgynous parent with the pride and egotism of an aristocratic man. She is infected with the thoughtless militarism of her class and her son falls prey to this arrogance. She loves to see her son’s wounds that reflect her son’s bravery and might. She has no care for the wounds of his men, who have fought valiantly to earn fame for her son. She is proud of her son’s victories and boasts of them by describing the woes he causes with terrible phrases describing the terror. Thus, Volumnia, unlike Gertrude, dedicates her attention solely to her son but she shows no love or affection towards him. The relationship between Coriolanus and his mother is very close. They stand together on an isolated island, an alcove of their own, away from all other. Their relationship underlines the character traits of Coriolanus. Shakespeare glorifies the love of mother and son by creating a conceited woman and an excessively aggressive warrior. Coriolanus is brought up in the cocoon of his mother’s care. It is not until he is away from her does he realize that he is lost. The persona of the mother resides within her son. She was the one who had created him. She had given birth to him and that has been Coriolanus’s identity for a long time. He is the mother in a man’s body. He fights the battles that she would have fought had she been a man. He imbibes her mother’s arrogance, conceit, and pride. She has been his educator and has taught him to: Not sure if you can write a paper on “Hamlet and His Problems” by Thomas Stearns Eliot by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More To call them woolen vassals, things created To buy and sell with groats, to show bare heads In congregations, to yawn, be still, and wonder, When one but of my ordinance stood up To speak of peace or war. (Coriolanus 3.2.10-14) Coriolanus has been brought up to love fame, which has been his inspiration since infancy. His pride is his mother’s creation. When Coriolanus returns from battle, wounded, his mother cries, “O! he is wounded; I thank the gods for ’t” (Coriolanus 2.1.99). Volumnia basks in the glory of her son. Her son’s honors are hers; the misfortune that falls on her son, in the end, is essentially hers. Coriolanus has a tempestuous temper. His mother nurtured this since childhood. However, in the end, when facing the mob in Rome, Volumnia pleads her son to bend the truth to flatter the mob, their connection snaps. Further, when his consulship depends on the restrictions of his temper, she advises him to do so. Volumnia’s manipulative nature had learned self-restraint but her son remained unaltered. But when the tribune had given their verdict and left, she forgets restraint and becomes the feminine image of her son. She cries, “Anger is my meat; I sup upon myself” (Coriolanus 4.2.52). Unmodified and unrestrained by femininity, her anger knows no bound. This is the temper that her son inherits from her and this becomes the cause of his ruin. Coriolanus is exiled from Rome for being a traitor to his country. Mothers – the Bearer of Tragedy Both Gertrude and Volumnia played a strong role in shaping the character of their sons. However, their influence has been distinctly different. Gertrude can never be considered as a heartless woman. Her only folly must be her love of herself and comfortable life. These are follies, but not crimes. Gertrude is not ferocious or ruthless like Lady Macbeth or King Lear’s mother. She has not committed a crime for Shakespeare makes it abundantly clear that she was not Claudius’s ally in committing regicide. She loved and cared for her son and truly wanted him to marry Ophelia and be happy. But the vainness of her character, her frivolity, and her self-centeredness created a chasm in Hamlet’s heart. Above all, her crime was her second marriage to her dead husband’s brother. Hamlet’s frustration, disgust, and anger are all directed towards his mother. Though Gertrude has very little stage presence, her persona remains omnipresent. She encompasses her son’s mind and soul, who fails to differentiate between her and any other woman. To Hamlet, all women become an image of Gertrude, self-centered, and conceited. In his hatred against women, which has stemmed from his hatred of his mother, he is suspicious of Ophelia and fails to see her true love. Hamlet’s hatred for his mother was so acute that he forced himself to consciously overlook the fact (which I believe he was aware of) that his mother was innocent. Hamlet’s character is shown in mourning from the very beginning of the play. However, his mourning is not one that is composed of grief. He is angry with his mother. He does not pray but questions the meaning of human existence. He is lost in the world, devoid of any parent to lean on. He feels like an orphan after his father’s death, even when his mother is alive. In his search for himself, he tries to hold onto the one thing that is closest to him – his mother. But when she marries another man, she ceases to be his mother, and all his anger falls on her for deserting him. On the other hand, Volumnia is a strong-willed mother who valued pride and love of her motherland even above the love of her son. She is ruthless and demanding. She wanted her son to become a brave warrior and serve his country. Her son did. However, in the process of becoming a great warrior, he becomes even more ruthless than his mother. He turns out to be the epitome of male ferociousness. She was not cruel but strong-willed and arrogant. Coriolanus inherited her pride and gentry. Her education of bravery and vanity made him the man he turned out to be. Coriolanus had a terrible rage and colossal masculine ego. His mother nurtured this since he was a boy. Coriolanus’s exile and his coalition with Aufidius finally marked the road to his death. When Coriolanus sought vengeance against Rome, Volumnia dissuades her son to attack the Romans. When Coriolanus accedes to his mother, he is killed for his betrayal towards Aufidius. So, did he die because he listened to his mother? The tragedy of Hamlet and Coriolanus are results of their maternal love and neglect. Hamlet, imprisoned in his yearning of maternal love, and Coriolanus in his desire to live up to his mother’s expectations and pride, become the men they were. The catastrophe of both the results of the play in the tragic end of the heroes who pursued maternal affection. Works Cited Adelman, Janet. Sufforcating Mothers: Fantasies of Maternal Origin in Shakespeare’s Plays. Routledge, 2012. Eliot, Thomas Stearns. “Hamlet and his problems.” Eliot, TS. The sacred wood: Essays on poetry and criticism. Fb