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Othello as a Tragic Hero and His Downfall

A tragic hero is a person who makes a bad judgment that leads to their own destruction. Having culpability is having guilt and responsibility for an event or situations. Othello by Shakespeare had been a story that ended with a tragedy as both Desdemona and Othello die at the end. Throughout the story, Othello continuously questions Desdemona’s loyalty as he gets manipulated by Iago. Finally, in the end, he kills Desdemona and later on realizes it was all lies and ends up killing himself. His anger and jealousy grow as more lies are told to him, enough that make him stop listening to Desdemona and others telling him the truth. As all that happens, it allows the reader to realize that Othello has different changes throughout the story as well as different characteristics that show him as a tragic hero. In Othello, William Shakespeare characterizes Othello as a tragic hero and as well includes ways that show how Othello had culpability for Desdemona’s murder. Othello changes because of his actions, which results in his downfall, showing how he changes from a sweet and loving husband and then changes to a cruel and abusive husband who eventually goes on to kill his own wife. Othello is seen as a tragic hero since he not only was doomed from the start because of his race, which eventually lead him to do something bad as the result of his very poor judgment. As stated by Aristotle, a tragic hero is a person who is doomed from the start, and clearly is imperfect but has noble nature, a person whose judgment causes the tragedy. Othello is immediately judged for being black beforehand and people of a different race were mistreated and seen as inferior back then showing that he had something he was suffering through before the tragic event. Kiernan Ryan says, “The colour of Othello’s skin is obviously a crucial factor in his downfall, because his visibly alien racial identity makes him and his bride far more vulnerable to the machinations of Iago than if he were an equally accomplished and indispensable white man.” Othello was an easy target for Iago’s plan as he was already seen as an outcast in society making it easier for Iago to attack him and use him as his plan Not only is Othello doomed from the start but his judgment from the way Iago used Othello’s insecurity of race allowed him to decide that killing Desdemona was for the better. Othello had killed Desdemona because of his jealousy that was being fed with Iago’s lies because he thought that being black would make Desdemona want to go for someone else besides him. Killing Desdemona had been a very bad judgment because Desdemona had been loyal and honest the entire time and Othello had ended up killing the love of his life because of manipulation and lies. All this shows that Othello has characteristics of a tragic hero, as he is doomed from the start and later on acts on very poor judgment. Another reason why Othello has the characteristics of being a tragic hero is that he does take responsibility at the end and does suffer because of what he did, reflecting on how he is and what he became. Othello kills himself in order to take responsibility for killing Desdemona. Aristotle says a tragic hero is a person who does something because of bad judgment and later takes responsibility for it. Othello’s anger and jealousy had caused him to go to the extreme and kill Desdemona. When he realized Iago had been lying the whole time he was filled with guilt as he realized he killed the love of his life because of Iago’s manipulation of him and his failure to see through that manipulation. With that guilt, he decided that killing himself is the best option for taking responsibility for what he has done. Here, Othello realized his mistake and feels that killing himself is the only way to make up for the atrocious thing he had done. Aristole also says a tragic hero is a person who suffers death because of how he is and what he becomes. Othello is a decent guy in the beginning but as you notice throughout the story is that he is flawed. Having flaws is not bad, but it’s what people do with those flaws that can make it worse. Othello’s flaws were his insecurity and jealousy. Othello could’ve controlled his flaws and not let Iago’s words get to him. Instead, Othello acted upon his flaws allowing them to control him instead. He allowed them to control him so much that it had led him to kill his wife. Othello changes throughout the story which results in the downfall and shows how he went from a loving person to a cruel and abusive husband. Othello changes for the worse, as at first, he was a good and noble character and later on changes into a character that does horrible actions. He changes into a character that is filled with jealousy and revenge over an assumption that was told and that had been manipulated in his head. In the beginning, he treats Desdemona with the respect that she deserves and treats her like he genuinely loves her using nice words as Othello says, “Not now, sweet Desdemona.” (3.3-55), that shows he has affection for her and loves her. Later on, Othello treats Desdemona in the complete opposite way, as Othello does and says,“(striking her) Devil!”(4.1-188) in which clearly shows a strong change in his personality and character. Othello clearly has a change of heart for Desdemona which is influenced by Iago filling his head to make him suspicious as well as making his jealousy exaggerated. It is clear that there is a big change in Othello’s reactions to his wife since he goes from treating her like he loves her to mistreating and abusing her. All this shows the obvious change in Othello and shows that when Othello let Iago get into his head, the downfall was bound to happen. Othello had a big part in the tragedy and has a lot of culpability in Desdemona’s murder. Othello has responsibility for Desdemona’s murder since he did kill her because he allowed his jealousy and insecurities to control him into abusing and actually killing his wife. He had been a good moral man in the beginning and later on became a jealous filled person, messed up enough to kill his wife. As the professor Mark Van Doren had said, Othello is a fearful but an honored and nobleman who does though create a bad atmosphere as events continue on. Othello already being insecure and suspicious is quickly driven by his jealousy to do terrible things. He had caused his own tragedy by allowing himself to be manipulated and allowed his anger to control all his actions regardless of the truth. Othello had been responsible as he clearly wasn’t a bad person but had let his anger and take over him and his control and actions. Othello as well had the choice to listen to Emilia and Desdemona who were telling him the truth. However, Othello didn’t listen to them, unfortunately. His hatred and resentment against Desdemona because of the things he was being told had caused him to do something he will regret entirely. It is not Desdemona’s fault she was murdered because of Othello’s jealousy. Some may say Othello had no actual fault in Desdemona’s murder as he was manipulated by Iago to do it. However, Othello did have a lot of culpability in Desdemona’s death as he allowed his jealousy and anger to control him when he could’ve simply listened to Desdemona instead of mistreating her. In 4.1 Desdemona continuously tries to tell Othello her side and that she is loyal but Othello does not listen to her and continues insulting her and eventually hits her. Othello instead continues to listen to Iago and as all the lies continue being told to him, Othello gets worse and doesn’t listen to anyone tell the truth. All that lead to Othello killing Desdemona. Yet, If Othello had simply listened to Desdemona and her side of the story, the tragedy could have been avoided. Othello had been very much at fault as not only was he the one who killed Desdemona, he was never forced to do anything and had done everything on his own. Yes, he was manipulated but was he forced to follow Iago’s ideas? No, not only did he have Desdemona to tell him the truth, he had Emilia telling him she was loyal as well. He is also the one who suggested killing Desdemona in the first place, showing how it’s not entirely Iago’s fault. All his actions were done on his own showing that he had a lot of fault to Desdemona’s murder. In William Shakespeare’s Othello, Shakespeare creates Othello as a tragic hero and has him change throughout the story in order to fit the plot and makes sure the reader knows Othello has culpability for Desdemona’s murder. Othello has many changes in him as the story continues that allow the story to be made and shows Othello as a tragic hero and shows how different things happen that all lead up to the end, where Othello kills Desdemona and then after kills himself. Othello as well had many characteristics that make him a tragic hero, he was doomed from the start, he has a noble nature but imperfect as a person and creates a tragedy because of his bad judgment. Othello had culpability to Desdemona’s death as well not only did he kill her but he could’ve controlled his anger way before it had gotten worse. Othello as well could have listened to Desdemona and Emilia as they did try to tell him the truth but Othello hadn’t listened to either of them which had led him to continue to listen to lies and eventually kill Desdemona. Shakespeare had wanted the reader to see how Othello’s characteristics connect to being a tragic hero as well as wanted the reader to know Othello had culpability in Desdemona’s murder. Not many people realize many of the actions had been Othello’s fault. Many as well don’t notice the connection of Othello as a tragic hero. Othello though had a lot of fault in her murder and Othello as well shows strong characteristics of a tragic hero. Works Cited BY MARK VAN DOREN – University of Michigan. Lectures/HopwoodLecture-1951 Mark Van Doren.pdf. Ryan, Kiernan. “Racism, Misogyny and ‘Motiveless Malignity’ in Othello.” The British Library, The British Library, 11 Dec. 2015, Shakespeare, William, and David Bevington. “Othello by William Shakespeare, David Scott Kastan | Books.”,—edited-by-david-bevington-and-david-scott-kastan/9780553213027 Shakespeare, William. The Tragedy of Othello: the Moor of Venice: with Connections Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1999. “Tragic Hero as Defined by Aristotle”- bisd303.Org. of Tragic Hero.pdf.
Format–Each report must be 3 pages. Reports of two or four pages will lose 10 points. Reports that are too short by 50% will not be graded and the student will lose all 100 points for that report. College standard format is: 12 pt. font, double-spacing, indented paragraphs. Writing–Six grammatical or spelling mistakes will lose 10 points, twelve will lose 20. No more than twenty points will be lost for writing. Content–The five content criteria are: relevance, use of two terms from class appropriate to the designated topic (listed in the modules of our Canvas site), use of correct information from the book, specific examples from the book to illustrate the assigned topic, no more than 10% of the paper to consist of quotation.
OL 620 Quinnipiac University Tate Digital Transformation Case Analysis.

After reading case study 4 in your Harvard Course Pack – The Tate’s Digital Transformation by Jill Avery, answer the following questions and participate in the subsequent discussions:What should the role of digital be at the Tate? Which audiences should it target? What should be its strategic objectives?What have been the keys to Stack’s success during the Tate’s digital transformation?Assess the feasibility of Stack’s vision to make digital a dimension of everything the Tate does. Is this an appropriate goal? What does he need to be more successful in the future?Assess Stack’s options for monetizing the Tate’s digital assets. Which of the options before him are most likely to deliver a return on investment?Which of Stack’s digital key performance indicators (KPIs) are most and least useful for measuring digital return on investment? Why?To give your colleagues enough time to review and respond to your postings and to give the Group Leader for this Case enough time to summarize and submit the discussions, the deadline for INITIAL postings is 11.59 pm on Wednesday, August 12. You will not see any other posts until you have posted your initial responses. Your initial responses should not be less than 200 words per question. You should, however, note that emphasis is on the quality and substance of the responses. REPLIES to postings and discussions are to be completed by 11.59 pm on Friday, August 14 and the Group will summarize the discussion and submit for grading by 11.59 pm on Sunday, August 16 after all Group members have reviewed and agreed that it should be submitted. You need a minimum of two substantive responses to the initial postings of your Group members. Late initial posting and replies may incur a penalty. Please refer to the required guidelines for submitting the summary. Your Group submission should follow APA formatting. If you do not participate or fully participate in the discussions, you will not receive the same grade points as the rest of the Group even if you submitted your initial post. Which, means you will be penalized during the individual grading part of the case as well as in the Group summary.
OL 620 Quinnipiac University Tate Digital Transformation Case Analysis

UCLA Import Retail Company that Ships Items Ethical Dilemma Discussion.

I’m working on a writing question and need support to help me learn.

This assignment offers you the opportunity to explore the ethical decision-making process introduced inthe seminar and apply the steps to a current ethical dilemma that you are facing.This assignment has TWO DEADLINE DATES:1.The DRAFT is due uploaded to Canvas by 11:59pm the night before our third seminar meeting(For exact date and time see the seminar schedule for your section). Instructions are below.2.The FINAL is due one week after your final Seminar meeting (for exact date, see Schedule &Deadlines document) Instructions are below.You must upload your draft to Canvas by 11:59pm the night before your third meeting.It is ok to use notes and bullet points, but you must express complete thoughts. The important thing is towork through all of the information in a way that others can understand. Include details and fully answerALL parts of the assignment.Step 1: Choose your Ethical DilemmaThink of an ethical dilemma that you are currently involved in (this is not about your integrity violationand cannot be a situation that you have already resolved!). An ethical dilemma is a conflict between two(or more) “rights” (e.g. honesty, trust, responsibility, respect, comfort, security, happiness, freedom). Weall face multiple ethical dilemmas throughout our lives and there is no doubt that you are facing someright now! These may be short, immediate issues, or on-going, spread over years. They may be small orlarge.If you are having trouble coming up with something, schedule a preliminary meeting with a peer educatorto talk about ideas for you to write about.The situation you choose should be one that is not easy to work through. You should not be sure what todo. The point of this assignment is to practice thinking through the dilemma and to get consultation onwhat you should do—if it isn’t difficult, it wouldn’t be a dilemma and you wouldn’t need consultation.Make sure it is a current dilemma involving you, where you are conflicted between multiple right optionsand there is not a clear right answer.Step 2: Describe the Dilemma●Why is it an ethical dilemma? Identify and discuss all conflicting values, principles, and/orinterests involved.●Discuss any rules or behavioral standards that could be violated by taking one action or another.●What are the contributing factors that led to the situation?1 This assignment was developed by Tricia Bertram Gallant, Ph.D. and adapted by Amanda Brovold and Allison Riley. Sourcesare listed at the end of the assignment.______________________________________________________________________________Academic Integrity Seminar created by Tricia Bertram Gallant, adapted by Amanda Brovold and Allison Riley,University of California, San Diego (2014)Step 3: Identify the stakeholders (those involved in and potentially affected by the dilemma)●Who is involved (hint: it is probably more people than you think at first!) Think about the rippleeffect of choices and actions in regard to this dilemma. List all the possible stakeholders.●Next to each stakeholder, explain why that person could be affected (both positively andnegatively) by this situation.Step 4: List possible options for resolving your ethical dilemmas.●Think up as many choices for action as you can. What could you do to resolve the situation?List at least 6 or 7 options here.Step 5: Review your Options●Of all the options for action you listed, identify and discuss 2 or 3 that might be the “right” courseof action. For each action, discuss the following:oWhat would the possible consequences, both positive and negative, be and whichstakeholders could be affected?oWhat values or principles would this choice likely undermine or uphold (e.g. honesty,trustworthiness, respect, responsibility, or fairness)? How would these values be upheld orundermined?oWhat rules, standards, codes of ethics, policies, and/or guidelines might each choice upholdor violate?Step 6: Write down at least 5 questions you want to ask your Peer Educator and your group thatmay help you navigate the ethical dilemma.During Meeting 3, your Peer Educator and group will help you think through your dilemma, answer yourquestions, and develop your ideas. This process will help you think more clearly and carefully about yoursituation, will help you revise your draft, and will help you choose the “right” course of action.Think about:●What would help you clarify the situation?●What issues would you like input on?Go beyond questions such as “what should I do?”. Instead, focus on questions that serve to uncover newperspectives and ways of navigating your dilemma (e.g. What do you think this dilemma uncovers aboutmy values/perspective? Do you think I have any “blind spots” when discussing this dilemma? Have Imissed any stakeholders? Are there options that I am not seeing? Etc.).Step 7: Upload your draft to Canvas by 11:59pm the night before our 3rd seminar meeting (forexact date and time see the seminar schedule for your section on Canvas).You will be discussing the draft of your assignment in our third seminar meeting. It is your responsibilityto use that opportunity to get all the feedback you would like on your dilemma and your assignment.______________________________________________________________________________Academic Integrity Seminar created by Tricia Bertram Gallant, adapted by Amanda Brovold and Allison Riley,University of California, San Diego (2014)After your discussion in Meeting 3…Step 8: Revise your draft based on feedback and insights gained in seminar. Add a discussion of the“right” course of action that you will take.Remember, in an ethical dilemma, the “right” course of action often does (at least) one of the following:●Elicits the greatest good and the least harm●Is congruent with a guiding framework which can be applied universally (to all situations)●Serves the common good of the community involved●Is most fair to all involvedIn your discussion of your choice of action, include the following:●Identify which action you have decided is the “right” course of action that you will take.●Reflect on and discuss what thoughts, interactions, and learnings have led you to your “right”course of action. Why do you believe it is the best option?●In an ethical dilemma, the “right” choice isn’t easy to make and often comes with some negativerepercussions. Describe those repercussions (e.g. What frustrations, challenges, or obstacles doyou foresee in choosing the “right” course of action? What actions can you take to mitigatethem?)●What reasons/motivations do you have for choosing the “right” course of action despite suchobstacles
UCLA Import Retail Company that Ships Items Ethical Dilemma Discussion

The Implication of Municipal Solid Waste Management of Singapore for Guangzhou, China

Introduction As the rapid growth of the cities’ economy and population, the city scale has expanded, and the living standard of people increased in the 21th century. However, this is more likely to produce more cities’ solid wastes. In 2012, a two-day United Nations Conference stated that the waste management issues are more and more critical in the sustainability discussion (UN News, 2012). In the conference, waste experts in the global suggested to deal with the waste problem, and that might provide the opportunity to gain benefits from the mutual collaboration within the waste management process. On the other side, while cities around the world raised plenty of cities categories terms with the aim at achieving sustainable cities (Jong et al., 2015), waste management plays a vital role for promoting sustainability concept. Refer to waste management, municipal solid waste management (MSWM) is one of its categories, which is produced by the domestic, industrial and commercial activity. The capture, delivery, and disposal of those solid waste have already become a difficulty for the states to solve (UNEP, 2005). The MSWM involves the activities about recycling, incineration, landfill, biotechnology, and other disposal solutions. Concerning the different development and policy context among the cities, the progress and reflection of the MSWM are various. This study will firstly provide the MSWM status in two cities – Singapore and Guangzhou, China, and subsequently show the methods of collection, disposal for the solid waste in Singapore as well as the problem faced in Guangzhou. The reason for choosing Singapore and Guangzhou due to their high population density and similar social and economic situation, but Singapore has a significant outcome in MSWM while Guangzhou fails to achieve the apparent success. Besides, Guangzhou is my birthplace, and I had experience negative impact caused by the careless disposal of municipal waste. The objective of this study is to understand the MSWM in Singapore by going through its municipal policy guidance and implementation, then to discuss to what extent, Guangzhou can improve its MSWM with the implication from Singapore. Waste Management Situation in Guangzhou As a central economic city and first-tier city in Pearl River Delta, there are approximately 14.5 million population counted in 2017 while the capacity of the municipal waste shows its growing trend with the average increase rate at 7.12% from 2011 to 2015. Furthermore, in 2016, the size of municipal waste disposal raised to 18.8 thousand ton per day, which is 13.81% more than the capacity in 2015 (Ministry of Environmental Protection, 2017). Figure 1 is the statistical prediction of the trend for Guangzhou municipal waste. Figure 1: Guangzhou Garbage Processing Statistics and Trend Prediction in Recent Years, 2018 Up to now, based on the statement in the document, namely, Planning for Prevention and Control of Solid Waste Pollution 2005-2015, the main approaches for MSWM in Guangzhou are Landfill-based aided by incineration due to lower input (Guangzhou Environmental Protection Bureau, 2005). There is eight domestic waste treatment facility in Guangzhou, which have to disposal 20 thousand tons per day (Fu et al., 2018). In recent year, the landfill area has overloaded due to an increasing number of municipal wastes produced. Take Xingfeng municipal waste landfill area as an example (see figure 2); this area was regarded as the biggest landfill in China as well as one of the largest in Asia when it established in 2002, with the expected disposal indicator at 3600 tons. Nevertheless, in the recent decade, the burden of waste disposal has multiplied as the rise of local waste generation quantity. Xingfeng bore nearly 80% of the total waste amount in Guangzhou central district. But up to the statistic in 2017, the disposal quantity has increased to 11 thousand tons, which is far more exceed than the designed disposal standard as Xingfeng established. As a result, Xingfeng cannot achieve its 40 service years, and it is forced to early retirement in May 2018 due to its overwhelming amount of municipal waste (Fu et al., 2018). According to Guangzhou Daily (2017), Xingfeng landfill area must be closing because the waste pile was difficult to settle, and it enters into a high-risk condition. A new emergency landfill, beside Xingfeng landfill, is in an intensive construction process. Except for the overload issue, there was also controversy over the further establishment of incinerators in Guangzhou. In 2009, the residents in Panyu district (located in South of Guangzhou) showed theirs disagree attitude toward planning an incinerator near their home, not only for the environmental effect and harmful to health but also the protest about the exclusion in the decision-making process when the government was planning the new site for incinerators. The government had to suspend the construction plan of Panyu district and seek another place for a new incinerator, but there are not much site choices due to the land shortage. Figure 2: Xinfeng Landfill in Guangzhou, provided by Guangzhou Housing Net, Sohu News For resolving the issue about the massive burden of municipal waste, Guangzhou has pushed several municipal policies to sort and treat those waste (Guangzhou Environmental Protection Bureau, 2005). Firstly, the government introduced the compulsory municipal waste sorting to improve waste collection stage. But refer to the current status, the citizen engagement and the transport system after sorting are insufficient. According to the investigation raised by Wu (2017), a sanitation worker stated that even though the communities required citizens to sort municipal waste, most of the citizens failed to complete the sorting stage, and he helped to sort the waste before waste delivery. Besides, most of the waste sorting bins (see figure 3) are only divided into recycling and non-recycle, which puzzled citizen with the categories. Secondly, Guangzhou pushes forward the integrated solid waste management, integrating the collection, transport, and resource recovery system. Each district organizes the daily waste collection for wastes. Each resident has a payment for 15 yuan per month for the public waste collection and city cleaning. However, Guangzhou collects near 50 million yuan monthly but cost 100 million yuan for waste management (Medina, 2011), which is not enough to cover the expenditure, so that government planned to increase the waste management revenue by bundling the fee with water and electricity payment. Thirdly, the government published a regulation in 2014, Interim Measures for the Administration of Restricting the Overpacking of Goods in Guangzhou, to reduce the excess package of commercial goods. Whereas the over-packaging of foods and soft drinks has been curbed, the healthcare product, tea, and alcoholic beverage remain an excessive severe package problem. In terms of the interview reported by Xinhua New’s correspondents (Zhou et al., 2017), as an optimal gift for the elder people and higher-level group, those health care products which is 4 times package volume more than the standard package, will be more welcoming and expensive because of “the sense of mystery”. As for the over-packaging problem, it is difficult to monitor and define whether the package is qualified or not. Zhang, the program director of Packaging Engineering in South China Agricultural University, described in this investigation report that the understanding and awareness of consumer, producer and even regulatory authority to the negative impact of over-package are far more than enough, which gave rise to the lack of enforcement of published government regulation (Zhou et al., 2017). Based on the information for current policies and implementation condition, it can be concluded that the social actors involved in the waste management (such as regulatory authorities and citizens) have little knowledge and awareness of environmental-friendly municipal waste disposal method. Moreover, the integrated solid waste management system is immature, and cannot deal with the problem substantially and sustainably treat the waste in total. It is highly recommended that Guangzhou can learn the experience from other successful waste management case to enhance the regulation enforcement. Figure 3: Sorting Garbage Bin in Guangzhou, provided by Guangzhou Daily, NetEase News Waste management in Singapore Singapore can be considered as a highly urbanized and industrialized country also a city, with an aim at accomplishing a sustainable and clean place. Singapore covers 682.7 square kilometers and has a scare-land problem due to a high population density (7088 person per square kilometers) in a small land (Yearbook of Statistics Singapore, 2008). There are also high-dense housing constructions, and almost 83% of the citizens in Singapore have to live in tall and multi-story buildings (Kalaiarasan et al., 2009), which will constrain the waste collection to some extent. In Singapore, the rapid rise of municipal waste generation, and scarcer land use becomes solid waste challenges. The waste disposal has increased nearly seven-fold to 8402 tons per day from 1970 to 2015 (Lee, 2010). However, National Environmental Agency of Singapore (2017) declared that they have tried to handle waste in limited space with a closing waste loop and objectives to “zero waste and zero landfills” through “3Rs”, reduce, reuse, and recycle methods respectively (see figure 4). Reduce, reuse and recycle methods can effectively save natural resource (e.g., water and trees), minimize the negative environmental impact and extend the service years of landfills. Based on this principle, the Singapore government has explored an efficient MSWM system and shape landfill area to be an entertainment place. Firstly, the government has built up an integrated MSWM system to incorporate the stages of recycling, collection, and treatment. Singapore’s National Environment Agency has developed a series of strategies and educated programs to coordinated with the key stakeholders (included private and public sectors, and communities), achieving the sustainable waste management objectives. Therefore, citizens, related enterprises and regulatory authority have sufficient knowledge and awareness of waste management. Secondly, for the waste-reduce principle, it is necessary to recognize the main components of the non-combustible waste, which came from construction, industrial sludge and copper slag (Teo, 2007). In these decades, most of the non-combustible waste have been separated and reprocessed. As a result, there are 94% of the construction waste, and demolition rubbish can be recycled in 2005. Figure 4: Closing the waste loop, provided by Lee, National Environmental Agency Singapore As for the waste sorting implementation, the government not only sets sorting trash bin in different colors but also organizes special patrols for random inspection of sorting implementation (see figure 5). If someone is against the sorting rule, this person will be subject to impose a fine in 500 Singapore dollars (Yang

CSUF American Muslim Reactions to the Attacks on September 11 2001 Reflection Paper

order essay cheap CSUF American Muslim Reactions to the Attacks on September 11 2001 Reflection Paper.

As noted in the readings about 9/11, many of you have no memories of the attacks. You also may not be aware of the work of Pulitzer Prize winning writer Jack Miles on the character of God in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. You’ve read both pieces. I would like you to post a reflection of about 2 pages (font size 12, double spaced) on what you have learned from the readings.You can write in first person (“I think that…”), and discuss issues you found interesting or surprising in the two articles. Do not summarize the readings. Instead, you could talk about what you thought of the readings. Did you learn anything new from them? Was there anything in the two pieces that confirmed or contradicted what you already knew? Did it change your thinking at all about Islam and Muslims, or about the way Islam and Muslims are portrayed in the media?Readings is attached.
CSUF American Muslim Reactions to the Attacks on September 11 2001 Reflection Paper

Sullivan University Restorative Justice Approach to Criminal Justice Analysis

Sullivan University Restorative Justice Approach to Criminal Justice Analysis.

Assignment 3.2 – Journal Response This is an opportunity to process and apply both new and familiar
concepts. Write a journal response discussing your thoughts on this
week’s course material. Be sure to address the assigned video clips and
readings. Did you strongly agree or disagree with any particular
concepts or ideas? Did you find any aspects surprising? Were there any
concepts that you plan to apply or implement to your life? Feel free to
include any other thoughts or responses. Upload this assignment to the
appropriate Drop Box by the date listed on the course schedule. Your
journal response should be sufficient in length to fully address the
question, double spaced, written at the college level, adhere to APA
guidelines, and include a reference list. Any sources used must be cited
properly using in-text citations and referenced at the end of the
paper.”Restorative Justice is: Deeply questioned concept Evolves over time, all agree positive term People may not agree but know it when they see it Three concepts- Encounter Conception – Stakeholder meeting to discuss impact of the crime Reparative Conception – Insist court decisions address reparations Transformation Conception – Expansive, addresses all involved, build healthy relationships View Please watch the following video clip to further explore the
principles of Restorative Justice. Links to videos are provided each
week to help us investigate and understand the real world application of
the concepts we are learning. Surviving the Impact – A Tale of Restorative Justice [6:06]
Sullivan University Restorative Justice Approach to Criminal Justice Analysis

Management at Work The Law of Cheating Case Study

Management at Work The Law of Cheating Case Study.

Management at WorkThe Law of CheatingundefinedLet’s suppose that you’re the manager of a factory that manufactures automotive bumpers. When the fourth quarter rolls around, you see that you aren’t on track to meet your quota by your year-end deadline. Failure to meet either the quota or the deadline will mean that you won’t be getting any bonus or stock options; in fact, your job might be at risk. So you decide to put off regularly scheduled maintenance and repairs for the quarter and produce bumpers at full capacity—a practice called “storming.” You meet your quota and deadline, but catching up with maintenance and repairs during the first quarter of the following year reduces your production capacity for three months. Down the line, of course, you’ll be facing yet another quota and another deadline, and in order to recoup the resulting loss in production, you’ll have to resort to “storming” once again. Obviously, it won’t be long before your operations are completely out of control.Not fair, you say: Your job is constantly on the line because the quotas and deadlines that you have to meet are too demanding. Unfortunately, as any social scientist could tell you, you are a victim of Campbell’s Law. In 1976, Donald T. Campbell, a social psychologist specializing in research methodology, came to the following conclusion:The more any quantitative social indicator is used for social decision making, the more subject it will be to corruption pressures and the more apt it will be to distort and corrupt the social processes that it is intended to monitor.In other words: Once a measurement (or metric) is specified as a key criterion for the success of a process or project, its ability to measure what it’s supposed to will almost inevitably be compromised. Why? If the stakes and the cost of failure are too high, people tend to cheat.Campbell’s Law predicted, for example, what actually happened in Atlanta schools beginning in 2005 and culminating in 2015, when 11 former educators were convicted of racketeering charges stemming from a conspiracy to alter student test scores. The original investigation had extended to nearly 180 principals and teachers at more than 40 schools and had resulted in 35 indictments. The educators, it seems, were motivated by increasing pressure to meet official performance standards on which bonuses and even employment status depended, and adherents of Campbell’s Law argue that the episode reflects the failure of a misguided control process designed to measure student performance too narrowly. According to one report on the Atlanta episode, the dilemma fostered by high-stakes educational standards is an all-too-clear demonstration of Campbell’s original formula for control failure:School districts are increasingly tying teacher pay to performance, and there’s no consensus on the best way to measure student proficiency, so high test scores are starting to look a lot like money. What emerges is bad news: a carrot-and-stick approach to a sector of the workforce that many consider to be underpaid.We shouldn’t be surprised by such responses to impractical performance measures, says Robert D. Behn of Harvard University’s Kennedy School of Government:After all, we have put significant pressure on schools and teachers to improve test scores. … When the pressure becomes personal—when a person’s job and income are on the line—some people may resort to cheating. Why do you think all of those professional baseball players used steroids?Behn distinguishes between “honest cheating” and “dishonest cheating.” Like the tactics used by certain educators in Atlanta, “dishonest cheating is illegal, and you can go to jail for it” (the convicted principals and teachers are facing prison sentences of five to 20 years). On the other hand, such practices as “teaching to the test”—focusing one’s efforts on standardized testing to the detriment of other educational activities—are merely “honest cheating”: “There is nothing illegal about it. No one goes to jail for it. Still, it illustrates how putting pressure on schools, principals, and teachers to improve on very specific performance measures can produce the distortions about which Campbell worried.”According to Behn and other analysts of the impulse to cheat, a common denominator in both types of “honesty” is the imposition of “very specific performance measures.” In business, such measures are often called KPIs—quantifiable metrics that show how well an organization is achieving its goals. KPIs can help an organization focus on its most effective strategies, but if they aren’t conceived or executed properly, KPIs can be misleading. Campbell himself offered the example of a city that sets a strategy to reduce crime, designating the crime rate as a KPI. If the crime rate goes down, can city officials be sure that has crime actually been reduced? Not necessarily: What if police, in order to push down the rate, had adopted new criteria for crimes that must be formally reported or systematically downgraded certain crimes to less serious classifications?When enforced by such counter strategic employee behavior, Campbell’s Law can sabotage the best-laid plans—as you did when you gamed the process of meeting your quotas and deadlines. You were given a certain amount of discretion in the way you both achieved and reported your results, and you made your decision based on the fact that the stakes and the cost of failure were too high.Ironically, your employer also gave you incentives to make the decision that you did—literally: In addition to protecting your job, you acted to secure your bonus and stock options. According to Ethical Systems, a nonprofit that compiles research on ethical leadership, conflicts of interest, cheating, and other related issues, extensive research shows that decisions like yours “are frequently distorted by incentives.” An example, suggests James Freis Jr., an attorney specializing in financial-industry regulation, “might be a contractor who knows his bonus depends on the fulfillment of certain contracts and so may be tempted to offer a bribe to a foreign official who is responsible for signing off on a license, customs duty, or shipment.”Freis may well have been thinking about the case of Acatel-Lucent SA, the world’s largest supplier of landline phone networks. In 2010, the company agreed to pay $137 million to settle criminal and civil charges stemming from violations of the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. According to the Securities and Exchange Commission, “Alcatel and its subsidiaries failed to detect or investigate numerous red flags suggesting that employees were directing sham consultants to provide gifts and payments to foreign government officials to illegally win business.” Managers at Alcatel received the bulk of their pay in the form of stock incentives and bonuses tied to short-term profitability.The problem, suggests Harvard’s Behn, is the practice of pegging high-stakes incentives to narrow win-or-lose KPIs. As Campbell’s Law shows, cheating—including the violation of an organization’s ethics rules—will probably occur under such circumstances. “So get over it,” Behn advises organizational strategists. “Don’t go looking for the perfect performance measure. It doesn’t exist. Don’t waste countless meetings debating whose measure is without defects. All measures have them.” Instead, he suggests,start with a good measure (or two). Not great, not perfect, just good. From the beginning, try to identify its inadequacies. Recognize what problems the measure might create; then, as you implement your performance strategy, be alert for the emergence of flaws and distortions. When suggesting, adopting, or employing a performance measure, all [managers] should be aware of—and beware of—Campbell’s Law.Case QuestionsMust include a summary of the case above.What about you? Put yourself in the position of the Atlanta educators whose dilemma is described in the case. If there was a real possibility that you’d lose your job because your students performed badly, how would you assess your situation and your options? What if there were a real possibility that you’d lose a pay raise and promotion? How about the possibility that you’d be reassigned to a much less desirable school? Be prepared to argue either side of your case.Think about a class that you’re taking now or have taken in the past. What KPI played the most important role in the instructor’s evaluation of your performance? What did it tell you about your instructor’s strategy for teaching the course? Do you think that it was too narrowly focused or otherwise unreasonable? If so, how do you think your instructor could have improved his performance-evaluation strategy?Again, what about you? After having read this case, have you reconsidered your attitude toward how much control or accountability you’d like to have in a job? If, for example, you’re studying to be a teacher, how do you feel about a career goal such as moving up to principal or even multischool administrator? How does your concept of an ideal work/life relationship affect your thinking on the subject?As we saw in Chapter 10, incentives “represent special compensation opportunities that are usually tied to performance”—that is, to a certain form of workplace behavior. They can also be tied to other forms of workplace behavior—such as complying with an employer’s policies regarding legal and ethical conduct (its so-called compliance & ethics, or C&E, program). Incentives can be either “soft” (consisting of nontangible encouragement or recognition) or “hard” (typically consisting of tangible, often monetary rewards). What “C&E” incentives affect the way you conduct yourself, whether at work or at school? How do they stack up against the incentives to behave in accord with Campbell’s Law? Is there any tension between the two sets of incentives? What do you do—or can you do—to resolve any tension as you make decisions affecting your behavior?
Management at Work The Law of Cheating Case Study

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