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Origins of Wicca: The Beginning of a New Religion

Origins of Wicca: The Beginning of a New Religion. The Wiccan religion has become one of the fastest rising religions in the United States. It is also one of the most misjudged due to the debates surrounding its history and the mystery cloaking its beliefs and doctrines. Wicca is frequently misconstrued to be allied with Satan and rituals that use elements of black magic. There are a number of popular TV series that have shown Witchcraft and Wicca in a positive light, such as Buffy the Vampire Slayer and Charmed, and because of this, its popularity has increased. The downside is this fame has not been partnered with a growth in understanding and respect. Margot Adler, a writer for Reader’s Companion to U.S. Women’s History, has said, “Wicca is the term commonly used to describe several different traditions of contemporary Paganism—an earth-centered religion that reveres nature; celebrates seasonal and lunar cycles; and worships a Goddess, or many Goddesses, or sometimes a Goddess and a God”.[1] This religion centers on revering an earth God or Goddess, and tapping into their power and the earth’s elements for the good of everything and everyone. Wicca offers a nature focused belief system with an assortment of customs and rituals,[2] yet, obliviousness and historical fallacies control public view. Controversies that surround Wicca begin with its exact origin. There are few who believe that it has origins in Witchcraft as there are similarities between them. Pagan practices, such as Witchcraft, began with the Celts around 700 B.C.[3] The region during this time was chiefly a rural culture, and as such, Celtic traditions were based uniquely on nature. Months were named after trees, and festivals centered around the solstices and equinoxes.[4] Being a polytheistic religion, pagans worship female and male deities and are connected with Goddess worship, a strong belief in the divinity of the female.[5] These paganistic principles and rites gradually merged with other European religious practices, such as magic, tonics, and liniments for healing, to form what we call now, Witchcraft. Those who did not have pagan views branded these beliefs as demonic worship,[6] which has led to the misconceptions of today. There are numerous Wiccan today that do not believe the beginnings of their faith is in Witchcraft, yet, others believe that these religious practices are a part of the foundation of Wicca. There has remained questionable historical evidence to support a direct connection between the two since paganism is not an organized religion and is passed on through oral traditions,[7] The introduction of Wicca is connected with Gerald Gardner (1884-1964).[8] Gardner had been a British civil servant and an informal archaeologist, who spent part of his time in Southern Asia. He authored the book Witchcraft Today after his return to England, which detailed the rituals, beliefs, and doctrines of the religion he coined Wicca. Gardner claimed his book was inspired from Celtic traditions; however, it was a combination of Western faith, Asian magic, God and Goddess worship, and Masonic rituals.[9] The religion he outlines in his book is a nature-based faith with a low emphasis on magic. There is an inclination to view Wicca and Witchcraft as the same and while some Wiccans identify themselves as witches, it is a choice each Wiccan makes. Wiccans today do not see themselves as witches. Witchcraft is viewed as a magic-based practice but does not hold the spiritual footing that Wicca exemplifies. The Wiccan religion of today is different than the one previous Christians tried to annihilate during the Spanish Inquisition and the Salem Witch Trials;[10] however, it is sometimes impossible to deny the similarities between them. Wicca, formally founded in England in 1950, arrived in the United States in the sixties and seventies during the religious movement, Neo-Paganism. This Neo-Paganism referred to religions that joined the worship of pagan deities, particularly of the earth, with witchcraft.[11] It has slowly gained in popularity since its inception, especially in recent years, and has gained recognition as an organized religion by the United States Government.[12] It is difficult to know the exact number of people in the U.S. that follow Wicca; however, approximations run anywhere from 40,000 members to 140,000 members.[13] Wicca is not what most would recognize as a religion as there is no large, central church or a communal set of doctrines. A traditional congregation does not exist. Some traditional congregations contain small groups within them. These small groups in relation to Wicca are called covens. Each coven consists of no more than twelve members, and it may also have a high priest or priestess, for a total of thirteen.[14] There are covens that reach numbers into the twenties, but a majority of the covens keep to a few members. Factors that make it impossible to establish an accurate number of practicing Wiccans in North America include the fact each coven contains a small number of practitioners, the religion is spread geographically, and many practitioners observe Wicca in private because of common misconstructions, such as its improper connotations with Satanism.[15] Wicca is a religion that consists of countless individuals. Several people come to Wicca through research into religions and find themselves drawn to the beliefs, rituals, and peacefulness of it. There are few people who are born into Wicca, and those that are had linage of witches in their family history. Individuals that decide to follow this faith oftentimes practice on their own before they seek a coven to join or begin their own, a way of experimenting.[16] Covens that form are different from each other in small ways as it is first practiced by oneself and each individual practices their own way. Every coven and practitioner possesses a book called the Book of Shadows, which differ as much as the covens do.[17] The Book of Shadows include spells, potions, and wisdom that can be passed down. New members who join are often drawn to something in an individual coven rather than the religion as a whole. Each coven has its own set of beliefs, which makes Wicca difficult to label and categorize. There are varying covens in the religion, but it is often tough to distinguish one from the next. There is one coven, Gardnerian, created by Gerald Gardner, which only differentiates itself due to its devotees’ worshipping in the nude.[18] There is no defined chain of power in Wicca; still, covens are frequently led by a High Priestess, a High Priestess and a High Priest, or in some rare cases, a High Priest only.[19] Such people are usually long-time members of the religion, the coven, and are seen as an of Elder of the group that neophyte members can go to for guidance. The meetings that covens hold are called esbats. These meetings, or gatherings, are held for the coven to conduct coven related business, hold coaching and training sessions, i.e., spell-casting and potion-making, and perform rituals such as initiations and other similar ceremonies.[20] Esbats are held at full or new moons, for a total of thirteen annually. There are other gatherings in addition to the esbats. Eight holiday events in which Wiccans recognize and gather for are called sabbats.19 These sabbats are traditionally planned around major events in nature, such as the changing of the seasons, and life cycles. There are four major and four minor sabbats. The four major holidays were originally designed to commemorate the changing of seasons and to revel in the hunt and harvest.[21] The minor holidays are celebrated with regard to the solstices and equinoxes. Modern practitioners use these sabbats to celebrate life and perform rituals to honor their interpretation of these days.[22] Wiccan religion has more variances than other religions as it is a religion of constant involvement. There is no preacher who stands before a congregation and leads them in lessons from a bible. Those that lead from within the covens decide how they want the members to worship and the manner in which rituals and ceremonies are to be performed. The principal belief system of Wiccan religion is based on natural law. Natural law is grounded in morality and ethics. It is exposed to humans through the use of reason and choosing between good and evil, thus finding its supremacy in realizing universal standards in morality and ethics.[23] Wiccans, therefore, believe nature functions separate of an all-controlling, ever present God and instead conducts themselves by their own laws, on their own clock. There is no Heaven or Hell in the Wiccan world, nor an incorporeal, prodigious God that is set apart from nature quietly controlling all aspects of it. God, instead, is an objective creating force, called “The One.”[24] The One is a personification of all in nature, everything that has its own unique energy or lifeforce, networking and influencing each other to form a balanced accord. Everything, in essence, has a celestial spirit, and, when put together forms a broad depiction seen as The One. The principal deities for Wicca are the Mother Goddess, who represents the fruitfulness of the earth, and the Horned God, who perished and was revived, signifying the earth’s renewing powers.24 The conviction is that all living things are part of the main God and Goddess, and that the Earth itself is an active organism. Each and every living being is seen as an integral part of that organism. A bond is formed by tuning into the communications from the Earth and nature. Wiccans are actively involved in protecting and promoting Earth and her natural resources. Practitioners hold numerous festivals and celebrations to honor these Gods and Goddesses.24 This concept is not an exclusive one to Wiccans, however, it is one that has continued to be a vital part of the Wiccan religion. Although modern Wiccans draw on their Pagan roots and continue to worship a multitude of ancient pagan deities, it is very important to note that these deities are not considered actual individual Gods or Goddesses but part of The One divine spirit.[25] This is a problematic notion for some monotheistic, patriarchal religions, such as Judaism, to grasp. Wiccans believe that the intergalactic dynamisms of the universe [The One] are comprised of balanced masculine and feminine characteristics, embodied in the Goddess and God.[26] The Goddess and God encompass a variety of features that can be further denoted by the individual ancient pagan Gods. The deities act as a way for Wiccans to identify with the different facets of the singular divine spirit, The One. Praying, for instance, for guidance in a love relationship, it would be simpler to relate to Venus, the Goddess of Love, than an impersonal, all-encompassing divine force.[27] Wicca is not a very structured or rigid religion, so one will find variation in how Wiccans classify themselves: monotheistic, duo-theistic, polytheistic, etc.; but in general, many support the idea explained above. Wiccans support the premise of natural law, of a non-interfering divinity, however, they expand on the belief that they can tap into or channel the energy of the divine to influence or manipulate things.[28] The explanation for such credence is since the celestial life-force exists in everything, each individual can attain a personal connection or communion with the force, such as tapping into its energy. This is quite different from the traditional God/worshiper roles existing in numerous monotheistic religions. This leads to a deeply personal relationship between a Wicca practitioner and the Goddess and God. The ability to tap into and manipulate the powers of the deity comes a moral obligation. There is a strong desire for peace and harmony among Wiccans. They desire this not only within their religion but also with all of nature’s creatures. Followers are allowed freedom in what they do as long as it does not bring any intentional harm to any other living beings. Wiccans adhere to a peaceful belief system which are outlined in the Wiccan Credo,[29] a widespread and publicized poem written in the early 1900s with its origins concealed in mystery.[30] The peaceful mentality of Wicca can be perceived in the first three lines of the poem: “Bide within the law you must, In perfect love and perfect trust. Live you must and let to live, Fairly take and fairly give.”[31] The Wiccan Credo is notorious for containing the two most observed laws of Wiccan behavior: The Wiccan Rede and The Threefold Law. (Please refer to the end of the document to view a full version of the Wiccan Rede.) The true nature of Wicca can be seen towards the end of the Wiccan Rede, where it states: “An ye harm none, do what ye will.” Translated, this simply means, practice as you please as long as it harms no soul or thing. The Threefold Law holds another view of the true nature of Wicca as it introduces the Wiccan belief in karma and rebirth. The Threefold Law is found within the Wiccan Credo in the following lines: “Mind the Threefold Law you should, Three times bad and three times good.”[32] It can be deduced that this suggests an individual’s actions return to him or her three times over, whether good or bad. Some practitioners do not buy into the literalness of the factor of three, but they do advocate the idea that their deeds will have repercussions. This idea is expanded further in the common belief in reincarnation. This notion is best summarized as some believe a soul is continually renewed whereas others believe once a soul acquires all life instruction, it is permitted everlasting rest in their new home called the Summerlands.[33] Reincarnation is the ultimate method for curbing the misuse of magic and evil behavior as it distributes cosmic impartiality. A person is reborn in a place that suits their deeds from their former lifetime. The origins of Wicca may have some similarities to Witchcraft; though, after examining the history and the birth of this religion, the differences become evident. The doctrines and beliefs of the Wiccan’s hold the true nature of their practice; a respect for nature and human-kind. Wicca is not about promoting or provoking harm or ill intent toward anyone or anything. Wiccans do not use magick or spells to benefit from others’ misfortune, contrary to popular belief. The mystery that shrouds this religion is easily dispelled after examining its true nature. Once an individual researches the practices of this religion, they will have an understanding of respect instead of fear. The Wicca religion prides itself on the Wiccan Credo which states that if they do not harm another person or thing, they can practice as they wish. But should they choose to do evil, their deeds will be reaped upon them threefold. Morality and ethics frame the basis for Wicca, as well as the idea of a divine spirit that is represented in the Goddess and God. Throughout history, Wicca has had a major impact on its followers and non-followers. People are either believers or non-believers, followers or non-followers, or for it or against it. The true nature of Wicca is peaceful and caring to both humankind and the natural elements of the world, and as such, deserves a level of respect and understanding. Bibliography Adler, Margot. “Wicca.” Reader’s Companion to U.S. Women’s History. 637-638. US: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company, 1998. History Reference Center. Web. 4 Nov. 2013. Aten, James. 2008. “The Truth About Wicca And Witchcraft: Finding Your True Power.” 2nd ed. Aten Publishing. Berger, Helen A., and Douglas Ezzy. “Mass Media and Religious Identity: A Case Study of Young Witches.” Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 48, no. 3 (2009): 501-14. http://www.jstor.org.ezproxy.shsu.edu/stable/40405642. Boyer, Paul S, and Stephen Nissenbaum. 1974. “Salem Possessed; The Social Origins of Witchcraft.” Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Cunningham, Scott. 1987. “The Truth About Witchcraft Today.” St. Paul, Minnesota: Llewellyn Publications. Gardner, Gerald Brosseau. “Witchcraft Today.” Secaucus, NJ: Citadel Press, 1954. Gaskill, Malcolm. “The Pursuit of Reality: Recent Research into The History of Witchcraft.” The Historical Journal 51, no. 04 (2008): 1069. doi:10.1017/s0018246x0800719x. Grimassi, Raven, and Connie Hill. 2002. “The Witches’ Craft: The Roots of WitchcraftOrigins of Wicca: The Beginning of a New Religion
Securing Information Systems.

Course Project Week 3: SafewayOnce organizations have identified the main risks to their systems, they should develop a security policy to protect the company’s assets.This week for your project, you will be creating a proposed security policy for the online grocery store that you selected. For your assignment, you will need to do the following:Describe some of the possible risks to the store’s security system.Draft a security policy that addresses the risks, identifies security goals, and discusses strategies for achieving those goals.Discuss some of the ethical and potential legal issues for the company and how the security measures that you’ve outlined will help to minimize those issues.Your paper should be a minimum of 3 full pages long.*Remember to use proper tone in your paper. You are speaking from a “consultant” point of view. Your audience is the Leadership Team for the online grocery store.*Make sure to write your paper utilizing proper APA formatting guidelines, and to include an APA formatted title page. Use NoodleBib to document your sources and to complete your APA formatted reference page and in-text citations.*Grammar, spelling, and the layout of your essay will also be taken into account when grading this assignment.
Securing Information Systems

Field Studies – The Columbia Gorge. Paper details The paper should answer the question “How has the Columbia Gorge evolved over geologic time? (What is the sequence of events starting with the earliest geologic deposits.) Look at the deposits and decide what geologically was happening at the time. Please refer to the document that I have attached with the text resource links and the youtube video links. Also, please acknowledge the references used with quotations and proper citations. PS. I truly appreciate your help. I just, unfortunately, lost my grandfather due to cancer and this is the only course I am struggling to pass at the moment. You will be extremely helpful. Thank you.Field Studies – The Columbia Gorge
Rasmussen College NCLEX Infectious Disease Unit Analysis Presentation.

I’m working on a Statistics presentation and need support to help me understand better.

InstructionsYou are currently working at NCLEX Memorial Hospital in the Infectious Diseases Unit. Over the past few days, you have noticed an increase in patients admitted with a particular infectious disease. You believe that the ages of these patients play a critical role in the method used to treat the patients. You decide to speak to your manager, and together you work to use statistical analysis to look more closely at the ages of these patients.You do some research and put together a spreadsheetof the data that contains the following information:Client numberInfection disease statusAge of the patientYou are to put together a PowerPoint presentation that explains the analysis of your findings which you will submit to your manager. The presentation should contain all components of your findings. For review, the components of the report should include:Brief overview of the scenario and variables in the data setDiscussion, calculation, and interpretation of the mean, median, mode, range, standard deviation, and varianceDiscussion, construction, and interpretation of the 95% confidence intervalExplanation of the full hypothesis testConclusionThe calculations should be performed in your spreadsheet that you will also submit to your manager. You can find additional information on what to add to your PowerPoint presentation in this word document. Use the questions in the worksheet as your guide for the contents of your presentation.For your final deliverable, submit your PowerPoint presentation and the Excel workbook showing your work. Do not submit your Word document.1. All problems are solved correctly.2. Complete and detailed steps are provided to explain how to solve the problem.3. Explanations demonstrate a mastery of understanding of the statistical concepts and terminology.4. All variables, equations, and expressions are properly formatted.
Rasmussen College NCLEX Infectious Disease Unit Analysis Presentation

MGT 324 SEU Personal Code of Ethics and Public Management Discussion

MGT 324 SEU Personal Code of Ethics and Public Management Discussion.

CLO: Apply critical thinking to make and defend business decisions (LO 2.4) CLO: Ability to rise to ethical issues and challenges in the context of public management (LO3.3) Write an essay in about 1000-1200 words on the following topic. Provide a statement explaining your own personal code of ethics. Include at least 4 codes in your answer with enough explanation and examples. Refer to concepts learned in class or in the textbook and link them to your justification. In addition, discuss whether personal code of ethics could clash with organizational ethics. Some people believe, that personal ethics and organization’s ethics are two different and unrelated concepts. Others, believe that personal ethics should be applied to organization’s ethics. Is it possible that our personal beliefs and ethics are applicable to our work? Discuss. Important: You are required to present at least three scholarly journals to support your answers
MGT 324 SEU Personal Code of Ethics and Public Management Discussion

MAT 240 SNHU Probability and Statistics Hypothesis Testing Margin of Error Case Ques

term paper help MAT 240 SNHU Probability and Statistics Hypothesis Testing Margin of Error Case Ques.

I’m working on a statistics discussion question and need a sample draft to help me learn.

The B&K Real Estate Company sells homes and is currently serving the Southeast region. It has recently expanded to cover the Northeast states. The B&K realtors are excited to now cover the entire East Coast and are working to prepare their southern agents to expand their reach to the Northeast.B&K has hired your company to analyze the Northeast home listing prices in order to give information to their agents about the mean listing price at 95% confidence. Your company offers two analysis packages: one based on a sample size of 100 listings, and another based on a sample size of 1,000 listings. Because there is an additional cost for data collection, your company charges more for the package with 1,000 listings than for the package with 100 listings.Sample size of 100 listings:95% confidence interval for the mean of the Northeast house listing price has a margin of error of $25,000Cost for service to B&K: $2,000Sample size of 1,000 listings:95% confidence interval for the mean of the Northeast house listing price has a margin of error of $8,000Cost for service to B&K: $10,000The B&K management team does not understand the tradeoff between confidence level, sample size, and margin of error. B&K would like you to come back with your recommendation of the sample size that would provide the sales agents with the best understanding of northeast home prices at the lowest cost for service to B&K.In other words, which option is preferable?Spending more on data collection and having a smaller margin of errorSpending less on data collection and having a larger margin of errorChoosing an option somewhere in the middleFor your initial post:Formulate a recommendation and write a confidence statement in the context of this scenario. For the purposes of writing your confidence statement, assume the sample mean house listing price is $310,000 for both packages. “I am [#] % confident the true mean . . . [in context].”Explain the factors that went into your recommendation, including a discussion of the margin of error
MAT 240 SNHU Probability and Statistics Hypothesis Testing Margin of Error Case Ques

Indiana University Purdue University Unit 6 Managing Projects Best Practices Paper

Indiana University Purdue University Unit 6 Managing Projects Best Practices Paper.

Kogon, Blakemore, and Wood (2015) note that for many workers in the current business environment, an increasing amount of time is spent working on or leading projects. This assignment is intended to help you understand the primary elements of the project management process, how you can choose a project management methodology that will be the best fit for your project, and the skills you will need to be a successful project leader. In your readings and videos for this unit, as well as personal experience for many of you, you have discovered that there are many variables to successfully managing a project. The project management methodology chosen for a project must reflect the organization’s requirements to ensure success. Included in these variables are the size and complexity of the project, the process used to manage a project, and the skills that are needed to successfully complete the project.
Indiana University Purdue University Unit 6 Managing Projects Best Practices Paper

Psychological Testing: Principles, and Applications Report (Assessment)

Table of Contents Influence of Schools of Thought Comparing Two Schools of Thought Humanistic, Cognitive, and Psychobiology Schools (Option 1) Identifying a Research Topic References Influence of Schools of Thought Mental testing practices were rudimentary in China as far back as 2000 B.C. (Gregory, 2011). Much later, the 19th century Europe and Great Britain showed another wave of interest to this subject, which resulted in the formation of mental testing movement. Among the pioneers of this movement, one can enlist Wilhelm Wundt, Francis Galton, Alfred Binet, and others. At the baseline of mental testing lies the possibility of scientifically estimating the capabilities of mind. Before the “brass instruments” era, this aspect of psychology was unexplored (Gregory, 2011). Although the measures that the specialists conducted were crude and the methodology was close to naiveté, the value of mental testing is undeniable. The foundational new idea put forward by Wundt was that every person has a different mental capacity (Gregory, 2011). In his turn, Galton was assured that sensory and intellectual capacities were intertwined. His assumption led him to attempt to derive the level of intellect from sensory discrimination measurements (Minton, 1998). After Galton’s attempts were dismissed, Binet, in collaboration with Theodore Simon, devised a method of intelligence assessment to distinguish mentally retarded children who required special education. It was then that intelligence came to be measured through indicators other than motoric capabilities, namely imagination, memory, comprehension, and other cognitive skills. Binet-Simon tests used heterogenic samples of schoolchildren and a method of scoring to derive numerical results. These methods have laid basis for functionalism and led to development of IQ testing: a ratio of a person’s intellectual performance to their age. Overall, the mental testing school was the source of measurement practices that avoid bias’ the techniques deployed by mental testing pioneers serve as a basis for neuropsychological assessment, career assessment, treatment, and research. Comparing Two Schools of Thought Behaviorism and mental testing movement show great diversity of subject matter – the observable behavior versus cognitive performance – but seem to regard psychology as a science to change the world. For behaviorists, mental processes were not the matter to be studied in terms of science. Watson, the well-known behaviorist, maintained that the emphasis should be laid on observable behavior. His assumptions were backed up by Skinner who stated that behaviors can be steered by outer stimuli and thus used for proving theories. Behaviorism does not account for internal (covert) behaviors, e.g., thinking. Research methods used by behaviorists are solely empirical. The procedures mainly sum up to stimulation and provoking observable behavioral response (Greenwood, 2015). Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Although mental testing was initially driven by Galtonian passion to measurement, sensorimotor experimentation applied by behaviorists was rejected by mental testing school at the stage of formation. Even in the “brass instruments” period, the movement put objectivity at the top of its values and obtained the evidence quantitatively. Despite the fact that mental testing initially mistook sensorimotor performance for intelligence, it was thought power that it was aimed at measuring. In contrast to behavioristic approach, the tests were not response-oriented but performance-oriented (Gregory, 2011). Albeit the differences, the two schools of thought seemed to share values. Mental-testing movement was not entirely devoid of eugenic stance, trying to hone human intelligence by singling out the “retards” and “morons” and preventing them from breeding. Behaviorism argued that some responses could be hereditary – supporting artificial (that is, man-made) selection of animals and probably humans (Greenwood, 2015, p. 358). Consequently, the two psychologies, strangely enough, seemed to pursue one and the same goal: improving the condition of human race. Humanistic, Cognitive, and Psychobiology Schools (Option 1) Humanistic approach to psychology is called the “third” after behaviorist and psychoanalytic. It rejects the behavioristic emphasis on stimulation response and the psychoanalytic subject matter of irrational subconscious (Waterman, 2013). Over time, it has covered most of the aspects of behavior and potential to understand the specificities of human conditions (Hayes, 2012). Humanism is focused on the study of humans, maintaining that human properties cannot be explained through research on animals valued by behaviorists. The subject matter of humanistic psychology is based on the assumption of essentially virtuous nature that all humans have. It values the power of a person with regard to how they overcome hardships of life and maintain that personal perceptions are more valuable than objective reality. Consequently, the value of scientific approaches to psychology shared by behaviorism and psychoanalysis is diminished (Hayes, 2012). The methodology of humanistic psychology is mostly qualitative, with the study of the cases based on holistic values and the concepts of free will. In humanistic psychology, the questions are asked in the form of interviews and questionnaires. The questions are formulated open-endedly to invoke extended responses. Humanist methodology is mostly non-academic and is, consequently, avoided in scientific circles. On the other hand, contemporary behavioral psychology seems to be gradually incorporating some principles of humanism and deploying spirituality for therapeutic purposes (Hayes, 2012). Just as humanistic psychology, and despite long-standing contradictions between the schools, behaviorism is gradually shifting its focus to the area of individual rather than nomothetic. What is more, it is shifting its paradigm towards inborn capabilities to flourish rather than extraneously provoked response (Hayes, 2012). Identifying a Research Topic The topic I would like to study is the treatment of social phobias with methodologies that go beyond traditional behavioristic approach. As a consequence, the subject matter of the topic is constituted by social phobias, the methods of treatment, and the efficacy of these methods. It is known that the commonality of behavioristic approach as the way of addressing social phobia issues became evident back in 1990s (Brown, Heimberg,

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