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Organopalladium Reagents and Intermediates

João T. V. Matos Table of contents Table of contents 1. Introduction 2. Organopalladium reagents and intermediates 2.1. The characteristic features for the use of palladium in organometallic chemistry 2.1.1. Oxidation States of Palladium 2.2. Preparation of organopalladium reagents and intermediates 2.2.1. π-Ally Palladium Complexes 2.2.2. Cyclic aryl palladium complexes 2.2.3. Palladium Olefin and Diene Complexes 2.2.4. Palladium-TV-Heterocyclic Carbene Complexes 2.3. Methods for structural characterisation of organopalladium reagents 2.3.1. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy 2.3.2. Infrared spectroscopy 2.3.3. X-Ray crystallography 3. Applications of palladium-catalysed organic reactions 3.1. Palladium-catalysed carbon-carbon cross coupling reactions 3.1.1. The Heck reaction 3.1.2. The Stille Reaction 3.1.3. The Suzuki reaction 3.1.4. The Negishi Reaction 3.1.5. The Sonogashira Reaction 3.1.6. The Tsuji–Trost Reaction 4. Final remarks Bibliography 1. Introduction Organometallic chemistry is discipline devoted to the study, not only of the compounds and intermediate species with metal-carbon bonds, but also the comprehensive study of all transformations and interaction between organic molecules and a inorganic metal from the main groups, transition series, lanthanides and actinides (Astruc, 2007; Crabtree, 2005). This interface discipline, between classical organic chemistry, coordination chemistry and inorganic chemistry, has proved, in the last decades, very useful to provide some important conceptual insights, new structures, and catalysts for different applications areas of organic synthesis, both in the academic and in the industrial fields (Crabtree, 2005). Organometallic chemistry also began to have a major impact on other areas such as: biochemistry with the discovery of enzymes that carry out organometallic catalysis; chemistry of materials due to the proprieties of some organometallic compounds to be used was precursors for depositing materials on various substrates via thermal decomposition of the metal compound; nanoscience and nanotechnology due to the proprieties of some organometallic compounds to be used precursors for nanoparticles; and green chemistry by minimizing both energy use and chemical waste of several organic synthesis (Crabtree, 2005). The first organometallic substance to be prepared was synthesized in 1760, in a military pharmacy in Paris, by Louis Claude Cadet de Gassicourt. This French chemist, who was working on cobalt-containing inks, used arsenic-containing cobalt salts for their preparation. From this work was resulted the so-called “Cadet’s fuming liquid” which contains a mixture of tetramethyldiarsine and cacadoyl oxide (the first documented organometallic compound) by carrying out the following reaction (Equation (1)): (1) However, despise several organometallic compound discovered, along the eighteenth and nineteenth century’s, the truly “boom” of organometallic chemistry only occurred during the third quarter of the twenty century, in especially in countries like the United States of America, England and Germany (Astruc, 2007). One of the facts that contributed to this was the recognition of the potential of some d-block transition metals (i.e. nickel, palladium, platinum, rhodium, and ruthenium) organometallic reagents and intermediates as superior catalysts for new bond formation (i.e. carbon-carbon bonds) and their unique property to activate a wide range of organic molecules (Negishi, 2002; Schlosser, 2013). In this review, one of these d-block transition metals and their organometallic reagents based and intermediates will be put in broader perspective, the palladium. The use of this metal, has truly revolutionized the organic synthesis field over the last three decades, being nowadays, the most widely used element in organic synthesis (Crabtree, 2005). Probably the most notable example of its importance of the palladium intermediates as catalyst in organic synthesis is the attribution, by the Swedish Nobel Committee, of the 2010 Nobel Prize in Chemistry to Richard F. Heck, Ei-ichi Negishi, and Akira Suzuki for their work in “palladium-catalysed cross couplings in organic synthesis” (, 2013). This review will attempt to highlight some of the outstanding properties of the organopalladium reagents and intermediates, identifying the main ways of preparation of these components, some of the most important analysis procedures to obtain their structural characterization, and present some of the numerous applications and reactions where these compounds play an important role. 2. Organopalladium reagents and intermediates 2.1. The characteristic features for the use of palladium in organometallic chemistry Palladium is a chemical element discovered and isolated in 1803 by William Hyde Wollaston who named it after the asteroid Pallas, which was discovered a year before. Is a transition metal and belong to the 10th group, 5 period, and d-block of the periodic table. This atom, with atomic number of 46 and average atomic weight of 106.4 could occur naturally in seven isotopes, which includes six stable isotopes. Palladium, is nowadays one of the most versatile, selective, ubiquitous and significant metals used for organic synthesis and had truly impacted this field in the last four decades (Negishi, 2002). This fact is mainly because no other transition metals can offer such versatile to the abundance of possibilities of carbon–carbon bond formation that the palladium reagents and intermediates can offer (Tsuji, 2004). Furthermore, despite the palladium complexes are, in several reactions, highly reactive are stable enough to be used as recyclable reagents and intermediates, in catalytic processes (Negishi, 2002). In this sense palladium-mediated processes have become essential in several applications, namely in the syntheses of natural products, polymers, agrochemicals, and pharmaceuticals (Caspi, 2008). Despite the palladium being a rare and very expensive noble metal, there are several characteristic features and chemical properties which make reactions involving palladium reagents and intermediates particularly suitable in organic synthesis. One of the most important characteristic feature appears to be its moderately large atomic size factor which contribute to the moderate stability of its compounds and their controlled but wide-ranging reactivity leading (Negishi, 2002; Tsuji, 2004). Furthermore, its moderated size associated with high d-electron count, and its relatively high electronegativity (2.20 and 1.57 in Pauling and Sanderson scales, respectively), classified this element as “soft” element, which makes it a real alternative to the more traditional and “hard” organometallic reagents, such as the magnesium (Grignard) and lithium compounds (Negishi, 2002). Other important characteristic features is the tolerance from the palladium reagents and intermediates to several functional groups (i.e. carbonyl and hydroxy groups) and which means that the palladium-catalysed reactions can be carried out without protection of these functional groups (Tsuji, 2004). Furthermore, palladium reagents and intermediates have a low tendency to undergo one-electron or generate radical in the reaction processes, reducing the possibility of unwanted side reactions and making the palladium-catalysed reactions quite clean and selective. Finally, another important feature, especially in the green chemistry context is their lack of toxicity problems associated and therefore they do not require too many special handling cares (Negishi, 2002). 2.1.1. Oxidation States of Palladium The most common oxidation states of palladium are 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 (Pd(0), Pd(I), Pd(II), Pd(III), and Pd(IV), respectively). The palladium oxidation states of 1, 2, 3, and 4 correspond to d9, d8, d7, and d6 electron configurations, respectively, as shown in Figure 1. Figure 1.Representative d electron configuration of Pd(I), Pd(II), Pd(III), and Pd(IV) oxidation states (based on reference (Mirica and Khusnutdinova, 2013)) The vast majority of palladium-catalysed reactions, until the beginning of the twentieth-one century, were only focused in the reactions involving Pd(0) and Pd(II) oxidation states, since Palladium strongly favours this two oxidation states (Mirica and Khusnutdinova, 2013; Negishi, 2002). Despite the bulk of the organopalladium literature is centered on the use of Pd(0) and Pd(II) oxidation states, already in 2002, in the Handbook of Organopalladium Chemistry for Organic Synthesis, Negishi point out that the utilization of other oxidation states (Pd(II), Pd(III), or Pd(IV)), although it is still very rare, could become o be very significant in the future (Negishi, 2002). More than ten years later, and with the rapid evolution in the organopalladium chemistry, complexes with palladium in these oxidation states, especially the Pd(IV), have demonstrated their potential and they improved significantly their role in organic synthesis. Although the development of Pd(IV) chemistry has just begun, this has already made possible the development of a number of significant new transformations. Pd(IV)-catalysed reactions usually show a high selectivity and synthetic robustness, and in almost all of them the use of catalysts are generated in situ from commercially available palladium salts, making them particularly attractive from the viewpoint of cost effectiveness (Muñiz, 2009). However, by comparison with the Pd(0), Pd(III), or Pd(IV), complexes of odd-electron Pd(I) and Pd(III) oxidation states are much less used. Yet, despite the study of this oxidation states remains in its infancy, Pd(I) complexes have already been employed as pre-catalysts in organic synthesis (Canty, 2011) and despite the potential role of Pd(III) intermediates in catalysis is currently more speculative, this subject beginning to emerge considerable interest, as can be highlighted by the different articles and reviews on the subject (Canty, 2011; Mirica and Khusnutdinova, 2013; Powers and Ritter, 2011). 2.2. Preparation of organopalladium reagents and intermediates In the majority of the organic reactions that use palladium as catalyst, the organopalladium species are generated in situ during the course of the reaction, instead of a preparation of stoichiometric organopalladium reagents, ensuring that only a catalytic amount of palladium is used. In these cases, the reaction mechanisms should include a step were the organopalladium species are formed, the steps in which the formed species react with other reagents to generate a particular product(s), and the step in which organopalladium species are regenerated in a catalytically active form (Carey and Sundberg, 2007). There are several types of organopalladium intermediates extensively used in reactions with considerable importance in several synthetic applications. As reviewed by Schlosser (2013), more than 64000 entities with a palladium-carbon bond are known. Consequently, in this review, only the preparation of some of the most common organopalladium reagents and intermediates will be addressed. As special cares to have in the preparation of these complexes, palladium complexes, unlike the organometallics from the Group I and Group II, are not water sensitive. Consequently, in almost cases, strict exclusion of water is not necessary. Although, some reactions can beneficiate from the presence of water traces or can even be performed in water as solvent or co-solvent. Furthermore, palladium complexes could be quite to moderately air stable. Consequently, it is advised to conduct reactions using these complexes under an inert gas (i.e. argon or nitrogen) (Schlosser, 2013). 2.2.1. π-Ally Palladium Complexes One of the most important organopalladium intermediates are π-allyl complexes. The most common π-allyl palladium complex, the dimer [(n3-C3H5)PdCl]2, was discovered more than 50 years, serves as starting material for a number of other complexes (Schlosser, 2013). π-allyl complexes, can be synthesize from Pd(II) salts, allylic acetates, and other compounds with the potential of leaving groups in an allylic position, or can be prepared directly from alkenes by reaction with PdCl2 or Pd(O2CCF3)2. In this second scenario, the reaction occurs by electrophilic attack on the π electrons followed by loss of a proton, as represented in Scheme 1 (Carey and Sundberg, 2007). Scheme 1.Synthesize of π-Ally Palladium Complexes by electrophilic attack on the π electrons (based on reference (Carey and Sundberg, 2007)). Due to the low electrophilic power, these complexes usually reacted with less-substituted allylic terminus of a variety of nucleophiles. After this reaction occurs, the resulting organopalladium intermediate breaks down by elimination of Pd(0) and H , as described in Scheme 2 (Carey and Sundberg, 2007). Scheme 2.The overall transformation of the allylic substitution. (based on reference (Carey and Sundberg, 2007)). 2.2.2. Cyclic aryl palladium complexes Another important organopalladium intermediates are the cyclic aryl palladium complexes, or palladacycles (Schlosser, 2013). This complexes, are quite relevant role in cascade transformations leading to complex molecular architectures, in the proximally) directed arylation reactions, and in several intramolecular cross-coupling reactions (Beletskaya and Cheprakov, 2004). Palladacycles intermediates can easily be obtained by palladation reactions starting from Pd(II) salts and an arene having a directing group (Schlosser, 2013). Scheme 3.Palladacycles intermediates obtained by palladation reactions (R = NR2, PR2, etc., and Y = alkyl, aryl, etc.). Based on reference (Schlosser, 2013). In the cases where the directing group is an amine (e.g., benzyl or homobenzyl amines) or a phosphine (e.g., aryl phosphines), as represented in the Scheme 3A, the mechanism occurs by an electrophilic addition to the arene, and could include Pd(IV) intermediates. On the other hand, as represented in the Scheme 3B, Alkylarenes can also be substrates for palladacycles, in which, the activation of sp3-carbons next to an arene is presumably forced by agostic interactions (Schlosser, 2013). 2.2.3. Palladium Olefin and Diene Complexes The major group of organopalladium intermediates are the palladium Olefin and Diene Complexes. Pd(II) complexes having olefin ligands (i.e. 1,5-cyclooctadiene (COD), norbornene, or norbornadiene) can be obtained by reaction of Pd(II) chloride in the presence of the appropriate alkene (Carey and Sundberg, 2007; Schlosser, 2013). In this reaction the alkenes react with Pd(II) to give π complexes that are subject to nucleophilic attack. However, the products formed from the resulting intermediates are depending of the specific reaction conditions used. In the first case, represented in Scheme 4 as the path a, palladium can be replaced by hydrogen under reductive conditions. On the other hand, in the absence of a reducing agent occurs the obliteration of the Pd(0) and a proton, leading to the substitution of a vinyl hydrogen by the nucleophile, as represented in path b of the Scheme 4. (Carey and Sundberg, 2007). Scheme 4.Synthesize of the Palladium Olefin complexes. Based on reference (Carey and Sundberg, 2007). However, it is important to note that several of these palladium Olefin and Diene complexes are already commercially available (Schlosser, 2013). 2.2.4. Palladium-TV-Heterocyclic Carbene Complexes Palladium-TV-Heterocyclic Carbene (NHC) complexes have been recently introduced as powerful ligands for palladium. These NHC complexes have as main advantage the fact that they are quite stable, easy to handle, air-stable and can be easily be prepared from the ligand and palladium precursors (Chartoire et al., 2012; Schlosser, 2013). The NHC-based palladium complexes have been used very successfully for a series of different reactions, namely some cross-coupling reactions and aryl amination (Chartoire et al., 2012; Schlosser, 2013). In Figure 2 are shown some examples of these NHC-palladium catalysts, already used to ensure the efficiency of those reactions. Figure 2.Examples of NHC-palladium complexes: A) [Pd(NHC)(R-allyl)Cl] developed by Nolan; B) [Pd-PEPPSI-NHC] developed by Organ; and C) [Pd(IPr*)(cinnamyl)Cl] developed by Chartoire et al.. Figure adapted from the reference (Chartoire et al., 2012). 2.3. Methods for structural characterisation of organopalladium reagents The identification and structural characterization of the organopalladium reagents and intermediates, is of utmost importance in organic synthesis field, to understand the behaviour and proprieties of these compounds. However, it can be quite challenging and somewhat tricky task to accomplish. To achieve the identification and structural characterization of the organopalladium reagents and intermediates, the main analytical methods used rely on the complementarity of information provide from spectroscopic and crystallographic techniques, such as multinuclear nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, and x-ray crystallography. 2.3.1. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Multinuclear NMR spectroscopy is certainly the key methodology to elucidate molecular structures in solution. Consequently, just as has already happened in organic chemistry or biochemistry, it is now routine to measure NMR spectra of diamagnetic organometallic and coordination compounds. Nowadays, on a routine basis, organometallic chemists daily measure hundreds or even thousands NMR spectra, not only to identify and characterize the molecular structure of a given organometallic but also to verify if a reaction has taken place (Pregosin, 2012). The most investigated active nuclei in organometallic chemistry are, by far, 1H and 13C. However, there are several others readily measurable spin = ½ nuclei, such as 15N, 19F and 31P, that provide structurally valuable chemical shifts and a diagnostic spin-spin coupling constants. Furthermore, often the measure of 1H and 13C NMR spectra alone may not be sufficient, especially when it is necessary understand the immediate environment of the metal canter and these probes are spaced apart from the metal (Pregosin, 2012). NMR is therefore widely applied for analysis to organopalladium reagents. For example, 1H NMR is the most reliable characterization technique which can be used on hydridopalladium complexes (Negishi, 2002). Moreover, there are several examples in the literature of the application of multinuclear NMR to organopalladium complexes (Leznoff et al., 1999; Pañella et al., 2006; Satake et al., 2000; Schlosser, 2013). Even the 15N, and 31P NMR methodologies, are also are widely used in the characterization of organopalladium reagents, being possible to find studies in this field with more than thirty years (Motschi et al., 1979). 2.3.2. Infrared spectroscopy Infrared (IR) spectroscopy provides the spectral information corresponding to vibrational modes of a molecule. The position of the bands in the Infrared (IR) spectrum depends mainly of the on the strength of the bond(s) involved as measured and the reduced mass of the system calculated using the atomic weights of the atoms involved in the molecule (Crabtree, 2005). Consequently, IR spectroscopic are very useful to obtain a fast confirmation of the presence of some functional groups (i.e. C=O, C=N). However, this method should not be used as a sole characterization technique, since, for example, although the hydride ligands from the hydridopalladium complexes are expected to have υ(Pd-H) stretches occurring in the distinctive region of 1950–2060 cm-1 in the infrared spectrum, they are often very weak signals and are also rather dependent on the trans effect of the opposite ligand (Negishi, 2002). 2.3.3. X-Ray crystallography The structural characterization in the solid state, namely that provided by X-ray crystallography is an extremely important part of organometallic chemistry. In the method, a beam of monochromatic X-rays pass through a single crystal of the sample. Consequently, this beam is diffracted in the crystal in various angles, providing in photography the pattern of the crystal spots. The intensity of this set of diffracted beams will depend on the nature and arrangement of the atoms in the unit cell. Thus, the intensities provide the information about the locations of the atoms in the unit cell, while the relative positions of the spots on the photography film carry the information about the arrangement of the unit cells in space (Negishi, 2002). The results of an X-ray structural determination should be represented as a diagram showing the positions of all the atoms in the molecule, as represented in the Figure 3 for two different organopalladium complex (i.e.{Pd[(p-(Noxyl-tert-butylamino-2-)phenyl)diphenylphosphine]2Cl2}, and{(η-C3H5)Pd [(p-(Noxyl-tert-butylamino-2-)phenyl)diphenylphosphine](Cl)}) (Leznoff et al., 1999). Figure 3.A typical X-ray crystallographic characterisation of two different organopalladium complex (from the reference (Leznoff et al., 1999)) However, in addition to being assured that organometallic compounds (i.e. organopalladium complex) allow the growth of crystals to be used in this technique, there are some limitations than need to be overcome. First of all, since the X-ray diffraction results are usually based on one only crystal, is necessary to ensure that this crystal is representative of the bulk and free of impurities. One way to check that each crystal is the same material as the bulk of the sample is using the information from the IR spectrum. Furthermore, it is necessary to ensure that the solid state is really the same as the structure of the same material in solution, since several organometallic complexes exist as one isomer in solution but as another in the solid state. This point is especially relevant when the solid state X-ray results are compared with the solution NMR data. Again, in this aspect IR spectroscopy can be also very useful because we can obtain a spectrum both in solution and in the solid state, which emphasizes the need for the information complementarity of these characterization techniques (Negishi, 2002). 3. Applications of palladium-catalysed organic reactions As already pointed out, since the second half of the twenty century, palladium had increased its relevance and role in organic chemistry, in particular in metal-catalysed reactions. Palladium, together with some other transition metals, have the unique property to activate a wide range of organic molecules and thus to catalyse various bond formations. This metal, by far is the most commonly used metal, is thus of utmost importance in a wide range of applications, not only in academic circles but also in industry (Schlosser, 2013). An example of this application is the Wacker process. This reaction, discovered in the 1960s, uses catalytic amounts of palladium to oxidize ethylene to acetaldehyde, and is still widely used in industrial applications (in 2007, was generating four million tons of acetaldehyde per year (Astruc, 2007)). Another factor that has emphasized the importance of using palladium as a catalyst of organic reactions in academic and industrial applications was the introduction of several palladium-catalysed carbon-carbon cross coupling reactions. This fact can easily be verified by more than 200 natural products and biologically active molecules synthesized making use of the Heck reaction (section 3.1.1) and the “ton scale” fine chemicals produced in the industry using the Suzuki reaction (section 3.1.3) (Schlosser, 2013). Furthermore, these reactions also allowed the total syntheses of molecules used in the in the production of several medical drugs such as Naproxen (anti-inflammatory drug), Taxol (anti-cancer drug), (Z)-tamoxifen (anti-cancer drug), and morphine (Carey and Sundberg, 2007; Schlosser, 2013). 3.1. Palladium-catalysed carbon-carbon cross coupling reactions The introduction, in the last quarter of the twenty century, of palladium as catalyst in carbon-carbon cross coupling reactions, a new paradigm for carbon–carbon bond formation has emerged allowing the assembly of highly complex molecular structures and completely changed how the chemical synthesis is performed (Nicolaou et al., 2005). The capability of this reactions to forge carbon–carbon bonds between or within functionalized and sensitive substrates have received an enormous amount of attention among the synthetic chemists, and their scope has been very significantly expanded during the last several years, not only in not only in total synthesis but also in medicinal, biology and nanotechnology (Nicolaou et al., 2005). In general, the palladium-catalysed carbon-carbon cross coupling reactions can be represented by the Scheme 5. However, in this equation, for any given combination of R1 and R2, several parameters should be changed or optimized, namely the metal countercation M, the leaving group X, the palladium catalyst, the introduction of some additives or co-catalysts, the solvent, and even others parameters such as temperature, time, concentration, and mode of addition (Schlosser, 2013). Scheme 5.Geral model of the palladium-catalysed carbon-carbon cross coupling reactions (based on reference (Schlosser, 2013)). The characteristics of an ideal palladium-catalysed cross-coupling reaction can be listed as follows (Schlosser, 2013): Varied and inexpensive methods to set up the coupling substrate functionality from commercially available starting materials Easily activated high-yielding coupling under mild conditions; Generation of the minimal amount of by-product preferably by employing low-molecular-weight donors; Excellent functional group compatibility; General stability of the cross-coupling substrates; Low toxicity of precursors, substrates, and generated by-products. In this review, despite the extremely long list of all the possible carbon-carbon cross coupling reactions involving Palladium as catalyst, it will focus on the reactions that embody several of the above mention characteristics and are most commonly used namely, the Heck, Stille, Suzuki, Sonogashira, Tsuji–Trost, and the Negishi reactions. These reactions, have truly revolutionized the organic synthesis field (Nicolaou et al., 2005), and, as already mentioned, should be noted that the authors and works that gave birth to three of these reactions (Heck, Negishi, and Suzuki) were recently awarded the Nobel Prize in chemistry 2010 (, 2013), which emphasizes even more the importance of these reactions. 3.1.1. The Heck reaction The Heck cross coupling reaction has been developed independently by Mizoroki, (Mizoroki et al., 1971), and improved by Heck (Heck and Nolley, 1972) in the early seventies of the twentieth century. However, it took more than a decade for the potential of this reaction, be explored by the wider synthetic organic community, namely with the development of catalytic asymmetric Heck reactions (Nicolaou et al., 2005). The Heck reaction, as presented in Scheme 6, can be broadly defined as the palladium-catalysed coupling of a vinyl, aryl, benzyl halide or a trifluoromethanesulfonate (OTf) group with an olefin to yield products which result from the substitution of a the hydrogen atom in the olefin coupling partner (Nicolaou et al., 2005). Scheme 6.The overall mechanism of the Heck reaction (R4 = aryl, benzy
Industry and Career Research Report Table of Contents Academic Program Outline Industry Affiliations Professional Association Purpose. Users. Services. Events. Membership and fees. Industry Certification and Publication Levels. Cost of certification. Process. Benefits. Industry-related publication. News Article Job Posting Three Job Requirements Job Fit References Appendix A: News Article Appendix B: Job Posting Academic Program Outline I am enrolled in the 2-year Diploma in Business – International Business program (program code is 2809). I selected this program because I want to learn more on the international business setting and have the foundational knowledge on the international business world. I hope to gain more knowledge on the international business concepts and practices such as imports and exports, transportation and logistics of goods overseas and customs compliance. I plan to have a rewarding career here in Toronto after my graduation from this program. Please refer to Table 1 below for the detailed courses included in the first two semesters in this program. Table 1: Business – International Business 2809 Coordinator: Jumoke Famutimi Course Code Course Title Weekly Hours Course Description Semester 1 BUSN119 Fundamental of Business 4 Introduction to a broad range of business concepts, practices, and theories relevant to today’s global business environment. COMP106 Applied Business Software 1 4 Introduction to ICT (email, computer basics, Internet), word processing, and presentation software concepts. HRMT301 Human Resources Management 3 Comprehensive introduction to Human Resource Management (HRM). MATH118 Mathematics of Finance 1 6 Review order of operations, ratio, proportion, percent, basic algebra and graphing. MKTG116 Principles of Marketing 3 Overview of contemporary marketing, emphasizing the management of the product/service, price, promotion and distribution areas of an organization within a changing environment. Semester 2 COMM170/171 College Communication 2 3 Focuses on the refinement of reading and writing skills. The course emphasizes clear, correct writing based on the process of composing, revising, and editing. COMP126 Applied Business Software 2 4 Introduction to ICT (Productivity Programs, Digital Lifestyles), spreadsheets, and database software concepts. Students build technology skills as they apply formulas and functions, use pivot tables, charts and scenarios in Excel 2016 to solve business problems, analyze data, and make decisions. GNED500 Global Citizenship: From Social Analysis to Social Action 3 Global citizenship provides students with an opportunity to gain the knowledge and skills required to live and work in a world that is globally interconnected. INTL220 International Business Concepts 3 Introduction to the major considerations in the conduct of business activities within a global context. MATH119 Mathematics of Finance II 6 Topics include trade and cash discount, retail pricing, simple interest, equations of value and promissory notes. The course also covers compound interest topics, including present value and interest for fractional periods. Further topics include nominal, effective and equivalent rates of interest. This course concludes with ordinary annuities. OMGT129 Introduction to Supply Chain and Business Operations 4 Introduction to the study of operations management. It will provide background to the development of the operations management activity in Canadian business. Source: Adapted from Centennial College, School of Business, Business – International Business 2809, retrieved from Industry Affiliations Professional Association The Forum for International Trade Training (FITT) is a not-for-profit organization dedicated to providing international business training, resources and professional certification to individuals and businesses. It was established in 1992 as part of Canada’s sector council initiative. Since it began, the organization has been committed to developing and providing quality training programs, resources and professional credentials designed to prepare individuals and businesses to compete successfully in world markets (fittfortrade, 2019). Purpose. The FITT offers the only international business training programs and related professional designation (CITP®|FIBP®) endorsed by the World Trade Centers Association and the Canadian government. Their international business training solutions have become the standard of excellence for global trade professionals across Canada and around the world. Its mission is to build the proficiency—knowledge, skills and abilities—of people, businesses and organizations to access global markets, reduce and manage the risks of integrative trade, and enable profitable competition (fittfortrade, 2019). Users. Users of FITT are professionals in all different stages of their career and are ready or getting ready for the business world, including those who are new to international business, working in international business, experienced executives and business owners. Services. The FITT offers two services such as CITP certification and international business credentials. The CITP designation is achieved through a combination of education and work experience. The CITP certification is issued after a candidate has earned his FITT diploma and has proved the required work experience. The FITT also offers international business educational credentials based on the global trade competencies acquired through the FITT skills program (fittfortrade, 2019b). Events. “How to Export” event happened last 28 January 2016 in Ottawa, Ontario. The event was tailored to discuss selling products overseas and exporting procedures. It provided guidance on promoting export to international customers. The session was for those companies that would like to expand their presence and products in the international market as well as get key information to succeed in the export business (fittfortrade, 2019c). Another event that happened under FITT events is the “Information session for carriers, U.S. exporters to Canada and Canadian importers”. The event happened last 22 October 2015 in Ottawa, Ontario. The topics discussed in this session includes the CBSA Approach, The Purpose of ACI, Carrier Code Requirements and Customs Sufferance Warehouse Regulations (fittfortrade, 2019d). Membership and fees. Members of FITT gain special access to a variety of programs, publications and services that have been developed specifically for international business professionals. Members are classified as to General, Certified, Corporate and Student. Membership fee of $100, $270, $695 and $40, respectively is to be collected per year for each member. There are different processes for becoming a member depending on the classification of the applicant. However, all membership fees last for one year from the date of payment of the membership fees (fittfortrade, 2019g). Industry Certification and Publication The CITP designation also known as the Certified International Trade Professional designation officially validates the level of competency of international trade professionals worldwide. Currently, there are practicing CITPs in over 40 countries and growing. This global designation is earned by meeting a rigorous set of competency standards, as set by FITT – the world’s most trusted international trade training and professional certification authority. It would be helpful to sign up at the association’s website to receive news and weekly market intelligence and keep up with job postings, events and promos. E-books, guides and notes are also being posted in their website which are helpful and useful. Levels. There are 3 levels for the CITP designation, namely: The FITT Certificate in International Trade, the FITT Diploma in International Trade and the CITP designation. Cost of certification. There is no cost of certification for the Certificate in International Trade and FITT Diploma in International Trade. However, there is a cost of $270 CAD included in the CITP designation application, which covers the first year of certification. Process. First, an applicant should complete 3 or more FITT skills courses (or equivalent credits). If this is satisfied, he/she will earn the FITT Certificate in International Trade. Second, if a candidate successfully completed the FITT skills program (or equivalent credits), he/she will earn the FITT Diploma in International Trade. Lastly, to earn the CITP designation, a candidate must have FITT Diploma in International Trade and must have completed a minimum of 12 months of professional experience in a position where his/her responsibilities relate to international trade. After completing the necessary requirements, he/she must send the CITP application to FITT and pay the cost of $270 CAD plus applicable taxes. If the CITP application is not approved, this cost is fully refunded. Once the CITP application is submitted, applicant should receive an email stating that the application has been received, along with an email copy of his receipt. Most applications will be reviewed by FITT staff, while applications by those with 10 or more years of experience are also reviewed by the Certification and Accreditation Committee (CAC), which meets on a monthly basis. The process to review the application often takes several weeks, and may be affected by the volume of applications, time needed to speak with applicant’s contacts or other factors (fittfortrade, 2019e). Benefits. The Certified International Trade Professional (CITP®) designation is the world’s leading professional designation for international business. Whether you’re new to the industry or have over a decade of experience, the CITP® designation will help CITPs earn a competitive advantage within the industry, build credibility with clients, colleagues and co-workers, and land new jobs and promotions. The CITP® designation gives a proof that you possess the competencies global business experts have identified as being essential for a successful career in international trade. This sets CITPs apart in the competitive international business industry. It also recognizes the commitment to global trade as a profession, dedication to ethical business practices and ongoing professional development, which are desirable traits for today’s global business practitioners (fittfortrade, 2019f). Industry-related publication. The Globe and Mail report on business is a very relevant publication in my chosen field. The publication focuses on business news, both local and international news. Since my program is International business, their online news is very useful to me. They provide an updated and wide scope of news in the business world. Their report on business are also classified into small business, international business, world news, industry news and business commentary. As International business deals with trades everywhere, including imports and exports and international trade, the business news they provide worldwide is very useful to my chosen field. News Article In a news article by CNBC dated 21 February 2019 (refer to Appendix A), Johnson
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Table of Contents Introduction Importance of Understanding the Study Literature Review Conclusion References Introduction Increased levels of obesity and poor health standards among students across the United States (US) has brought a lot of focus to student health and more so, the effects of bad health on academic performance (Chomitz, 2009, p. 30). However, the debate on the correlation between health and academic performance has long been done and concluded. On the other hand, the debate on the correlation between physical activities (as a significant health facet for students) and academic performance is only emerging. The benefits of regular physical exercise have been widely acknowledged throughout health and medical circles. For instance, research studies done on animals have come to a conclusion that physical exercising increases neural development while other closely related similar studies have affirmed that physical exercising leads to a more excellent development of neuronal synapses (Grissom, 2005, p. 1). Increased physical activity has also been affirmed to reduce stress levels and equally reduce anxiety, not only among students but also in the general human population as well. These factors have been associated with increased academic performance. In fact, there has been evidence of upcoming research studies suggesting that the lack of physical exercise or inactivity may in the near future overtake the detrimental effects tobacco is known to have on human beings (Grissom, 2005, p. 1). Some sections of the media have also identified that survivors of cancer have a higher likelihood of preventing the occurrence of the disease if they regularly exercise and observe a healthy diet. These findings are likely to develop a new relationship between the learning environment and student cognitive development, but more questions still linger on whether the relationship between physical exercises and academic achievement can be linked to academic performance when standardized tests are applicable (Kirk, 2006, p. 203). Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This point of view is shared by Grissom (2005) who notes that “Few studies have used standardized fitness measures and standardized test scores in large urban populations or examined the relationship of academic achievement and fitness among elementary and middle school students” (p. 3). However, the same level of optimism about physical exercising in the media and health circles is not evidenced in the educational field as it is in other disciplines as well. In fact, in educational circles, physical education is seen as an extracurricular activity and if there is increased pressure on teachers to improve academic results, often, physical education is the first to be cut-back so that more time is created for other academic activities. Many researchers are against this sort of trend because they explain that if physical education exposes a positive correlation with academic excellence, then it would no longer be perceived as an extracurricular activity (Grissom, 2005, p. 1). This study primarily relies on this point of view because apart from the obvious health benefits associated with physical education, there is still a direct link it has to academic excellence. There has been very minimal research done to establish the relationship between physical fitness and academic achievement and those that exist have significant methodology problems that eventually result in the occurrence of significant doubts about their findings. Those that have had a conclusive finding have, however, suffered the problem of obtaining credible data to support their arguments and therefore, their conclusions are not as strong as they should be. We will write a custom Thesis on Academic Achievement and Physical Fitness specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Nonetheless, one of the main factors why many researchers have hit a dead-end in establishing the relationship between physical fitness and academic achievement is because of the fact that it is difficult to obtain valid and reliable measures for both physical fitness and academic excellence. Because of this challenge, this study will make use of the state testing criteria for both variables (academic achievement and physical fitness). From the understanding of the relationship between academic excellence and physical exercise, educationists can, therefore, be directed on the best channels to direct their resources. Considering the importance of this study in the establishment of positive academic outcomes in schools, this study establishes that there is a positive correlation between physical exercising and academic achievement. Importance of Understanding the Study Understanding the relationship between physical fitness and academic achievement is very important for educationists and parents alike because it ensures they are aware of the dynamics that relate to the two variables and how it may affect students and children respectively. Teachers and educationists may find the information quite useful in drawing up an effective program that basically integrates both variables for optimum results (Science Daily, 2010, p. 4). In other words, they can be able to quickly strike a balance between physical and academic activities for optimum results. This also entails facilitating the development of the right program mixes and policy balances which are overly sensitive to the upheaval of education standards. Also considering most educators are normally under immense pressure to improve academic performance in light of scarce educational resources, this study’s findings are likely to point such people in the right direction by identifying possible areas of effective resource allocation that will consequently lead to the proper utilization of academic resources (Science Daily, 2010, p. 4). Time is one such resource and many schools are often faced with the dilemma of allocating time to the most productive functional areas of education. From the understanding of the contribution physical education brings to academic performance, time can, therefore, be allocated to physical education if it is established that it has a significant contribution to academic performance, or on the contrary, time can be cut back if it is established that it does not have a significant contribution to academic performance. Not sure if you can write a paper on Academic Achievement and Physical Fitness by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Since most educators have often been criticized for not providing holistic education and only focused on academic performance, the findings of this study will be useful to educators and policymakers in establishing the extent through which physical education will affect academic performance because physical fitness is an element of learning that encompasses a holistic education demanded by most people (Science Daily, 2010, p. 4). Moreover, its impact on academic performance will be accurately quantified because academic performance is normally perceived to be the pinnacle of education and most learning institutions would not compromise it if they do not have a correct assessment of the impact physical education has on it (academic success). Moreover, in today’s current era of increased competition, many learning institutions have been observed to cut back on the time allocated to physical education in order to have a competitive advantage over others institutions and so the information derived from this study will be useful to learning institutions which do not intend to take this strategy while still uphold good academic performance (Science Daily, 2010, p. 4). Literature Review The concern about children health has been a new issue of concern not only in educational circles but also in social circles. More so, there have been increased concerns about the increased rate of obesity among children and new research studies presented at the American’s Heart Association forum suggest that physical health concerns among students is correlated to the level of academic achievement (Cottrell, 2010). There have been closely related research studies done by Cottrell, an educational researcher at Wood County in America who was trying to establish the relationship between body mass index and academic performance. He suggested that students who had better grades (above average) in Mathematics, science and social studies were in an overall good physical state of fitness while those who were not in functional physical fitness (in a period of two years) performed poorly in academics for the two years studied (Chomitz, 2009, p. 30). In affirmation of his findings, he explained that “The take-home message from this study is that we want our kids to be fit as long as possible and it will show in their academic performance” (Cottrell, 2010, p. 31). He further reiterated that “But if we can intervene on those children who are not necessarily fit and get them to fit levels physically, we may also see their academic performance increase” (Cottrell, 2010, p. 32). In complementing these findings, auxiliary studies (still done by Cottrell) suggested that students who regularly took part in physical exercises were bound to have very vibrant adulthood (Cottrell, 2010). In response to these findings, it was established by the American heart association that students should do at least an hour of physical exercising a day so that they are in a fit position to enhance their youth and improve their academic performance altogether (Science Daily, 2010). In summing their findings, Medical News (2011) concluded that “The study suggests that focusing more on physical fitness and physical education in school would result in healthier, happier and smarter children” (p. 11). However, studies done by Grissom (2005) expose an interesting underlying premise behind this positive correlation. In detail, he exposes the fact that the positive correlation between physical fitness and academic success is strongest among female students than males (Grissom, 2005). In the same manner, he observes that the positive correlation between physical fitness and academic achievement is also more evident among higher socioeconomic status than lower strata. Grissom was also involved in another co relational research study presented in the year 2005 and aimed at investigating the relationship between academic achievement and physical fitness. The research study affirmed that there was a strong relationship between physical fitness and academic achievement (California Department of Education, 2005, p. 1). This conclusion sought to validate previous research findings which also established the positive correlation between physical fitness and academic achievement. The study was done with the knowledge that, previous studies established a positive relationship between academic achievement and physical fitness, but it was nevertheless done because previous research evidence acknowledged a missing causal relationship between the two variables. To support the research’s findings, data relating to a previous physical fitness test undertaken in the state of California during the year 2004 were used. The data used was obtained from the Fitnessgram test, which is the standard California test used to evaluate students’ fitness levels. The test was administered from February to May of the year 2004 and it was administered to a large sample size of students sought from fifth, seventh and ninth grades. The students were sought from selected public schools in the state of California. With regards to the subject areas studied and the administration time-frame, California Department of Education (2005) explains that, “The CST scores were measures of academic achievement in English–language arts, mathematics, history-social science, and science. The CSTs were administered in spring 2004 to students in the second grade through the eleventh grade in California public schools” (p. 6). Before the test was undertaken, the demographical information of the respondents was collected according to the requirements of two testing programs used in the study (PFT and CST). The demographic data was used to create matching files to be equated to the various testing criteria of the PFT and CST. The files which posed a matching score had to have data relating to a respondent’s fitnessgram test and the CST test. In this regard, it was easier to compare data relating to PFT and CST. However, the PFT score determined six aspects of a respondent’s fitness including “the aerobic capacity, body composition, abdominal strength, trunk strength, upper body strength and flexibility” (California Department of Education, 2005, p. 7). These parameters abound, the performance of the respondents was determined in two levels, “(1) in the healthy fitness zone, which means students met or exceeded the fitness target, or (2) needs improvement, which means students failed to meet the fitness target” (California Department of Education, 2005, p. 10). The PFT scores, therefore, ranged from zero to six, meaning that, if a respondent scored one on the fitness score, he or she would only have satisfied one of the fitness criteria. In the same regard, if a respondent scored six on the fitness score, he or she should have satisfied all the fitness criteria guidelines. In finalizing the methodological application of the research, California Department of Education (2005) establishes that: “Analyses first calculated the mean scale scores for the CST in English–language arts and the CST in mathematics for each overall PFT score. Second, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and linear regression was used to test the statistical significance of the relationship between the overall PFT and achievement scores” (p. 10). From the above methodology, it was established that, when the PFT scores improved, there was a resultant improvement in the scores of English language test. It was further established that, for students who did not meet the average scale score of the English language, a score of 311 was recorded on the fitness scale (for fifth graders), while students from the seventh and ninth graders who also satisfied the above requirements scored and average of 300 and 304 ( for seventh and ninth graders respectively). Moreover, the California Department of Education (2005) establishes that: “The average scale score on the CST in English–language arts for fifth-grade students who achieved all six fitness standards was 355. The same scale score for seventh and ninth graders was 350 and 352, respectively. The change in average scale scores on the CST in English–language arts from those who achieved none of the fitness standards to those who achieved all six was around 50 points” (p. 12). These test results showed that there was a positive relationship between physical fitness and academic achievement because as one variable increased, so did the other. The mathematics scale scores showed nothing different with the English studies because as the PFT studies improved, the CST scale scores improved as well. This result shows that, there was a strong consistency in the results evidenced from mathematics and English test scores. However, in determining this outcome, it is essential to acknowledge that the analysis of variance and linear regression was important in establishing the statistical validity of the findings. In undertaking the research study, there was concern among the researchers to investigate if there were any significant variations in the character of the respondents (which would ultimately affect the relationship between physical fitness and academic achievement) (California Department of Education, 2005, p. 16). In this regard, the population sample was later broken down into subgroups of girls and boys. It was later established that, there was a consistency of outcome in determining the relationship between physical fitness and academic achievement because the relationship between fitness and academic achievement was consistent across the genders. However, though this relationship was considered solid up to this point, it was evidenced that, the change in achievement scores was greater for girls than for boys. Socioeconomic status was also used as a parameter for establishing the relationship between physical fitness and academic achievement and the National school lunch program acted as a proxy for the parameter. Through this proxy, it was established that students who received free lunch came from a lower socioeconomic status and those who did not, came from a higher socioeconomic status. The same positive relationship between physical fitness and academic achievement was still observed under this parameter, but it was established that the rate of scores in academic achievement was higher for students who were under the National school lunch program as compared to those who were not (California Department of Education, 2005, p. 14). The outcome of the study was predictably similar for mathematics and English test scores and in the same manner, the results of seventh and fifth-graders were consistent with the results of the fifth graders. Collectively, the results showed that the positive relationship between physical fitness and academic achievement was stronger for girls than for boys and in the same manner, it was stronger for students from a higher socioeconomic status than for students from a lower socioeconomic status. The biggest strength for the conclusions derived from this study emanates from the fact that, the researchers used the analysis of variance and linear regression as a test of the statistical difference of the conclusions derived. Both linear regression and the analysis of variance helped validate the data derived from the findings because linear regression in isolation implements a statistical model that when relationships between independent and dependent relationships almost develop a linear relationship, optimal results will be achieved, but in the same manner, linear relationships can be inappropriately used to model nonlinear relationships if caution is not taken. Grissom was also involved in another co relational research study (cited in Grissom, 2005) aimed at investigating the relationship between academic achievement and physical fitness. The objective of this research study was the same as the previous research study cited in this article because it was aimed at evaluating the relationship between physical fitness and academic achievement, although different parameters were used. For instance, although the study used the Fitnessgram test, scores derived from this measure was compared to the standard achievement test which is an independent from of standardized test used to evaluate student performance. The respondents were also fifth, seventh and ninth graders, just like the previous study, but they amounted to 884,174 students, which was a large sample size for the study. The students were selected from California public schools through the state requirements for the Fitnessgram test. The large population sampled is a great strength of the study because it is affirmed that, large samples of study add to the credibility of the conclusion to be derived from a study because they expose a lot of variations in the conclusions derived. Moreover, there are fewer chances of error occurrence when large samples are used. Another strength evidenced from this study is the fact that, it relied on the Fitnessgram test, which is guaranteed by the California law as credible and accurate. In fact, Grissom (2005) explains that: “…During the month of February, March, April, or May, the governing board of each School district maintaining any of grades five, seven and nine shall administer to each pupil in those grades the physical performance test designated by the state board of education” (p. 19). These regulations expose the fact that, the Fitnessgram scores were consistent and standardized. Moreover, the Fitnessgram test has several options which ensure that performance tasks are effectively completed with ease. For example, it offered unique features to ensure even disabled students are able to complete the task; the same way, other students do. This feature ensured that, the conclusion derived from the study was holistic. In this study, the Fitnessgram test was used to measure five fitness aspects: “aerobic capacity, body composition, flexibility, trunk strength, and upper body strength” (Grissom, 2005, p. 19). In obtaining accurate data for the above parameters, the Fitnessgram test was designed to collect data by requiring students to complete “one option from aerobic capacity, one option from body composition, the curl-up test, the trunk lift test, one option from upper body strength and one option from flexibility” (Grissom, 2005, p. 19). To add to the strengths of the findings obtained from this research study, it is essential to acknowledge that, the standards envisioned in the Fitnessgram test were validated by the Cooper institute of Aerobics research with the performance classified into two divisions: where students met the healthy division target and where the students failed to meet the fitness target (Grissom, 2005, p. 20). The score ranged from zero to six; whereby zero meant no target was reached and six meant all targets were attained. In collecting data regarding the Fitnessgram test, PFT and STAR programs were used. As a result, matched files were created; whereby data regarding the matched files were used to account for the PFT scores and standardized achievement scores. The standardized test came in handy during the collection of demographical information regarding the respondents because information such as the birth date and gender were clearly documented. However, in the collection of such demographical data, there was a slight possibility of the occurrence of errors as is explained by Grissom (2005) that: “As such, these data were used to evaluate the relationship between overall scores on the PFT and the standardized achievement tests. There could be errors in the matching process, but there was no reason to believe matching errors biased the results” (p. 20). The study also established that, the relationship between physical fitness and academic achievement was consistently positive; meaning that, as the scores in the fitness scale improved, the scores in the academic scale also improved. The researchers also did a subgroup study on the different demographical parameters of the sample population and consequently came up with socioeconomic status and gender as the defining parameters. The criteria to segregate the population along socioeconomic lines was the same as the previous 2005 study mentioned in this article because it was established that, students who enrolled in the school lunch feeding program was from a lower socioeconomic status and those who did not, were from a higher socioeconomic status. In this regard, the study established that, the intensity of the relationship between academic achievement and physical fitness was stronger for female respondents than male respondents and therefore, in the same manner; the relationship was stronger in higher socioeconomic groups as opposed to lower socioeconomic groups. Nonetheless, the researchers identified that: “there may be other mental aspects attributed to the improvement in academic performance than just physical fitness. The average test score by way of PFT was an average of the indicator relationship between fitness and achievement but to validate the statistical significance of the findings, the analysis of variance was used to validate the relationship between overall PFT score and the achievement scores” (Grissom, 2005, p. 21). Only students who had complete sores on the PFT tests had their results tabulated because there would have been some inconsistencies observed in the conclusions if there were test results below six included in the findings. If this was done, it would mean that, there would be incomplete test scores included in the study and this would have dented the validity of the study because the minimal competency for the study would not have been attained. ANOVA tests affirmed that there was a statistically significant relationship between physical fitness and academic achievement. However, it was acknowledged that, this positive correlation was also subject to other variables not mentioned in the study. For example, it was established that the positive correlation between physical fitness and academic achievement in students from higher socioeconomic groups could have been brought about by the fact that, children from a higher socioeconomic status have better health, hail from a background of higher academic achievement and generally live in better human conditions which probably contribute to their better physical fitness levels (Grissom, 2005). On the other hand, students who hail from a lower socioeconomic status are more likely to suffer family turmoil, and their households are bound to be more unstable when compared to students hailing from a higher socioeconomic status. Such students are also likely to live in deplorable conditions which ultimately affect their health and have less social supportive networks. Generally, they are also likely to have less cognitive enriching environments because of a collection of the above factors or a combination of two or more factors (Grissom, 2005, p. 22). In the same regard, it was established that, despite the positive correlation between physical fitness and academic achievement, causality cannot be established from this relationship. Grissom (2005) explains that: “There was no time or logical ordering that automatically leads from one event to the other. It is just as logical to believe that mental capacity affects physical ability. For example, there is evidence that mental stress can lower the effectiveness of the immune system” (p. 21). From this analysis, it was affirmed that, the study only represented a preliminary analysis into the relationship existing between academic achievement and physical fitness, but it was also affirmed that the study’s findings presented an excellent ground for the development of future models and theories defining the relationship between academic achievement and physical fitness. Experimental designs were also identified to fail to expose the causality underlying various co relational relationships because they were assumed to be premature and bound to fail to expose the underlying factors affecting the relationship between physical fitness and academic achievement. This fact was supported by the assumption that, it was extremely difficult to increase academic achievement in subsequent time-frames (Grissom, 2005). Nonetheless, these insights were not an argument against experimental designs because conclusively, the study established that, there was a positive relationship between academic achievement and physical fitness. Other research studies done to dig deeper into the specific areas of academic achievement showed that academic achievement was noted to improve most in mathematics and science subjects. In the same studies, it was established that there was no significant improvement in performance of subjects other than the two. For instance, in Canada, it was established that an increase of physical exercises of one hour each day resulted in a significant improvement in mathematics scores for second, third, fourth, fifths and sixth graders (Chomitz, 2009, p. 35). It was also established that there was no significant changes of academic performance in other subject areas. However, for some reason, the studies caution users from making direct conclusions about the positive correlation between physical exercising and mathematics. New York City’s health department has also reiterated the fact that physically fit students are bound to outperform their colleagues who are sedentary when it comes to academic performance. These findings had been derived from research studies evaluating the relationship among high school students using the state’s test measurement criterion – the NYC Fitnessgram (Harutyunyan, 2009, p. 1). The study was necessitated by the rising obesity levels among children in New York. The statistics exposed that about 21% of students at kindergarten level (all through to the 8th grade) were obese and comprehensively, it was estimated that the city’s total student population had an obesity prevalence rate of approximately 18% (Harutyunyan, 2009, p. 1). It was estimated that children who highly performed on both variables in the NYC fitness score tremendously outperformed those who got a poor score in the fitness program scale. The difference was characterized by 36 percentile points (Harutyunyan, 2009, p. 1). After it was established that there was a positive correlation between physical activities and academic excellence, the city’s educational administrators decided to sensitize parents on the benefits of eating healthy foods and allocating at least 60 minutes a day of their children’s time to exercising. A number of activities were identified as appropriate exercises parents could encourage their children to engage in (they included, cycling, dancing skipping the rope, playing basketball, or even taking a simple walk). Among these factors, a host of other recommendations were identified to be helpful in improving the students’ activity levels. They included limiting the time students spent on the computers (and more so the internet). This also included television and video game use. The second recommendation advanced to parents was to prepare healthy foods for their children, such as vegetables and fruits, at least two times a day. It was also recommended that the children should not drink beverages that have a lot of calories like sodas or juice; instead they should consume low-fat milk and water. Parents were also advised to encourage their children to avoid unhealthy foods and consider the healthy foods and diets provided at school. The above findings can be explained by Scheuer (2003, p. 3) who identifies the fact that physical exercises significantly boost students’ brain nourishment, and revitalizes the students’ brain function to eventually increase the student’s ability to perform well in cognitive learning exercises. Complimentary findings have also established that physical exercising among students increases students’ self-esteem, concentration and encourages better behavior, thereby leading to an increased positive attitude among students who fall within this category (Bailey, 2000, p. 75). However, there has not been a strong relationship established to link the above-mentioned factors with excellent academic performance, although it is presumed that students with high self-esteem, better behavior and high concentration levels are likely to perform better than those who do not share the same attributes. However, it has been affirmed that physical exercising is bound to increase academic achievement more effectively in the short run rather than the long run. Interesting studies done on older adults note that physical activity is likely to increase cognitive function among this group of students, in the same way, it does younger students (Scheuer, 2003, p. 3). This observation, therefore, explains the findings observed by Cottrell because it was further established that physical exercising was bound to increase brain attributes which facilitated increased cerebral blood flow in the brain (which obviously complimented cognitive learning) (Corbin, 2010, p. 64). In addition, it was also established that increased physical exercising was bound to improve hormonal imbalance and therefore, instances of better nutritional intake among students were bound to be boosted. This observation was seconded by research studies cited in (Medical News, 2011) which suggested that “a trio of studies presented at the 2001 Society for Neuroscience Conference suggest that regular exercise can improve cognitive function and increase levels of substances in the brain responsible for maintaining the health of neurons” (p. 2). These findings are also supported by other similar findings by Darla Castelli, an American professor in Illinois (cited in Medical News, 2011) who establishes that “students’ total fitness, as measured by passing all 5 components of the Fitnessgram, positively correlated with academic achievement, measured by the standardized Illinois State Achievement Test, particularly Mathematics and Science” (p. 5). Brain functions were further identified to improve significantly due to increased physical exercises because there were increased instances of energy generation brought about by physical exercises because physical exercises provided a break from the boring classroom environment, therefore resulting in higher attention levels among students. In conclusion to these findings, Medical News (2011) recommends that: “Enhanced brain function, energy levels, body builds/perceptions, self-esteem, and behavior have been attributed to physical activity and to improved academic performance. One cannot make direct correlations from the information offered. However, it is obvious that many positive relationships have been suggested. Perhaps instead of decreasing physical activity, school officials should consider developing enhanced physical activity programs” (p. 3). Studies were done by John Gardner center (cited in Gardner, 2009, p. 1) also show a positive correlation between physical fitness and academic performance based on demographical factors. Comprehensively, they identify that students who managed to pass the California Physical fitness test also showed similar higher performance in the state’s standardized test (Rahl, 2010, p. 81). It was further established that the positive relationship exhibited between physical exercising and positive academic outcomes did not start at the time the studies were done, but at a year before the studies were undertaken. Moreover, upon close follow-up of the research, it was established that the same observations were evidenced throughout the academic life of the studied students (Gardner, 2009, p. 1). Since the study was undertaken within two years, it was affirmed that students who showed increased physical activity between their fifth and seventh grades showed a significant increase in academic achievement as well, but the opposite was observed with students whose physical fitness declined within the two years. However, it was established that the academic achievement observed among highly fit students was only evident when general fitness was studied and not a specific fitness measure (Gardner, 2009, p. 1). Regardless of the conclusions derived from the above findings, it should not be assumed that physical fitness is the magical solution to students who do not enjoy the high academic performance (Biddle, 2008, p. 186). For instance, students who take part in educational programs hampered by limited facilities cannot enjoy high academic excellence even if they are physically fit. To reiterate this sentiment, Biddle (2008) notes that “We’re not suggesting that if we run more laps, it will make us smarter…but there does appear to be a correlation” (p. 4). This fact, therefore, implies that academic achievement is just one segment of the academic achievement puzzle. Because of the interesting intrigues about physical fitness and academic achievement, it is affirmed that a number of strategies can be adopted to improve students’ fitness even though a learning institution may be faced with other educational problems such as a lack of resources. For starters, learning institutions should endeavor to maximize existing opportunities in the school curriculum to improve the physical fitness of the students. This can be achieved by making use of the instructional time available for teachers in effecting physical education through the integration of physical fitness activities with other subject activities (Gardner, 2009, p. 1). This recommendation has been touted by many educationists after it was established that students find the above strategy quite beneficial if the instructional time is used to undertake a given rigorous activity. Another alternative could be revamping the conventional school menu to give room for healthier diets (especially if there is very limited time to allocate for traditional physical exercising). Expanding partnerships between communities and learning institutions has also been advanced as one way through which institutions of learning can provide fitness related programming which is out of the boundaries of normal instructional time (Gardner, 2009, p. 1). The partnerships can be forged with community foundations, organization and even the state, through existing sport programs that may be beneficial to the students. Lastly, learning institutions can pursue a strategy of engaging the community to increase physical activity among the students. The community also includes parental involvement which is very important in the exercise because parents normally wield a lot of control on their children and most of them are also mentors to their children in their own light. Conclusion This study contributes to the growing body of knowledge, which identifies that there is a positive correlation between physical fitness and academic achievement. It is also important to note that most of the empirical evidence gathered in this study is derived from a number of socioeconomic parameters across the globe, meaning that the same conclusions have been evidenced in a number of places around the world and across a number of demographical strata. There is a stronger evidence of a positive relationship between physical fitness and academic achievement when analyzed in a number of subjects but more especially mathematics and sciences. The reason this observation is stronger in this group of subjects is not yet established and perhaps this should be the new frontier for future research studies. Although not many studies bother to touch on the real factors behind the positive relationship between physical exercising and academic performance, there is already speculation among educational circles that personal motivation may be a factor to watch considering physical exercising may actually portray a sense of personal achievement which may be mirrored through academic achievement (Chomitz, 2009, p. 35). This means that students who are highly motivated at a personal level may as well strive to expose the same in physical exercising as well as academic excellence. Secondly, there has been speculation that physical activity may actually be a mirror of overall fitness of health where factors like nutrition, physical and weight status may actually portray a healthy student and such parameters are likely to lead to high academic achievement. This would essentially mean that academic achievement is probably evidenced because of overall good health as opposed to physical activity per se. In fact, there are already existing research studies exposing the link between good health and high academic achievement where factors like weight status, food sufficiency and such as general health status have been studied. This should be analyzed as its own distinct area of study and therefore, its conclusions should not be augmented when analyzing physical fitness as a distinct, independent variable. However, it should also be acknowledged that various socioeconomic parameters play a significant role in the increase of academic standards. This analysis is essential because numerous studies have consistently mentioned the input of a student’s background because it extensively determines students’ academic performance. This also poses as a new area of research considering the relationship between physical fitness and academic performance could be done based on various socioeconomic statuses. Conclusively, this study points out that there is a positive correlation between physical exercising and academic achievement. Expressly, it also identifies how learning institutions can be able to maximize this benefit through partnerships, effective utilization of institutional time and such like factors. Allocating at least an hour a day to physical exercises is a commendable move according to medical experts because it improves brain activity and this consequently leads to an improvement of academic standards. Thus, in light of the positive influences physical activities have on academic progression it is in order to recommend that learning institutions should allocate more time to physical activities to improve educational performance because there is an obvious positive correlation between physical exercising and academic achievement. References Bailey, R. (2000). Teaching Physical Education 5-11. New York: Continuum International Publishing Group. Biddle, S. (2008). Psychology of Physical Activity: Determinants, Well-Being, and Interventions. London: Routledge. California Department of Education. (2005) A Study of the Relationship Between Physical Fitness and Academic Achievement in California Using 2004 Test Results. Web. Chomitz, V. (2009). Is There a Relationship between Physical Fitness And Academic Achievement? Positive Results from Public School Children in the Northeastern United States. Journal of School Health, 79(1), 30-36. Corbin, C. (2010). Fitness for Life: Elementary School Guide for Wellness Coordinators. New York: Human Kinetics. Cottrell. (2010). Students’ Physical Fitness Associated With Academic Achievement; Organized Physical Activity. Web. Gardner, J. (2009). Exploring the Link between Physical Fitness and Academic Achievement. Web. Grissom, J. (2005). Physical Fitness and Academic Achievement. Journal of Exercise Physiology, 8(1), 11-24. Harutyunyan, R. (2009). Physical Fitness Associated With Higher Academic Achievement. Web. Kirk, D. (2006). The Handbook of Physical Education. London: SAGE. Medical News. (2011). Strong Relationship between Kids Academic Achievement And Fitness. Web. Rahl, R. (2010). Physical Activity and Health Guidelines: Recommendations for Various Ages, Fitness Levels, and Conditions from 57 Authoritative Sources. New York: Human Kinetics. Scheuer, L. J. (2003). Does Physical Activity Influence Academic Performance? Web. Science Daily. (2010). Students’ Physical Fitness Associated With Academic Achievement; Organized Physical Activity. Web.

CU Application of Artificial Intelligence In Software Testing Discussion

CU Application of Artificial Intelligence In Software Testing Discussion.

Write an introduction of Chapter 1 and Chapter 2 of a Dissertation on the topic: Application of Artificial Intelligence in software testing.The total assignment should be around 3-4 pages. And it should be in APA format.Please note, Chapter-1 and Chapter-2 of a dissertation is nothing but Introduction and Literature review. (you can also google about what is Chapter 1 and Chapter 2 in a dissertation) So we just need to write the Introduction (outline) of Chapter-1 and Chapter-2.This should be related to the topic: Application of Artificial Intelligence in Software testing.Brief idea on my dissertation topic: My dissertation’s primary purpose will be to study the trends and challenges in software testing and AI in software testing over the past decade and researching the latest AI advancements in software testing. Finally, we will suggest which steps need to be taken to overcome the practical challenges with the latest AI application advances in software testing
CU Application of Artificial Intelligence In Software Testing Discussion

Exchange Rate Risk Management Concepts

essay writer free 1.Introduction Foreign Exchange Risk Management is a lot of enterprises are facing the risk of foreign exchange. Their wealth through the impact of exchange rate changes, and will seek to manage their risk exposure. Foreign exchange risk (also known as foreign exchange risk, exchange rate risk and currency risk) is the existence of financial transactions denominated a financial risk than the monetary base of the company when the currency. Foreign exchange risk also exists, when outside the foreign subsidiaries of an enterprise to keep in the consolidated entity standard currency for bookkeeping currency financial statements. Foreign exchange exposure has been a hot issue and its relationship with hedging strategy also has been studied in many literatures. The authors argued that there is an operational hedging and financial hedging are inversely related to the firm’s foreign exchange exposure. (Hutson

This week’s discussion will focus on cultural decision-making using the case study “Brief Integrative Case 2.1: Coca-Cola in India” (p. 248) in International Management: Culture, Strategy, and Behavior.

This week’s discussion will focus on cultural decision-making using the case study “Brief Integrative Case 2.1: Coca-Cola in India” (p. 248) in International Management: Culture, Strategy, and Behavior.. I need help with a Management question. All explanations and answers will be used to help me learn.

This week’s discussion will focus on cultural decision-making using the case study “Brief Integrative Case 2.1: Coca-Cola in India” (p. 248) in International Management: Culture, Strategy, and Behavior.
This case focuses on the cultural differences of the U.S. company Coca- Cola and the country of India. In this situation, the people in the area around the Coca-Cola plant accused Coca-Cola of reducing the water levels, and more importantly, contaminating the water supply used for farming and personal consumption in their bottling process.
After reflecting on this situation involving cultural differences, as a leader, how might MNEs demonstrate their commitment to working with different countries like Saudi Arabia and respecting the cultural and natural environments of the country?
What types of decisions would you need to make? Would there be bias in the decision-making process? Can you give an example?
APA style
6-8 Paragraphs
2-3 references
This week’s discussion will focus on cultural decision-making using the case study “Brief Integrative Case 2.1: Coca-Cola in India” (p. 248) in International Management: Culture, Strategy, and Behavior.

CNL 500 Grand Canyon University Solution Focused Therapy Discussion

CNL 500 Grand Canyon University Solution Focused Therapy Discussion.

I’m working on a psychology question and need support to help me study.

Short-term theories have become popular in the past number of years due to the pressure from insurance companies and the legal needs to address the clients’ presenting problems. With this in mind, why might it be important to consider using solution-focused theory? What can a counselor do to make sure they support their client effectively in a short-term situation? How do your skills need to change when your time with a client is limited?This discussion question is informed by the following CACREP Standards: 2.F.5.a. Theories and models of counseling.
CNL 500 Grand Canyon University Solution Focused Therapy Discussion

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