There are different types of structures which can be used to structure an organisation, some of the ways include: * Functional- employees in the functional structured organisations are usually expected to perform a specialized set of tasks, for example the accounting department would only have accountants as their employees, and this means an increase in production but can also mean a lack of communication between different functional departments which would mean production in a business would be slow and inflexible. A functional structure is best suited to business whose target aim is sell large volumes of goods at low prices.
Other departments in this structure include production, finance, marketing and many more. * Divisional- divisional structure is a structure where each organisational function is grouped into a division. All the required resources and functions are contained in each division in a divisional structure. Divisions can be structured into different types, there can be one made on a geographical basis; for example an EU division, or there could be division on a product/service basis; for example variety of products from different householders or companies.
Like a functional structure a divisional structure may also have different departments such as marketing, sales or finance. * Geographical structure- this is a structure used for businesses which have firms in different geographic regions. This type of structure allows a business’s offices to operate on its own whilst still following the company policies and values. A firm’s location in this type of structure can be local, national or international. Depending on the size of the business, each geographic location may report to an executive who controls several ifferent locations or it may report directly to the top executives who are located at the main office of the business. The reporting structure is based on the size of the organization and its industry. This type of structure is mainly used in industries such as retailing, hotel chains or other large national and international organisations. Manufacturing businesses with firm in different geographical location may choose to use this structure. The two businesses I will look at in this assignment and talk about their organisational structure are Tesco and Apple, both huge global businesses.
Being such massive businesses it means that it is vital for Tesco and Apple to have an organisational structure within the company. Both the businesses use functional structure within the business and within the structure there are different functional areas, both the businesses also have similar functional areas. The main activities and responsibilities of functional areas within Tesco and Apple are; * Customer Service * Distribution * Finance * Human Resources * ICT * Marketing * Sales * Production * Research and Development The Customer Service function- Customer service employees at Tesco and Apple look after the customers who have questions or complaints regarding Tesco and for Apple regarding the products. Customer service employees need to make sure that all customers are satisfied and happy so, they are trained to handle enquiries and complaints positively and professionally, when customers enquire or complain with customer service they are expected to have a quick, polite and well-informed reply from the employees.
Tesco is a manufactured organisation so therefore they can hire customer service employees to handle all types of questions or complaints and also give detailed advice and information to customers. Apple is also a similar type of organisation and they also need to make sure that there employees are trained well to deal with customer enquiries or complaints to the customers satisfaction otherwise this could lead to customer loss or bad reputation. The Distribution function- The function of the distribution staff is to make sure that all goods are delivered to the right place on time and are in a good condition. The distribution function arranges goods which can be collected, work all the routes for many vehicles, checking that the vehicles are loaded quickly and are safe and secure to go. They also complete delivery forms, plan and schedule vehicle routes, lets employees know when they are meant to deliver goods so that the customers can be aware of it and deal with any problem that occurs e. g. eather problems or a breakdown of the vehicle. Tesco is a large international company so therefore they can afford to hire distribution employees who distribute goods to different places, similar to Apple as they are a large company like Tesco meaning they can also afford to hire distribution employees. * The Finance function- Finance staffs are responsible for the money that is spent and earned by Tesco and Apple. This is important because it can help senior mangers keep track of how much profit or loss is being made for each product and what changes to make if there are any losses.
The function of a finance staff is very important in a large international business like Tesco and Apple. In Tesco and Apple some types of financial experts that are hired are- – management accountants – financial accountants – Credit controllers. The function of a financial employee is to support the accounts by keeping records, track any late payments and pay for goods or items that the company purchases. * The Human Resources (HR) function- The function of Human Resource staff within Tesco and Apple is to be responsible for employees inside the company. They deal with the workforce, planning, recruitment, training and paying issues.
The functions of human resources relate mainly to the employees within Tesco and Apple and can make the job become more successful. Human resources aim to make sure that businesses keep hold of good experienced employees and let go off poor employees. * The ICT function- The function of an ICT staff at Tesco and Apple is to make sure that all Tesco’s and Apple’s data is stored correctly and efficiently on their systems and make sure that their systems does not fail or fault, make sure that the staff computers are linked towards the customer’s and install any new software which can help the business become more useful to customers.
They also purchase any computer supplies e. g. cables or printer cartridges which staff might need in the production department. The function of the ICT staff at Tesco and Apple is also to make sure they set up system security to make sure that no one goes on to the system to change any of the information. ICT staff also has to make sure that the businesses website is kept in order and can easily be accessible so customers have no difficulties with it. The Marketing function- The Marketing function is to identify consumer’s needs and wants and then supply them with the right products, in the right place at the right time; for example customers of Apple wanting better and newer high tech gadgets or customers in Tesco wanting price reductions. They would need to identify and meet the customer’s needs and make sure that production workers produces high- quality goods and respond to a customer enquiry promptly and accurately. The Sales function- The function of a sales staff is essential for Tesco and Apple because their main role is to sell products and services to the customer in order for the business to keep on running. At Tesco and Apple, sales staffs are very important because without sales staffs the two global businesses would not be able to reach their aims and objectives like becoming the number one business in the world at what they do. They organise sale promotions, help customers with their enquiries and keep customers records up to date. The Production function- The production function at Tesco and Apple is to make sure that the goods of Tesco and Apple are produced on time and is in a high quality for the customers. The production staffs also make sure that any deliveries that are made are the right ones and if there are any problems they will have to contact the supplier. With Apple and Tesco having such a Top reputation it is essential that the production produce products which are up to the standards of the customers, mainly for Apple as customers of Apple would have to pay a very high amount of money to purchase any of their products.
Climate Change and Malaria in Western Kenyan Highliands – A Case Study
Climate Change and Malaria in Western Kenyan Highliands – A Case Study.
A case study approach to studying the relationship between climate change and malaria in Kenya (the highlands specifically). This is a dissertation proposal A few notes: – highlight the current situation in Kenya – looking at what they are doing in national adaptation programs – in the background/intro section – have a paragraph about why Kenya was chosen specifically – A detailed reason as to why a case study approach has been taken for this particular section – reference sources to qualitative research methods (methods section) Also in the research questions and aims section: Please format 1. the research questions of the dissertation 2. aims of the dissertation 3. objectives (sub aims – steps taken to achieve the aims) The Guidelines for the proposal: The assessment requires you to design a dissertation proposal that draws on the methods that you have learned about during the program (i.e. literature review, case-study, policy analysis), and should be on a topic that is relevant to global health. You will have a chance to discuss your ideas with your dissertation supervisor and also in plenary with staff from the Unit. The total word limit for this assignment is 1000 words (not including title and abstract). There is some flexibility around how you use the word count, but we have given suggested word counts in brackets next to each section to help you structure the assignment and weight each section appropriately. You should approach this assignment in the following stages: • Consider a broad area in which you are interested in undertaking your dissertation, either from the list of topics circulated during seminar 2, or from your own background. • Generate some specific research questions in this area. • Decide on one of these research questions for your study. • Decide on a research design • Plan the study. • Write a brief outline of the study proposal, including any foreseeable problems you may encounter, and how you plan to overcome these. You will need to restrict your research questions to those that are suited to the methods and approaches that you have learnt about during the Program. For example typical qualitative research questions may be those that begin: “What is the nature of…..”, “What is the experience of….”, “What are the views of…”, and so on. Questions that could be expressed “How many of….”, “What is the chance that….”, or “What proportion of….” would need to be answered via quantitative research. Writing your study proposal Your proposal should be structured as follows: • Title: try to include the subject of the study and the study design within the title. For example: ‘Qualitative interview study of communication between parents and children about maternal breast cancer’. • Structured abstract (100 words – not included in your 1000 word count but this is a guide) to include objectives, methods/methodology, and possible data sources. • Introduction and background/rationale. You are not expected to undertake a time-consuming literature review for this section, but we would like you to briefly summarise why you chose this area of study, and what, from your initial reading around the topic, seem to be the key issues for research in this area. In this section please include references to the papers/bibliography that have helped to inform your thinking. We would also like to see some evidence that you have taken a critical, reflective approach to the literature that you have reviewed and the method/methodology you have chosen. (approx. 300 words) – Please demonstrate literature has been read and analysed – if possible find a ‘gap’ which this aims to fill … • Research question(s) and aims of the study and objectives (approx. 150 words) – can be bullet pointed • Methods (approx. 250 words) In this section please include a short description of your proposed methods and methodology, and an indication of possible data sources. • Approach to analysis In this section describe how you will go about analysing your results (approx. 150 words). • Expected contribution of your proposed research. In this concluding section you should consider what you think the main contribution(s) of your proposed research will be. This is likely to include new knowledge and may also include some other proposed impacts – for example to patients, the public, policy makers, educators etc. When you are designing a research grant for a funder it is important to convince them of the expected value of your research and its limitations. (approx. 150 words) • Timelines for your dissertation. Use a simple table to identify the key milestones for your dissertation, meetings with your supervisor, and deadlines (not included in word count). • Reference list (not included in word count) Try to use a references management software. Please use the recommended referencing styles (Harvard or Vancouver).
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