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Organizational controls and structure in business

Introduction Organizational structure can be defined as the formal system of task and authority relationships that control how people coordinate their actions and use resources to achieve organizational goals. (Jones, et al, 2010) [i] Organizational structure specifies: The firm’s formal reporting relationships, procedures, controls, and authority and decision-making processes; and, The work to be done and how to do it, given the firm’s strategy or strategies Developing an organizational structure that effectively supports the firm’s strategy is difficult, especially because of the uncertainty about the cause-effect relationship in the global economy’s rapidly changing and dynamic competitive environments. [ii] Organizational Controls Organization Control includes any process designed to assure that organization plans are carried out the way they were designed. Control in the organizational context can be classified as: 1. Strategic controls 2. Financial controls Strategic controls are largely subjective criteria intended to verify that the firm is using appropriate strategies for conditions in external environment and the company’s competitive advantage. [iii] Strategic controls are concerned with examining the fit between: What the firm might do (opportunities in its external environment) What the firm can do (competitive advantages) Financial controls, on the other hand, are largely objective criteria used to measure the firm’s performance against previously established quantitative standards.iii Financial controls have two criteria: Accounting-based measures include: Return on investment Return on assets Market-based measures include: Economic Value Added (EVA) Relative use of controls varies by type of strategy. Large diversified firms using a cost leadership strategy emphasize financial controls. Companies and business units using a differentiation strategy emphasize strategic controls. In relation with organizational structure, organizational controls are important to measure the effect caused by a change in the structure. Relationships between Strategy and Structure Strategy and structure have a reciprocal relationship. Structure flows from or follows the selection of the firm’s strategy but once in place, structure can influence current strategic actions as well as choices about future strategies. Evolutionary Patterns of Strategy and Organizational Structure The relationship between organization’s strategy and structure was studied extensively by Alfred D. Chandler in his legendary book Strategy and Structure: Chapters in the History of the American Industrial Enterprise. According to Chandler (1962), firms grow in predictable patterns: First by volume Then by geography Then integration (vertical, horizontal) And finally through product/business diversification Chandler also says that a firm’s growth patterns determine its structural form. All organizations require some form of organizational structure to implement and manage their strategies. Firms frequently alter their structure as they grow in size and complexity. The three basic structure types are: Simple structure Functional structure Multidivisional structure (M-form) Global expansion structure The following figure explains the change in organizational structure with growth and strategy. D:Chap11graphicsMultidiv_fig 11.1.jpgD:Chap11graphicsFunctional_fig 11.1.jpgD:Chap11graphicsSimple_fig 11.1.jpg Efficient implementation of formulated strategy Efficient implementation of formulated strategy D:Chap11graphicsSalesHigher_fig 11.1.jpgD:Chap11graphicsSalesLower_fig 11.1.jpg Simple Structure A simple structure is where the owner-manager makes all the major decisions and monitors all activities while the staff serves as an extension of the manager’s supervisory authority. (C. Levicki, 1999). This type of a structure is matched with focus strategies and business-level strategies where firms commonly compete by offering a single product line in a single geographic market. Functional Structure A functional structure is a design that groups people together on the basis of their common expertise and experiences or because they use the same resources. (Jones, et al, 2010) Functional structure supports use of business-level strategies and some corporate-level strategies single or dominant business with low levels of diversification. Multi-divisional Structure The multi-divisional structure (M-form) consists of operating divsions, each representing a separate business or profit center in which the top corporate officer delegates responsibilities for day-to-day operations and business-unit strategy to division managers. Multi-divisional structure has three major benefits: Corporate officers are able to more accurately monitor the performance of each business, which simplifies the problem of control Facilitates comparisons between divisions, which improves the resource allocation process Stimulates managers of poorly performing divisions to look for ways of improving performance International Strategies and Worldwide Structures International strategies are becoming increasingly important for long-term competitive success in what continues to become a global economy. The following framework explains how organizations proper in a global economy: Global expansion strategies Global expansion strategies can be understood in terms of local responsiveness and geographical integration within the company. On the basis of these two parameters, four strategies of global expansion have been arrived at. These are: International strategy Multi-domestic strategy Global strategy Transnational strategy International Strategy In case of international strategy, firms decentralize all value-creation functions except for R
Please help with accounting work..

Please help with the two discussion questions below.  Short answers are acceptable.Pension Plans” Please respond to the following:Imagine you are an accounting manager and are in the process of implementing a pension plan for your organization. Prepare a brief report to management on the various types of pension plans. In your report, compare and contrast a contributory pension plan and a noncontributory pension plan, and discuss the theoretical justification for the accrual recognition of pension cost. Include one (1) recommendation to management on which type of pension plan would be most beneficial to the company.Discuss the type of information that must be included in notes to financial statements, and explain why the information is relevant to financial statement users. Imagine you are an employee of a company and want to know if the pension plan will provide you with the necessary benefits upon retirement. Determine the type of information you would look for in the notes on the pension funds, and ascertain the way in which the information will provide assurance that the company will properly fund your pension.
Please help with accounting work.

Political Science homework help. Recommendation reports provide research opinions and recommendations. ÿThey start from a stated need, a selection of choices, or both and then recommend one, some, or none. For example, a company might be looking at grammar-checking software and want a recommendation on which product is the best. As the report writer on this project, you could study the market for this type of application and recommend one particular product, a couple of products (differing perhaps in their strengths and their weaknesses), or none (maybe none of them are any good). The recommendation report answers the question “Which option should we choose?” (or in some cases “Which are the best options?) by recommending Product B, or maybe both Products B and C, or none of the products.úÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿTypical Contents:The structural principle fundamental to this type of report is this: you provide not only your recommendation, choice, or judgment, but also the data and the conclusions leading up to it. That way, readers can check your findings, your logic, and your conclusions and come up with a completely different view. But, more likely, they will be convinced by all your careful research and documentation.Introduction.ÿIn the introduction, indicate that the document that follows is a recommendation or feasibility report (or whatever you chose to call it). Instead of calling the report by name (which might not mean anything to most readers), you can indicate its purpose. Also, provide an overview of the contents of the report.For some of these reports, you’ll also be able to discuss the situation and the requirements in the introductions. If there is little to say about them, you can merge them with the introduction, or make the introduction two paragraphsÿlong?it?sÿup to you. Here are some templates you can follow as you plan your recommendation report:Category-by-Category Comparisons.ÿOne of the most important parts of a recommendation report is the comparison of the options. Remember that you include this section so that readers can check your thinking and come up with different conclusions if they desire. This should be handled category by category, rather than option by option.Schematic view of the whole-to-whole and the part-by-part approaches to organizing a comparison.ÿUnless you have a very unusual topic, use the point-by-point approach.ÿIf you were comparing tablets, you’d have a section that compared them on cost, another section that compared them on battery function, and so on. Youÿwouldn’tÿhave a section that discussed everything about option A, another that discussed everything about option B, and so on. That would not be effective at all, because the comparisons must still be made somewhere. (See below for a schematic illustration of approaches to comparisons.)Each of these comparative sectionsÿshould end with a conclusion that states which option is the best choice in that particular category of comparison. Of course, it won’t always be easy to state a clearÿwinner?youÿmay have to qualify the conclusions in various ways, providing multiple conclusions for different conditions.Conclusions.ÿThe conclusions section of recommendation report is in part a summary or restatement of the conclusions you have already reached in the comparison sections. In this section, you restate the individual conclusions, for example, which model had the best price, which had the best battery function, and so on.Recommendation or Final Opinion.ÿThe final section of recommendation reports states the recommendation. You’d think that that ought to be obvious by now. Ordinarily it is, but remember that some readers may skip right to the recommendation section and bypass all your hard work! been one model that was better than the rest, but even it was not worth having.The recommendation section should echo the most important conclusions leading to the recommendation and then state the recommendation emphatically. Ordinarily, you may need to recommend several options based on different possibilities. This can be handled, as shown in the examples, with bulleted lists.Political Science homework help
SDSU The Art of Branding a Condition Pharmaceutical Industry Discussion.

Paper 2 looks at an article in context. Specifically, it looks at how different audiences can change the perceived meaning of a text. You will read “The Art of Branding a Condition” ( (Links to an external site.)), and you will analyze it’s argument and effectiveness when looking at two different audiences. First, look at the argument as if the intended audience were pharmaceutical companies. What is the author trying to convey to his audience? How well does he make his argument? Summarize through the Toulmin Method and analyze for rhetorical effectiveness. Secondly, look at the article as if its intended audience were the people that the pharmaceutical companies are selling products to. Does the argument change? If so, what is the new argument and how is it created through context? If not, why not? Is the new argument effective? You the Toulmin Method and analyze.Lastly, compare the rhetorical effectiveness of the two arguments. Which one is more effective/persuasive? What makes one better than the other?If you’re still struggling with how to analyze, the “Analysis Worksheet,” the “Fallacies Worksheet,” and the “Extra Credit Worksheet” are all here to help. You can also set up office hours with me during the week to go over either the article or what you’ve written so far to see what I would suggest improving.This paper requires:7 to 8 pagesMLA format
SDSU The Art of Branding a Condition Pharmaceutical Industry Discussion

PUAD 7021 Capella University The Management of Workplace Conflict Discussion

PUAD 7021 Capella University The Management of Workplace Conflict Discussion.

For the next two assignments, you will be focused on conflict management. The options and methods available to human resources managers in terms of conflict management within a public organization are often clearly defined by policies and regulations.For this assignment, select a public or nonprofit agency. You may use an agency that you have worked for or have come across in the headlines or in your research. You may also use the agency from the Unit 3 assignment. Within that agency, describe a situation that resulted in conflict between employees. Analyze and evaluate the methods used by the agency to resolve the issue. Conclude with at least three recommendations on effective conflict management based on what you learned from this situation. Those recommendations will be revised and refined in the next assignment. In a 5–7 page narrative, address the following:Provide a brief background on the organization or agency.Analyze a situation that resulted in a conflict between employees.Analyze the conflict resolution methods that were used by the agency.Evaluate the effectiveness of the conflict resolution methods the agency used.Propose at least three recommendations for effective conflict management.
PUAD 7021 Capella University The Management of Workplace Conflict Discussion

Crime Prevention

order essay cheap Crime Prevention.

The purpose of the Final Project is to demonstrate your understanding of crime prevention programs and the role crime prevention plays in the overall criminal justice system. You may select a crime prevention program that addresses law enforcement, the courts, or corrections; or it may be a comprehensive program that addresses all three. The program may address the adult justice system, juvenile justice systems, or both.For the purposes of this assignment, assume you are preparing a proposal to a city, county, or state governmental body to recommend the implementation of a crime prevention program within their jurisdiction. You need to demonstrate the value of the crime prevention program and its effectiveness in reducing crime, which in turn will reduce the overall costs to the jurisdiction and justify the additional expenditures to the community.Your proposal must include:A summary of the jurisdiction (i.e., city, county, or state) and the portion of the criminal justice system your proposal is designed to address.An analysis of the current trends from three comparable cities in population size, utilizing the SARA model and the Crime Analysis Triangle. (Note: Crime Analysis for Problem Solvers in 60 Small Steps (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site., Steps 7 and 8). You will analyze the data from three similar jurisdictions and compare it to national data.A determination of the appropriate crime prevention strategy for the jurisdiction based on this analysis.A review of academic literature and studies on the various crime prevention programs to address the needs of the community. How does the crime prevention program address social justice issues of the community?An analysis of the various programs showing their effectiveness in comparable jurisdictions.A recommendation of a funding strategy for program implementation.Your anticipated outcomes, both short and long term. How does the crime prevention program affect social justice within the community?Writing the Final ProjectThe Final Project:Must be eight to ten double-spaced pages in length (not including title and references pages), and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.Must include a title page with the following:Title of paperStudent’s nameCourse name and numberInstructor’s nameDate submittedMust begin with an introductory paragraph that has a succinct thesis statement.Must address the topic of the paper with critical thought.Must end with a conclusion that reaffirms your thesis.Must use at least six scholarly sources, including a minimum of four from the Ashford University Library.Must document all sources in APA style, as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.Must include a separate reference page, formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.
Crime Prevention

For your Final Paper, you will have the opportunity to apply your knowledge for a real data set in order to understand the applicability of all the Statistical tools learned in this course. Attached

Attached is a dataset that lists estimates of the percentage of body fat determined by underwater weighing and various body circumference measurements for 252 men from K.W. Penrose, A.G. Nelson, A.G. Fisher, FACSM, Human Performance Research Center, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah 84602 as listed in Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, vol. 17, no. 2, April 1985, p. 189. Some experts claim BMI (Body Mass Index) as the most accurate and simple way to determine the effect of weight on your health. Meanwhile, in September 2000, the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition published a study showing that body-fat percentage may be a better measure of your risk of weight-related diseases than BMI. An important question that arises is whether there is a relationship between ‘Body Fat Percentage’ and ‘Body Mass Index’ as a predictor. Body Mass Index is defined as  With the use of the statistical techniques used in this programme (especially simple linear regression), explain whether BMI can be used to explain the Body Fat percentage for an individual based on the dataset provided. Clearly explain and interpret your results. Use introduction, body paragraph, and conclusion headings Your paper should have 1,500 words maximum At least 5 references of an academic or scholarly source are required for this paper.  You are expected to use academic sources in peer-reviewed databases or Internet sources, such as: “.org”, “.edu”, “.mil”, “.gov”, “.zm”  Sources not allowed are Dictionaries, wikis, or blogs. Use APA, writing style for in-text citations, and each reference source that you use.  Remember, all wording that is not your own must be cited. Limit the use of direct quotes. Direct quotes should not exceed 1/4 page in total.  Deductions will result if this rule is violated. The cover sheet should include name and course information Include a reference page in APA style

APUS Organizational Risk as It Derives from What Managers Value Bibliography

APUS Organizational Risk as It Derives from What Managers Value Bibliography.

Week 2Assignment InstructionsCompose a 1-page well documented paper that proposes your plan on the paper. Submit by Sunday of week 2 for my review and acceptance. Your proposal should be based on the following scenario. Heavy Metal Engineering (HME), a manufacturing organization that creates metal shell casings for very high-end washer and dryer products has suppliers and customers world-wide, as well as world-wide offices. HME the US Corporate office in NY hires you as a professional Information Assurance consultant. HME is looking to receive some significant third party funding for an international joint venture but was told they would be denied because they do not have any kind of Information Assurance plan to keep all data assets secure. You are required to create a comprehensive IA strategy that includes the following:A detailed overview of what Information Assurance entails covering all the basics for an IA strategy (what will be protected and from what)A plan or strategy for IA implementation including a frameworkA complete risk mitigation strategy that completely outlines your plans to mitigate risks associated with operating in the 21st century workplace.Select an accrediting body to ensure IA is not only a process but a part of organizational culture going forwardAn incident response and disaster recovery plan in the event of intrusion and disaster All sections should be clearly labeled and a separate section in each area specifically for justifications of your selection/proposal.Your thoughts must be solidified with viable sources consistent with graduate level work. No more than 2 sources may be used with ND or no author. Scholarly and Peer reviewed sources are expected to be used throughout the bulk of this paper. Week 4 Project Outline for the Week 8 Project PaperWeek 6 Annotated Bibliography for the Week 8 Project PaperWeek 8 Project Paper
APUS Organizational Risk as It Derives from What Managers Value Bibliography

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