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Organizational Change Essay

Change management is a response to inherent threats and opportunities emanating from a competitive market. Due to high rate of change within the business environment, organizations are compelled to change their operating strategies accordingly. In cases whereby departments in an organization are not positively responding to demands from the business environment, top managements usually opt to overhaul their operations. As a result, contemporary business organizations have found it quite challenging to manage change effectively. It is against this backdrop that the government of Malaysia thought of restructuring Malaysian Airline to reflect modern management. Because of high flow of demand in airline business, companies should change tact in operational management. Most importantly, the company has to change its culture to reflect international management styles. Change management in any Airline company is crucial in meeting demand from consumers mainly due to the widening international market. The government of Malaysia has restructured its top management on the basis that a number of programs had failed to cope with modern forms of international standards of management (Rashid, Sambasivan
Background: The skill which I am focusing on is a single straight right-hand punch from the point of view of a boxer. This is classified as a discrete skill do the distinct beginning and end. For the purpose of this paper, I am going to be focusing on the punch making contact with a punching bag in a closed environment. This skill is identified as a gross skill because it requires many different movements such as a step forward, hip/trunk rotation, shoulder extension, elbow extension as well as all of the flexor muscles in order to hold a tight fist. These movements need to be performed in sequential order so that the punch is thrown optimally with accuracy and power, as well as avoiding any injury from the contact of the fist. Cognitive Skills: The two most important cognitive skills required in this task are visual processing and skill transferability. Visual processing is the ability to take in the visual information around you and process it into viable information. This is an important skill to have especially from the point of view of a boxer. Being able to process the surrounding around you to determine when to throw the punch is critical. Whether it is throwing the punch at the punching bag, or being in the ring with another individual. Both environments of the skill require quick responses based off of the incoming visual stimulus in order to throw and land the punch. Another important cognitive skill which is important in boxing especially among the novice population is skill transferability. Skill transferability is the individuals’ ability to use a previously learned skill and use it to aid in the performance of a new skill. This is particularly helpful with a novice individual who is throwing a punch for the first time. It is safe to say that everyone has thrown a ball overhand before, however, not everyone has thrown a punch. This is where skill transferability becomes very helpful. Because the individual already has a motor plan developed for throwing a ball they are able to modify it and apply the same basic principles to throwing a punch. For example, the novice individual would extend their arm just like they would throw the ball, however now they are making a fist, and aiming at a punching bag. Motor skills: The motor skills which are required in throwing a straight right-hand punch are movement mechanics, power and accuracy. The first motor skill involved with throwing a straight right punch is movement mechanics. Ensuring that the individual understands the movement mechanics of the skill and is able to have a solid foundation before actually throwing the punch is important. The stance is split up into three regions; foot placement, lower body, and upper body. First, feet should be squared; shoulder width apart. The leading foot (left foot) should be at about a 45-degree angle facing forward, and your rear foot (right foot) should be perpendicular to your body. The individuals’ weight will be distributed evenly over each foot. Once the foot placement is established we move on to the lower body. It is important that you are on the balls of your feet especially in the rear foot; as the heel will lift up and you will pivot slightly when the actual punch is thrown. Furthermore, the knees will be slightly bent to allow for balance, stability, and movement. Hips will be relaxed to allow for optimal rotation. Finally, the upper body. Elbows should be down and in with the arms and shoulders relaxed. Both hands are going to be at chin level, your left hand leading and slightly forward (about 12”) while the right hand is touching your chin. Your head will be angled so it is looking towards your left shoulder (direction of stance) and your chin will be tucked into your chest. Now that the proper stance is known it is time to focus on the aspect of actually throwing a punch. The first step to throwing the punch is to ensure feet are both planted (with the correct stance explained above), then a slight twist at the hips/trunk as you roll your right shoulder towards the target. During the rotation, the rear foot will pivot, and heel will lift slightly. Next, make sure that your fist is clenched as you extend your elbow and aim fist at the target. Now that the mechanics and technique of the punch are understood, we can focus on how power and accuracy are derived and why it is critical for motor learning and performance of the task. The straight-right is considered to be the powerful punch when it comes to a boxing point of view, and this can be understood based off of the mechanics seen above. Feet are planted for optimal power transfer as the hips/truck are rotating and the right shoulder is being rolled in towards the target; then the arm extends, and the punch is thrown. Throwing a powerful punch is all about be able to transfer the force from larger muscles groups (like your quads) and transferring the force through the body and out your fist. By following the proper movement mechanics above, this can be easily achieved. The next motor skill is accuracy. It does not matter how hard you can throw a punch if you cannot hit the target. There are multiple factors which influence the accuracy of a straight-right punch, such as individuals initial position, individuals reach, and the target position. It is important to be able to judge these factors immediately before they throw the punch. With time and practice, the individual will be doing this automatically and have great success at landing the punch with a high degree of accuracy. Practice conditions: Practice conditions which facilitate superior acquisition and retention differ based on the 3 stages of learning; the cognitive stage, associative stage, and the autonomous stage. For the purpose of throwing a right-handed punch, the practice conditions which best facilitate acquisition and retention during the cognitive stage is observational learning; associative stage is focus of attention; autonomous stage is random practice. The first stage of learning is the cognitive stage. This stage is responsible for gathering information to develop a motor plan in order to execute the desired movement pattern or skill. This phase is important in creating the appropriate framework of the skill, so it can be built upon in later learning. Throwing a straight-right punch with technique can be a difficult task to perform correctly. This is why the learner would value from observational learning the most in this stage. The practitioner must elicit observational training which allows for the individual to be able to not only understand how to perform the skill but be able to detect errors which they may make while practicing it. According to Andrieux and Proteau (2014), the learner Is able to benefit from observing both expert and novice models in different ways. The expert model was able to show the learner the proper way to perform the task, whereas the novice model showed the learner what not to do. This would be very beneficial when teaching an individual how to throw a straight-right punch due to the fact that there is a high degree of technique involved with the movement. In order to elicit this observational learning effectively, a practice schedule would have to be created where the learner views the expert model first; then practices; views the novice model followed by the expert model again; then finishes with practice. This will demonstrate higher acquisition by allowing the learner to practice between viewing the models and they are able to detect any errors they may be performing and correcting them. The second stage of learning is the associative learning stage. This stage is responsible for putting all of the gathered information together and performs the motor skill. At this stage the individual understands how to perform the action however, they are still not good at it. This is where the focus of attention elicits superior accusation when it comes to learning the skill. There are many ways which the practitioner can drive the learners’ focus when it comes to boxing internal and external focus can help provide a higher level of understanding and can lead to higher skill acquisition. According to Wulf (2012), there is an enhancement in motor performance and learning with an internal and external focus. It is apparent that external focus is more beneficial among novices whereas internal focus benefits experienced learners. A good external focus for a novice individual performing the right-handed punch would be to tell them to focus on a specific spot on the punching bag. An internal focus for an experienced individual would be to focus on squeezing the forearm muscles when they make the fist. Not only will having a tight fist from squeezing these muscles, but it will elicit a more powerful punch as well as reduce any injuries from hitting the bag. The third stage of learning is the autonomous stage. During this stage the individual had learned the skill and does not have to think about performing it anymore, it just comes naturally. Random practice during this stage would allow for the task to continue being cognitively stimulating which enables a further degree of learning. Practice can vary by beginning throwing the punch in the mirror to assess form, then throw the punch against different punching bag styles, and finally to be in a scenario where you are in the ring and your target is moving. Having a practice schedule which combines the three different environments in random order will elicit superior acquisition for the learner. How Motor Skills Will be Optimally Challenged Throughout the Skill: It is important to challenge the individual throughout the whole learning process. If the skill is not cognitively stimulating the individual will not be able to actually learn the skill and will then perform poorly. One way to cognitively stimulate the individual during the process of learning how to throw a straight-right punch is to focus on different aspects of the punch once they have learned the mechanics. The individual can focus on the twisting the hip/trunk as they drive with their quads to gain extra power in the punch. Another way to cognitively stimulate the individual is to have them punch as fast as possible at different spots on the boxing bag. This can be done by segmenting the punching bag into 4 quadrants, and then calling out which quadrant they should aim for before they punch. Doing this stimulates the individual to a higher degree and focuses on visually perceiving the different areas to punch as well as increases the speed and accuracy at which they can throw the punch. How to dissociate performance from learning: Just because the individual performs well during acquisition does not necessarily mean that they have learned the skill. A retention or transfer test conducted at least 24 hours after practice is a good way to determine if the individual has actually learned the skill or not. In this case, a transfer test would be more beneficial in determining if the skill has been learned or not. A transfer that I would select would be having the individual in a situation where they still have to throw the straight-right punch, however, the target they are aiming at is moving, or they have to throw a combination of punches (ie. jab, jab, straight-right). This can be done by having them throw the punch at another individual wearing hand pads. This was the target is moving and they can instruct different combinations of punches to be thrown. Two peer-review Articles: The first article I recommend is by Andrieux and Proteau titled, “Mixed observation favors motor learning through better estimation of the model’s performance.” This article looks at observational learning and discuses if observing a novice or expert model can result in a higher degree of error detection of the skill. The second article I recommend is by Wulf title, “Attentional focus and motor learning: a review of 15 years.” This article looks at offering a review of the current research on the focus of attention and, “show that the performance and learning advantages through instructions or feedback inducing an external focus extends across different types of tasks, skill levels, and age groups” (Wulf 2014). I decided to share the first paper because observational learning is an important factor when learning a new skill be associated with superior acquisition during the cognitive stage as seen above. I decided to share the second paper because knowing how internal vs eternal focus when performing a skill can benefit the practitioner in developing a superior practice condition and contribute to a higher level of acquisition and retention among the learner. References: Andrieux, M.,
VCU Toni Morrison Beloved Book Analysis American Fiction & Slavery Discussion.

I’m working on a writing project and need a sample draft to help me study.

– 5 paged, double spaced, use Times Roman, 12-point font- Articulate the central idea/theme of the book in a clear and concise manner. Utilizing at least 5 quotes from the book throughout the paper.- Provide a critique of the book, clearly stating point of view, using examples to support. Include whether you would recommend this book to another person, clearly explain why or why not?- Make connections and correlations with the book historically and presently as it relates to the lives of people of African descent.-Engage the reader with a well-constructed paper, which has abstract thought and well formed ideas about the subject matter of the book.-Use effective communication to convey ideas without loosing the central theme. Use effective transition terms to Segway into new points and ideas.
VCU Toni Morrison Beloved Book Analysis American Fiction & Slavery Discussion

Framing Thin Slice Business Articulation Critical Thinking Writing

Framing Thin Slice Business Articulation Critical Thinking Writing.

I’m working on a business multi-part question and need guidance to help me study.

1. Describe a real-world example where you’ve encountered an issue related to framing. Perhaps it’s in the political arena, or advertising. Or perhaps it’s a more specific, individual situation. Explain the framing, and how it affected you—or how you avoided it.Use the topics/examples of political parties having control over media outlets like nbc, cnn, fox, etc. forcing broadcasters to frame events/news in the way they pleasethis should be No more than 250 words but should be around 2502. Read the attachment reading of “Malcolm Gladwell’s model of “thin slicing.” We all thin slice in certain situations. Consider two examples from your own life where you employ this type of thinking:One example of when you thin slice and it’s appropriate to do so.One example when you do (or did—perhaps it’s a specific instance) thin slice, but you shouldn’t have. A slower, analytical approach was called for. What steps do/should you take to avoid poor decision-making in this situation?Make this about but no more than 200 words
Framing Thin Slice Business Articulation Critical Thinking Writing

negative complaint letter- business writing homework help

essay writing service free negative complaint letter- business writing homework help.

You will write a negative message letter, a complaint letter. First, you need to find a problem with or at an institution (school, store, etc. . . .) and then, you will write a complaint letter to someone at the institution. For example: You could write a negative message letter to college campus Parking director complaining about the current parking conditions and request a refund for your parking sticker.Scenario: You have encountered an issue at a company, school, or place of employment. To request a resolution to the issue, you will write a complaint letter to a person who can approve your resolution. You are writing an external document.- tell me the topic or an idea that you have in mind asap..
negative complaint letter- business writing homework help

Present and reflect on Socrates’ conception of the nature of education as described in the Allegory of the Cave.

Present and reflect on Socrates’ conception of the nature of education as described in the Allegory of the Cave.. Help me study for my Philosophy class. I’m stuck and don’t understand.

This assignment requires the following. First, you are asked to present (that is, explain/describe) Socrates’ conception of education. You should do so as though you were presenting it to someone who has never taken a course in philosophy. You are NOT asked to critically discuss his theory. (The presentation should take roughly two thirds of essay.) Second, you are asked to discuss what you find valuable or interesting in his conception of education. Some possible starting points: Does this conception of education resonate with your experience as a college student? Does it help you make better sense of what you want to accomplish as a student at FIU? Is there anything you would add or subtract from Socrates’ theory?
Paper length: 400-600 words.
Present and reflect on Socrates’ conception of the nature of education as described in the Allegory of the Cave.

Parsons’s and Trillin’s Sick Role in Modern Society Essay

Table of Contents Introduction Parsons’ Four Components of the Sick Role Trillin’s Sick Role My Experience The Sick Role in Contemporary Setting Conclusion References Introduction The sick role was first suggested as a concept of a patient’s behavior by Talcott Parsons in 1951. Varul (2010) states that Parsons’ notion of the sick role was “widely accepted as a historically adequate account of normative expectations around illness in the middle of the 20th century” (p. 72). Another major author to describe the patient’s sick role was Alice Stewart Trillin, who wrote about her life as a cancer patient in her article ‘Of Dragons and Garden Peas’ (1981). In the work, she describes what is considered to be the sick role from a patient’s perspective, discussing the fear of dying, communicating with other patients, and other experiences that are part of living with such a serious illness. In this essay, I aim to describe the sick role as represented by Parsons (1951) and Trillin (1981), as well as how my personal experience of being in this role fit their description and whether or not the concept of the sick role still applies to the contemporary society. Parsons’ Four Components of the Sick Role The idea of ill people fulfilling a certain ‘sick role’ was first introduced by Parsons (1951) in his book The Social System. Parsons (1951) writes: “Illness, in our society, is undoubtedly motivated to a high degree and therefore may legitimately be regarded as a type of deviant behavior” (p. 285). For Parsons (1951), patients undertook the sick role in an attempt to go against the expectations of the society: for instance, a person could develop the sick role as a way of denying his obligations to other people (p. 284). The sick role has several distinctive features. As Parsons (1951) argued, it is inevitably associated with some form of dependencies, such as the dependency on other people for aid or the dependency on medication to ease pain or symptoms (p. 285). Moreover, Parsons (1951) suggests that this dependency is usually associated with alienation, where the caregiver provides aid and support, while the ill person is not equally involved in the relationship (p. 285). Even though such a relationship is usually comfortable for the patient, however, he or she still has a goal “to get well as expeditiously as possible” (Parsons, 1951, p. 291). The sick role, according to Parsons (1951), is also a role that involves relative legitimacy, “so long as there is an implied ‘agreement’ to ‘pay the price’ in accepting certain disabilities and the obligation to get well” (p. 312). The institutionalized system of expectations with relation to the sick role, thus, consists of four main components. First, the sick role involves the refusal of the person’s normal social role and the responsibilities associated with it (Parsons, 1951, p. 436). Secondly, sick people cannot be expected to get better on their own, which is why a process of recovery is always embedded in the sick role (Parsons, 1951, p. 437). Next, the state of being ill is considered by the patient to be undesirable in itself, and therefore a patient must have a desire to get well soon (Parsons, 1951, p. 437). The final component of the Parsons’ (1951) sick role is the aid-seeking behavior, where the person seeks the help of a professional and not merely a friend or relative (Parsons, 1951, p. 437). Trillin’s Sick Role Trillin’s perspective on the sick role, on the other hand, is entirely personal. She was a lung cancer patient who has spent considerable time in treatment. Some of the ideas she expressed in her essay ‘Of Dragons and Garden Peas’ are similar to the ones Parsons (1951) attributes to the sick role. For instance, her desire to get better is evident throughout the story: “the thought that my children might grow up without me was as ridiculous as the thought that I might forget to make appointments for their dental checkups and polio shots. I simply had to be there” (Trillin, 1981, p. 700). As someone being in the sick role, she also relied on professional help: “The very best doctors […] share their power with their patients” (Trillin, 1981, p. 699). Moreover, the sense of alienation is also evident in her experience. For example, Trillin (1981) discusses the fact that everyone sees the changes in the sick person as permanent: “everyone – with the single rather extraordinary exception of my husband – regarded me as someone who has been altered irrevocably” (p. 699). In her case, Trillin (1981) argues, the alienation happened because of the people’s “inability to understand the ordinariness, the banality of what was happening to [her]” (p. 699). However, Trillin (1981) also explores some sides of the illness that Parsons (1951) does not address. For example, she describes that there is a feeling of connectedness among the patients: in the community of cancer patients and survivors, people support each other and share their stories (Trillin, 1981). The author also states that the combination of the connectedness among the patients and their alienation from the people who are well creating a sense that two separate worlds exist: one that Trillin (1981) calls ‘The Land of the Sick People’ and the other, ‘The Land of the Well People’ (p. 699-700). Trillin (1981) also discusses the relationship with the doctors and the pressure to be a good patient: “If we get well, we help our doctors succeed; if we are sick, we have failed. Patients often say that their doctors seem angry with them when they don’t respond to treatment” (p. 700). Another significant theme of the article is the fear of dying and the tendency to seek control over the illness, particularly by obtaining more knowledge about it from the doctor (Trillin, 1981, p. 700) My Experience Thankfully, I have never had a serious illness with extensive long-term treatment. However, as a child, I had quite poor health and used to catch colds and food poisonings quickly, which frequently resulted in me having to spend several days in the hospital. To me, the hospital always felt like an entirely different world, which was completely isolated from the outside world’s problems and events. Few people from the department watched television to keep up to date with the news, but most of us formed a separate community, similar to what Trillin (1981) was referring to as ‘The Land of the Sick People’. Also, like Trillin (1981), I felt the need to be a good patient and to let the nurses perform any necessary procedures for me to get better. I can also say that I enjoyed being cared for, although, according to Parsons’ (1951) concept, it also meant depending on other people for treatment and entertainment. Overall, I was quite comfortable with being in the hospital; however, I still had a desire to get well as soon as possible to get back to ‘The Land of the Well People’. When my parents or friends visited me, I could still see that there was some sense of alienation between us, not just because sometimes I was contagious, but also because I was surrounded by different people and could not keep talking to them regularly. In general, I can say that my experience of being in a hospital was somewhat similar to what Trillin (1981) discusses, although there were also some similarities between my story and what Parsons (1951) defines as the sick role. The Sick Role in Contemporary Setting Nevertheless, I also believe that Parsons’ (1951) concept does not apply well to the modern environment. Nowadays, people have more chronic diseases that require making certain lifestyle alterations but do not necessarily involve being dependent on other people for treatment nor the desire to avoid social interactions, which is one of the primary components of the sick role (Parsons, 1951, p. 436). Moreover, where Parsons (1951) argues that such people cannot get well on their own, most people who live with certain chronic diseases and conditions can control them without the use of medication or professional help. Varul (2010) agrees that the increase in the number of people living with chronic diseases is a notion that Parsons’ (1951) theory no longer seems to cover, and states that “Even in the shrinking field of acute illnesses the sick role has been predicted to disappear soon due to marketization and patient empowerment” (p. 72). Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Conclusion Overall, I think that both Parsons (1951) and Trillin (1981) describe the role of the patient in an institutional setting quite well, although the authors take two different approaches to the sick role. Trillin’s (1981) words come from her experience as a patient, whereas Parsons (1951) writes from a rather professional point of view. However, I think that in the contemporary world, the life of the patients is changing every day due to the new developments in healthcare and science, and the people generally feel more empowered, no longer fitting the sick role prescribed to them. References Parsons, T. (1951). The social system. London: Collier-Macmillan Limited. Trillin, A. S. (1981). Of dragons and garden peas. New England Journal of Medicine, 304(12), 699-701. Varul, M. Z. (2010). Talcott Parsons, the sick role and chronic illness. Body and Society, 16(2), 72-94.