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Oral Health And Disease Health And Social Care Essay

Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp Dental caries is an oral disease not just of the developed nations but fast becoming a public health issues in the developing countries1. Dental caries is one of the major oral health problems in Nigeria. Other oral health/diseases commonly seen in Nigeria include periodontitis, chronic gingivitis, acute necrotising gingivitis, oral cancer and ameloblastoma, cranio-facial developmental anomalies, orthodontic problems and cleft lip and palate2. The oral cavity though small is a important aspect of the human body. It is the gateway to the human digestive system. The teeth are an important part of the mouth. Their function in mastication of food and speech cannot be over emphasized. They also have aesthetic component as well as enhance facial appearance. Thus, any problem with oral health or diseases could present as pain and suffering which could have debilitating effects on individuals in particular and the community at large3. Oral diseases could lead to reduction in functional abilities and reduced quality of life. According to Petersen (2004) oral conditions are among the most expensive medical treatments in industrialized nations3. Nigeria is classed as one of the poorest countries in the world with 70% of its population leaving below 1 dollar a day. Nigeria is one of the countries in West Africa, comprises of 36 states. She is one of the most populous countries in Africa as well as the eighth most populous country in the world with the population of 154,728 8924 and popularly known as the giant of Africa. In 2007 to date, Nigeria is ranked as the second largest economy in Africa, she is known for her rich cultures, natural endowment such as oil and gas. It is equally indisputable that her human resources are abundant. At the same, it is absurd to learn that about 70.2% of Nigerians are living in abject poverty. Although, the Health services in Nigeria has undergone transformation over the years. The provision of Nigeria health system can be categorized into Public and Private Health services. The public health services serves as the main backbone of Nigeria health care which in most cases is funded by the government on non-profit bases. These are divided structurally into the Primary Health Care (PHC), Secondary Health Care (SHC) and the Tertiary Heath Care (THC) 5, 6. But the dental care services are provided from secondary to tertiary care. This is due to the fact that dental care services are available in general hospitals (secondary health care) in some states and not at the primary health care bases, also in various teaching hospitals (tertiary health care) as well as private dental services. Dental caries is known as a progressive destruction or demineralization of enamel, dentine and cementum on a susceptible tooth surface caused by microbial (Streptococcus mutans) activities such as the production of acids.7, 8 In most cases, the dental caries is not life threatening but can have an adverse effect on quality of life in individual childhood to old age such as dietary and health. It affects all age groups and it is the most important cause of tooth loss in young people9. Frequent consumption of sugar and sugary food and drinks has been implicated as predisposing factors for the cause of dental caries9, 10,11. The sequelae of dental caries: Bacteria ferment sugar to produce acid. Acid dissolves tooth surface ® leads to dental caries which affects the enamel ® dentine ® pulp ® pulpitis ® periapical infection ® dental abscess12. Years ago, dental caries is one of the most common diseases in industrialised countries for instance United Kingdom and a social class-related condition. There has been a tremendous increase of dental caries in developing countries in recent years due to increased sugar consumption as well as insufficient exposures to fluorides which Nigeria happened to be one of the countries. In Nigeria, DMF index is used in measuring tooth decays which counts the number of decayed, missing or filled teeth (DMFT) or surfaces (DMFS) in patient’s mouth as a result of caries both in deciduous and permanent dentition7, 8. In 1993, World Bank reported the dental caries incidence in 1990 among females of Sub-Saharan Africa is 0. 7 and the males is also 0.7 while the total world record in these categories are 9.6 and 9.8 repectively.13 Dental caries prevalence in Nigeria varies according to the areas from the studies Akpata carried out. It shows that dental caries in rural areas are very low of 3 dental caries cases compared with those in the urban areas which is 33 caries14. The reasons for chosen dental caries: Dental caries as pointed out above is a dental disease that affects all age groups although it is more prevalent among the adolescents and young children. It is one of the major oral health problems. Dental caries is a public health issue because of its impact on individuals and the communities. Social and financial issues: Majority of the population in Nigeria suffers from poverty and the government do not subsidize any kind of dental or medical treatment for the people that is from new born to 59 years but from age 60 pays half price which can still be a problem for people in this category. In fact, dental and medical treatment does not commence until the patient pay an agreed amount but there is always an exceptional case depending on the dentist or medical practitioner’s discretion. Therefore, most of the populations in Nigeria are in high caries risk. This is due to the fact that some of the parents cannot afford sending their children to school while some of the children have very poor attendance record in school and in most cases leads the children to consume more of confectionery and high carbohydrate diet15. Due to poverty, most people seek for alternative treatment when they have toothache such as the traditional medicine, application of herbs, as well as fake medicine (cheap) leaving majority of the cases untreated. Tooth loss: Dental caries is one of the major causes of tooth loss which can affect on patients eating habits, self-esteem and quality of life. Majority of the patients visit their dentist when they have explored virtually all the alternative treatment mentioned above and still be in pain which tends to be unbearable or in some cases the area is infected or inflamed. This can lead to extraction of the tooth/teeth, which eventually might lead to tooth loss replacement with removable dentures or fixed prosthesis. Due to lack of affordability of the denture by some patients leads to loss of alveolar as well as deformity. Infections: One of the sequelae of dental caries is infection due to bacteria in the cavity. Bacteria in the dental cavity secrete acids which dissolve the enamel and dentine and if untreated leads to pulpitis and subsequently periodontitis. Because so many people cannot afford orthodox dental care due to the cost of proper dental treatment some people chose alternative treatment as mentioned earlier. This can also leads to potential serious infection such as dental abscess or Ludwig’s Angina which is life threatening. Although, one of the treatment is administration of antibiotics and other medications but in Nigeria contest we have to battle fake drugs as in most cases one is unable to distinguish between original and fake drugs. Need to create dental awareness: there are need to educate members of the public on how to prevent and control dental conditions as well as diseases Strep viridians seen in dental caries can cause endocarditis in cardiac patients Dental caries can form cystic legions in some patients Dental caries can cause chronic periodontitis. Dental caries is considered as a public health issue or a major problem in dental public health16 because it targets the entire population with unlimited time frame. Its socio-economic effect is great. People presents to dental clinics and hospitals when they are in severe pain and at the advanced stage of dental caries. Dental caries can occur in deciduous or permanent dentition thus affecting children as well as their parents. The cost of managing advanced dental infections is high. Being unable to identify early, people with high caries risk has also be one of the major challenges for public health. 2. The Community Oral Health Programme (COHP) was started in 1988 by the University of Ibadan in Nigeria by the Dental department. Since its inception it has become an integral part of the comprehensive Community Health Programme of the Preventive and Social Medicine (PSM) 17. The COPH main aims and objectives include prevention of oral diseases and provision of basic oral care services to communities. Major components of COPH are: School health programmes, health education programmes and on site dental care provision in hard to reach communities. Dental care has been a part of primary health care thus making very many communities disadvantaged. The health care delivery in Nigeria is such that dental health was been side-lined and the need for primary and secondary prevention of oral diseases in a developing country such as Nigeria where urbanization and westernization is creeping in. Studies carried out over the years have revealed a poor oral health status in many Nigerians18. An arm of this programme known as the Community Dental Education Health (CODEH) has been organizing activities such as dental awareness campaigns in communities, market places and schools. Financial sponsorships have been mainly from non-governmental organizations and dental companies like Unilever and GlaxoSmithKline19. Evaluation of the programme: Evaluation is the process of assessing the possible relevance, efficiency, effectiveness as well as impact of the activities (efficacy) of a project or programme in accordance to its objectives through a systematic collection and analysis of data15, 20. It is equally very important to ascertain the quality assurance of the programme. Evaluation could be formative that is assessing the possibility of problem occurring while the programme is being developed or summative that is focusing on the impact as well as the effectiveness of the established programme21. This programme has been evaluated by observing the criteria proposed to guide evaluation in public health22 such as: Effectiveness: -this refers to the extent to which the aims and objectives are met which is to create dental awareness and promote oral health care. Also identify issues and questions of concern to stakeholders. Acceptability: – to check if people are satisfied with the programme both the targeted and non-targeted population. Appropriateness: – this is the importance of the programme which to reduce the prevalence of dental caries and promote oral health care. Equity: – equal provision for equal needs for every individual Efficiency: – this to ensure that results are achieved in most economical way and if the resources put into the programme is justified. Before the evaluation, decision on the kind of information that is needed is taken. To ensure that relevant data are gathered at the appropriate time, an eight-stage framework for evaluation of health promotion interventions proposed by Rootman et al in 200123 was adopted. These stages are Describing the programme, as well as clarifying the aims and objectives Identifying the issues and fears of stakeholders Designing of information-gathering process like questionnaire, records of behaviour change such as plaque scores, indices, documented record on dental caries rate (this was achieved with the help of dentists and hygienist in the allocated areas of the programme) also question and answer session with patient or during the dental awareness campaign. Collecting data Analysing data Make recommendations publish findings Take action or implementation Evaluation is an empowering experience which should involve all stakeholders. Although, evaluation of this dental awareness and oral care promotion is challenging as there are complex, context-specific programme which also focus on the socioeconomic and environmental determinants of well-being. Determine of outcomes: the outcome of the programme is influenced by the timing of the evaluation. The outcome of this programme after assessing the effects of intervention can be said to be immediate (impact), intermediate and long-term for some patients. Dental awareness and Oral health care programme had the following effects: Improves people’s knowledge and perception about oral health care Improve the oral health care of the communities in the programme Improve the oral health care and awareness among school children It motivates patients that are afraid of visiting dentist It motivates and encourage most of the participants to be going for regular check-up Impact evaluation was inculcated into the programme as the stage ends. This is the stage where the public worker or oral health educator includes review of the programme at the last session. The intermediate and long-term evaluation involves assessment for longer effect. This was ascertained by comparing the participant oral health related behaviour before and after the programme but in most cases after a year some participants discontinue from the programme due to death or loss of interest. Effectiveness of the evaluation: the evaluation was effective as it shows that the aims and objectives of the programme were met. For instance, the aims and objectives for Community Oral Health Programme (COHP) are prevention of oral diseases and provision of basic oral care services to the communities while the Community Dental Educational Health programme (CODEH) is to organise dental awareness campaign in the communities, market places and schools. This shows that the programme is a success and dental team as well as all the workers efforts in the programme are worthwhile. 3. Key elements in the success or failure of the programme: There have been elements and factors that have led to the success and failure in some aspects of the programme. Communication: good communication network between the public health teams, from dentists to their patients and from oral health educators to varieties of patients or the public is paramount to the success of the programme. It is important to make patients feel at ease and demystify the fear of visiting the dentist by answering their questions clearly. Communication can take place at two levels: cognitive (understanding) and emotional (which relates feelings) which is very important when treating a patient7. Effective and good communication helps the patients to feel relaxed while discussing their oral health problems and devise solutions. Communication barriers: these can lead to failure of a programme. Therefore, it is always advised for professionals to identify any existent of communication barriers during the first stage of communication with the patient. These barriers could be: Social/cultural barriers which involves ethnic backgrounds, cultural/religion beliefs, social class, sex and age Limited receptiveness of patients due to mental health problems, pain, dementia, fear or low self esteem Negative attitude by the patients towards dental professionals due to previous bad experience or believes that they know it all. Dental professionals failing to give insufficient emphasis on dental education. Continuous dental professional development needs to be incorporated in the training for all stakeholders involved in the implementation of the COHP programme. Contradictory messages of oral health care to patients from other health professionals leaving the patients confused as well as use of some dental jargons by the dental professionals to the patients. Strategic planning and evaluation of the programme: planning oral health strategy need to be permissible within the political and policy constraints of Nigeria government. This can lead the programme to success by being more productive and effective on what can be implemented in promoting dental awareness and oral health care such as: Oral health needs assessment: this is to assess unmet dental health needs in a systematic approach to ensure that the public health service uses its resources to promote and improve the dental health of the population. The information gathered for the assessment does not only based on DMF data but also from other sources like data from oral health determinants, caries prevalence, prevalence due to toothache, public demand, existence of dental services as well as policy development14. These information gather will build a focus in monitoring the rate of dental caries which will be useful at the national level during planning dental health educational programmes, future demand and utilization of oral health organisation and financing. It will help plan strategies to improve oral health care of the people through public health interventions. Monitor services provided by the dental team and the extent in which the strategies have improved the oral health of the population after the implementation of public health interventions as well as changes to the services. Resources and Support: this is to ascertain from the dental budget the fund available for oral health services and promotion to meet with demand and supply of the population as well as educational programme is very essential. As this will help facilitate the programme, involving experienced and trained public health professional, build and equip dental services and the outreach units with modern equipment if needed as well as developing professional network between the program and community8. Although, in some cases professional barriers can be encountered leading to failure whereby the local dentists does not comply with strategy due to threats on their private dental service business or if their employment terms and conditions are affected. Evaluation: this is an effective way of interventions in a programme, providing feedback to both participants and other part of the team as well as the stakeholders; ensure that appropriate use of resources and other guidelines are followed. During planning of the programme, the programme is evaluated to assess how strategy was implemented and at the end of the programme, evaluation is used to determine what has been achieved. Oral health preventive promotion: there are two ways to achieve this through clinical and public health preventive approach Clinical preventive approach: this approach depends on the proficiency and skill of the dentist also this takes place in dental clinics whereby chair-side oral health educational counselling is given to the patients after the administration of one or two clinical preventive agents are used for instance topical fluorides and fissure sealants. This approach has some down falls such as limited coverage of the population, it can be very expensive leading to increase in health inequalities, less community involvement, in some cases fail to pin-point the causes of poor oral health and can easily leads to conflicting messages. Public health preventive approach: this approach stress on the determinants of health for instance stipulates the attributes of oral health problems as shown in Fig. 1 below illustrating the impact of economic, political, environmental conditions to oral health, not to mention people’s lifestyle which is under the social and community context, although some oral health related behaviour can be influenced by some of the social factors depending on individuals, educating patients through oral health educators, dentists and other trained dental professionals. Oral health education is the one of the channels of promoting oral and promote equity and lessen the rate of health inequalities, be in partnership with various agencies and sectors to achieve their goals, creating dental awareness, increasing people knowledge and getting them involved in self-care. C:UsersAmakaDocumentsimg057.jpg Fig. 1 Diagram of Social determinants of oral health15 Oral health care outreach and information centre: this is preventive dental unit where oral health education can be given to individuals or small groups. This is an avenue whereby the dental public health team or oral health educators motivates, communicate also establish friendly and informal relationship with the patients. This kind of preventive treatment can be a success or failure of the programme depending on the patient and staff cooperation. Therefore, it will be wise to evaluate each teaching sessions by using question and answer session with patients and questionnaire on the performance of the educator. The patient feedback should be used to assess the progress of the unit. In Nigeria, majority of preventive dental units in public and private sectors are located in urban areas where most of the dentists are practising. Leaving those in rural areas with minimal or no access to modern dental treatment. 4. Recommendations for the future of the programme: Nigeria government should fund dental fissure sealant for children in the following categories: mentally or physically handicapped, those with nursing or bottle caries as well as those who have primary and first molars. Dentists should be able to clinically give treatment or advice to the patients without language barriers. This implies that there should be available provision a translator if the need arise. Both systematically and topically administered fluoride should be made available and affordable to the population for instance drinking water, salt, milk and use of fluoride toothpaste. Bearing in mind that, some part of Northern Nigeria is endemic of dental fluorosis due to relative high fluoride ingestion through drinking water14. The clinicians should be ready to adapt to the culture of the people and note the cultural differences for instance some cultures or religion forbids a male doctor or nurse to treat a female patient which applies to oral health care. Ability to in cooperate dental health care awareness into schools Public health workers should endeavour to identify children with high caries risk status More oral health awareness should be created as well as dietary education for parents and children. Highlighting on the need to reduce sugar intake and promote consumption of sugar free both in medications and drinks, fruits and vegetables as well as the need for good self oral hygiene practice It has been proven that most parents bring their children to clinics during holiday therefore will recommend that most dental clinics should be school led that is opening till late. Regular dental check-ups should be encouraged by the oral health team for early identification of dental problem Dental health education programmes should be conducted in the communities (both in rural and urban areas) and regularly The government should encourage the implementation of various community fluoride programmes by funding During epidemiological studies of dental caries, DMF index should always be used All Nigeria dentists should also adopt advances methods of diagnosing dental caries which should be considered when recording and reporting caries in future and ensure that this does not affect historical and international comparisons15. Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp
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Table of Contents Introduction Definition of a Test Major Categories of Tests Validity and Reliability in Psychological Testing Conclusion References Introduction Psychological well being is a key determinant of good health. In order to determine the mental status of patients, clinical psychologists administer various tests to the patients. This short paper explores the nature of psychological tests by identifying the major categories of tests and their uses. It also looks at the concepts of reliability and validity and how they compare and contrast to each other. At the end is a conclusion which restates the purpose of the paper and the major arguments. The paper is based on two peer reviewed references and formatted as per the American Psychological Association (APA) reference style. Definition of a Test A test refers to a form of assessment of a person or something. Tests are used for various purposes such as selection of students for certain courses or the recruitment of employees. Tests may be done in writing, oral interviews or in form of physical exercises. Psychological tests are usually done with the aim of understanding a certain behavior. The tests scores may be reliable or unreliable. The unreliability may be caused by several factors such as individual’s health, emotional strain, memory fluctuation, sex, race, freedom from distraction, fatigue, clarity of instructions in the test, the nature of the test, the examiner’s personality and accuracy of the answers given. It is therefore important to combine test scores with other forms of assessment before coming up with a conclusion about the individual psychological status. Major Categories of Tests There are four major categories of tests. They include clinical, Intelligent Quotient (IQ), behavioral and personality assessment tests. Clinical tests are done in a clinical setting and they usually involve clinical psychologists and clients. The tests are mostly designed to enable the clinical psychologists to understand the clients and build rapport with them. They are mostly done in an oral manner where the clinical psychologists ask questions to clients to understand their history and the circumstances surrounding their predicament. The results of the clinical tests are primarily used by the clinical psychologists for the treatment of the patients. In other cases, the results of the tests are forwarded to courts of law or to borstal institutions to aid in investigations in civil and criminal suits. IQ tests are used to estimate the natural intelligence of a person. They are administered in form of written questions which may have or may not have multiple choices. They may test arithmetic, reading or coordination skills and are used by employers in the recruitment or promotion of their employees. Personality tests are aimed at understanding the type of personality of individuals. Individuals may be required to take more than one test before the psychologists know their personalty. The tests are used by employees to understand their employees better. They are also used in the treatment of some psychological disorders such as depression. Behavioral tests are done to understand the behavior of individuals or to know what makes individuals to behave they way they do. The tests are used by behavior change experts to modify bad behavior through reinforcement, coaching, mentoring and counseling (Kline, 2013). Validity and Reliability in Psychological Testing Validity and reliability are important concepts in the field of psychological testing. The two concepts are used to evaluate tests to ensure that they are both valid and reliable. Validity refers to the extent to which a test measures what it is supposed to measure or what it claims to measure. For a test to be valid therefore, it must measure what it is supposed to measure and nothing else (Baumgarten, 2013). If for example a test is supposed to measure IQ, it should not be used to measure personality of an individual. Reliability on the other hand refers to the extent to which a test produces consistent results after measurement (Baumgarten, 2013). If for example a test is designed to measure the IQ of an individual, it must give the same results for the same individual irrespective of the number of times the tests is administered. What this means is that if my IQ is 50, a reliable test must indicate 50 even if I do it for 5 times. A test may be valid without being reliable (Baumgarten, 2013). Similarly, a test may be reliable but be invalid. If for example a test is designed to measure IQ but it is used to measure personality and produces consistent results for the personality of an individual, then the test is reliable but not valid. For a test to be good therefore, it must be valid and reliable. It is therefore important to test both validity and reliability independently to confirm their presence in a test before drawing conclusions (Baumgarten, 2013). Conclusion The paper has focused on psychological tests. It has been argued that psychological tests are administered for different reasons with varying degree of complexity, timing and aspects of measurement. The four major categories of psychological tests include clinical, personality, IQ and behavioral tests. Each category is administered at different circumstances and the results are used for various interventions such as treatment, counseling, behavior change and in recruitment of employment. Validity and reliability are important concepts in psychological testing because they ensure that tests are both reliable and valid. However, there is need to measure validity and reliability independently because the presence of validity in a test does not necessarily mean that the test is reliable. References Baumgarten, M. (2013). Paradigm wars – validity and reliability in qualitative research. London: Grin Verlag. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Kline, P. (2013). Handbook of psychological testing. New York, NY: Routledge.
Training Plan Template, management homework help.

You serve as the Human Resource Manager for an auto insurance company called Premium Auto Insurance. A claims supervisor has informed you that customers have begun to complain about the quality and efficiency of the claims process. They are complaining that every time that they call to follow up on their auto claim, they receive a voicemail message, and that they can never speak to a live person. On top of that, it takes multiple attempts and sometimes days for someone to return their call. An insurance adjuster is not sent out to evaluate the damage of their vehicle for weeks, and as a result, they are either paying a lot of money for a rental car or, they are left without a vehicle for long spans of time.Currently, training consists of senior claims representatives showing new employees how to perform the job. There is no formal training for insurance adjusters because there is a requirement for adjusters to have a certification before being hired. Your CEO is counting on you to develop an onboarding and training plan.In this assignment, you will develop a training plan.Download this Training Plan Template.Complete all of the sections of the training plan template. Don’t forget to elaborate on your thoughts and provide details.
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Concept of collective identity

Concept of collective identity. Introduction: Although the concept of collective identity is a post-colonial phenomenon, a few nations would describe themselves under a collective identity before the modern times. In fact, Europe is historically unique in terms that it has been the people living in the continent of Europe who have persistently described themselves as Europeans since the 17th Century (Pagden, 2002). Indeed, European Union emerged as the most important attempt for creating a supranational entity in the Continent and the best example of a Pan-European common identity as even the words Europe and the European Union are being used as synonyms by millions of people every day. Nevertheless, an uncertainty of a common identity has always been the case for Europeans throughout history and the physical as well as social borders of Europe has never been distinctly known for centuries which are full of wars, confrontation competition and blood. Today, the same problem continues to exist and many believe that it is the major factor blocking the efforts for achieving a fully integrated Europe, as the definition and frontiers of a common European identity is still unknown. Indeed, one of the most important issues of the European integration from a socio-political perspective is the vague concept of a common European identity including prospects of European Union Citizenship. Although a common European identity has been long around for centuries, these are fairly new issues in relevance to the half a century long history of today’s European Union. However, I believe how the common European identity is defined is very important for the future steps of the European integration project, as nowadays the EU is undergoing transformation towards a political union with an aim to become a global actor in the international political arena. What shall be the elements of a common European identity, how shall it be formulized if it is to become a successful construct which would define Europe correctly to end the efforts that lasted for such a long time? I believe a triumphant common European identity must include the concrete and symbolic realities and it must be rooted to the diversity of cultures which had been created by the long history of Europe (D’Appollonia, 2002). Otherwise, if it remains as a form of “thin identity” suggested by Habermas (2006), the problems and uncertainties of European identity as well as the poorly functioning European Union citizenship is most likely to exist in the Union’s foreseeable future. In fact, a common European identity can only be successfully constructed by taking into account all the ambiguities, contradictions and developments in form of a “unity in diversity” principle which can be applied to the reality of Europe rather than building a shallow and artificial construct as it seems to be today. Theoretically, a united Europe in political terms is made possible if a united Europe in cultural terms is established through formulating a collective common identity which may only be conceived as a collection of multiple and complex values created by complicated dynamics of Europe’s long history. Nevertheless, a united Europe in cultural terms shall not mean to enforce a homogenous and strictly ordered European society; rather the European identity shall celebrate Europe’s long tradition of diversity. Another important question is how should European Union citizenship be defined and what should be the frontiers of cultural implications of such a political formulation. Considering the wide cultural diversity and long history that the individual members of the European Union had share in the European continent, a collective identity may prove to be far too complex to construct, so one may argue that a common European identity is still an illusion. Although Europeans have a successfully formed a common economic and increasingly political union, they are still far away from the desired level of cultural unity and a common identity which seems to be an alarming factor for the next stages of the European integration. Nonetheless, European Union citizenship is an area open to developments and it might be used as a critically important tool by the European Union leaders to accumulate a common European identity, only if it is formulized correctly. The critical point on the debate of European Union citizenship is that the dominant Classical Model of Citizenship is based on the structures of nation-state and that is why this model cannot be applied to the European Union, as it is a whole different level of organization which cannot be compared to a nation-state. On the other hand, Post-National citizenship is a modern approach to the issue of European identity and my evaluation shows that it is a feasible solution suitable for today’s Europe in order to reach its goals of unification and deepening through building a stronger common identity in the 21st Century. This paper is organized in several sections. European identity from a historical perspective is analyzed in the first part; nationalist responses to the current status of European identity and the issue of national identities in contrast to the common European identity is discussed in the following part; a new European identity and suggestions for a new understanding of common European identity is suggested in the third part; a brief history of European Union efforts and progress on building a common identity is examined in the fourth part; the current status of European Union Citizenship is discussed in the fifth part and finally, Post-National citizenship as a model for European Union citizenship is proposed in the last part of this paper. After all, this paper argues that a common identity in form of a collective European identity is clearly necessary for the Union at this stage of integration, and it is a crucial element for the future of the European integration project especially as our world is getting smaller as well as more fragmented simultaneously due to the complex dynamics of international relations every day at the age of globalization. European citizenship is very much connected to the issue of European identity and it is the key to achieving such a strong common and collective identity when it is formulized as a Post-National phenomenon. The Europeans must derive their power from the diversity of their cultures by building a “thick identity” for Europe rather than a “thin identity” which consists of merely political rights; yet the Europeans shall not overlook the uniqueness of the Continent and the similarities they share in comparison to the rest of the world emphasized by the “Unity in Diversity” principle. Today, it is time for the Europeans to unite under one roof in socio-political terms, complete the long standing task of defining the boundaries of the European civilization by establishing a common and collective European identity in order to carry on the progress of the European integration project in a globalized world. Nonetheless, the question of possibilities of the Europeans to achieve such a high level of cultural as well as political unity remains a question and it is subject to a whole different level of research. However, often seen as a regional product of globalization itself, I believe the European integration project cannot progress any further without achieving a common European identity which is more critical than ever today in order to overcome the challenges of globalization in the 21st Century. What is Identity? Identity has always been a problematic concept because it is uncertain, fluid and highly flexible. Identity is the way to define one’s “self” and to differentiate from the “others”. If taken literally, identity means equal; identical. Identity is not static but dynamic, and it can be defined in different ways in different circumstances. Identity is construct, which cannot be constructed immediately but only in time. It is not a fixed, constant and pre-given entity; while identity formation is heavily dependent on how one is perceived by the others. Identification implies belonging or membership, in turn which implies the exclusion of non-members (BrethertonConcept of collective identity

Structure of the UK Supermarket Sector

essay writing service free Introduction: On this report we have been asked to analyse the supermarket industry in the UK in the past 10 years. We are going to analyse the structure of the market in the UK supermarket sector. In the first part of the report, we showed how market share relates to the supermarket. We showed the different type of market structure exists We also explained the recession and the credit crunch, in relation to how it affects the supermarkets; in addition, we also showed their response in that time and the way that this relates to the market structure. We explained the necessity of competition policy needed in the UK with the theories, relative to this matter we showed a case where they investigate and gave their statement about the situation. In the final part of this report excluding the conclusion, we had to analyse the supply and demand related to the elasticity. In the second of the question, we had to explain the oil prices between July 2007 to July 2009, and state that they increased from July 2007 till 2008 but they decreased again in July 2009. This also showed the change on the impact in oil prices in the supermarkets. Section 1: Structure of the UK supermarket sector. The four firm concentration ratios for supermarkets in the UK is Tesco (31.6%), Asda (17%), Sainsbury’s (15.9%), and Morrison’s (11.1%). This makes for a four – firm concentration is a little > 75%. The market is food retail and the dominant is Tesco. Market Structure “In economics, market structure (also known as market form) describes the state of a market with respect to competition.” The different market structures that exist are; monopoly, oligopoly monopolistic competition and perfect competition. These four market structures are for the purpose of the organisation. Monopoly means a market in which there are many buyers but only one seller; “a monopoly on silver”; “when you have a monopoly you can ask any price. For example would be to say if Comcast was the only cable television provider in your area. If you want cable, you have no choice but to go to Comcast and because of this they can charge anything they want. Oligopoly means a market dominated by a small number of participants who are able to collectively exert control over supply and market prices. An example may include the markets for petrol in the UK (BP, Shell and a few other firms) and soft drinks (such as Coke, Pepsi, and Cadbury-Schweppes). Monopolistic competition is a common market structure where many competing producers sell products that are differentiated from one another. The best examples of monopolistic competition come from retail trade, including restaurants, clothing stores, and convenience stores. Perfect competition in neoclassical economics and microeconomics, perfect competition describes the perfect being a market in which there is many small firms. [1] 2 Kinked demand curve An oligopolistic structure faces a descending sloping demand curve but the elasticity may depend on the result of competitors to changes in price and output. Assuming that firms are going to preserve a high level of profits and their market share it possibly will be the case that: (a) Competitors will not chase a price increase by one firm – consequently demand will be moderately elastic and a increase in price would lead to a fall in the total revenue of the firm (b) Competitors are more probable to equal a price fall by one firm to steer clear of a loss of market share. If this happens demand will be more inelastic and a fall in price will also lead to a fall in total revenue. [3] The kink in the demand curve at price P and output Q means that there is a discontinuity in the firm’s marginal revenue curve. f we believe that the marginal cost curve in is cutting the MR curve then the firm is maximising profits at this point. In the diagram below, we see that an increase in marginal costs will not essentially lead to higher prices providing that the new MC curve (MC2) cuts the MR curve at the identical output. The kinked demand curve theory proposes that there will be price stickiness in these markets and those firms will rely more on non-price competition to increase sales, revenue and profits. Section 2: Recession and Credit crunch. Recession can be defined as a general and continuous in time underperformance of economy. Generally, the usual symptom is a drop in GDP (Gross Domestic Product) over a period of time higher than two months . Stock exchange crash , decrease in employment and decline in housing market are also typically tagged along with the recession according to NBER (National Bureau of Economic Research) , which is the official body that issued a recession warning in the USA . In their reports, they define recession as “a broad – passed economic decline that lasts more than few months” (Recession definition 2008, 1st March). t takes six to eighteen months of monitoring to consider a recession to be over in economic terms. Anyway, watching the Federal Reserve handling this matter (In USA is not a common practice that any federal authority takes control of economic issues related to private corporations) gives us a clear clue of an economic crisis. The last two recession periods before 2008 remained only for eight months both together. According to a BBC’s blog, recession happens when any country trade and wealth decreases, having also a massive impact on employment figures (many workers are made redundant). E.g. when recession strikes a country, factories will not get any help from financial investors, leading, eventually, to their closure. History Channel website defines recession as “when business downfall activity remains for more than a few months, causing country output to fall by higher than 1% a year causing a serious damage to economic structure of the country” . In BBC’s documentary about Lehman Bros. we witness why recent crisis has hit globally. Lehman Bros. Was the 4th largest investment company in the USA. It also used to be one of the most widespread corporations in the world. Eventually, they started giving away loans to not qualifying applicants. This risky practice made it reach the highest profit in the shortest time in their history, although soon a massive debt start to build up due to customers failing to pay out their loans. Soon after that issue was spotted their stock value fell dramatically. Last minute actions were taken to tackle this bankruptcy threatening situation. But in the end the only viable solution turned to be accepting a buyout offer from British giants Barclays. Obviously, Barclays expected guarantees of viability for this takeover from the government of the USA. But in this particular case, due to political scenario of elections close in date to the incident, the government refused to take any risk by getting involved in this matter. As a global corporation, Lehman Bros. used to invest huge amounts of money worldwide. Although because of bankruptcy threat flying around they had to start cutting employments. Therefore, many countries where this corporation was operating started to experience the first signs of recession. Sometimes, because of bad political decisions, recession effects can fall upon population too. This sort of situation is usually known as “man-made recession”. In 1981, the United States faced this kind of issue under the leadership of Ronald Reagan. It is also remarkable that oil changing price also has a huge impact on recession by boosting its effects on a country. This particularly can be applied to that 1981 recession. Credit crunch can be defined as a sudden drop in the capacity of issuing loans by a bank or other financial capital market agent. The first consequence of this is that requirements for a loan become harder to comply with for customers. Reviewing the story of our “home” credit crunch, when economy was healthy and stable, banks and investors gave away mortgages to low income people without previous credit checks. Those people then bought houses using these financial low interest aids. Money lenders relied on the strength of the housing sector. But eventually this sector came to a big crash after many people failed to pay back their loans because of the interests growing in the same proportion as sales dropped. To sort this out , the next step taken by money lenders was to drastically cut loans and try to get their the debts paid out . Then, landlords had to face what has been called credit crunch, which is something as simple as overspending. Most of profits banking corporations enjoy come from business that have nothing to do with those customer focused activities we are used to see in our local branch. These businesses often involve huge spending amounts of money taken from loans and mortgages. These activities also require high level of commitment (deadlines and payments), and that is the reason why banks put pressure on landlords and tenants to pay back their loans so the cash is available for these other high profile activities banks are investing in. Sainsburys and Tesco The impact on recession is not very good for important supermarkets like Tesco or Sainsbury because consumers panicked on this time, so they decided to spend money as less as possible, especially low earning consumers. They are the people the most affected by the recession. The people who survive on the basic or cheap items found out alternative resources where they can spend less money. So, that is how the big supermarkets lose a big part of customers. As a consequence, the small competitors like Aldi or Lidl start getting their demands because they are the alternatives. The other impact is cutting down the employment caused by the decreasing spending on supermarkets. Stores sell less so this may lead them to fire some employees. Therefore, unemployment gets higher in the economy. Recently, Tesco and Sainsbury took a new step to improve their situation. They started expending their business by establishing new stores and offering new jobs. It is a good way to start the money cycle again. They are also frequently using different promotions for a period of time like “Buy one get one free” or “Two for one pound”… to bring the customers back. Basically, UK supermarkets’ structure is based on a monopolistic competition because all of them use different schemes and methods to sell their products and influence the consumers. It is a way to be different, attractive and competitive. Section 3: UK Competition Policy. In economic theory, firms may collude or using their monopoly power to get rid of competitors unfairly in a way that would benefit them; and the government may have to act to stop this. John Sloman (2008) has highlighted that in the UK, the Office of Fair Trading (OFT) has been established to ensure that the prohibitions under the 1998 Competition Act and the 2002 Enterprise Act are conducted. The OFT supervises company conduct and for further investigation, it can refer suspected individual companies to the Competition Commission (CC) (Sloman 2008: 262). The CC is in charge of determining whether the firms’ practices such as supplying more than 25 per cent of the total market, various collusive practices of oligopolies, or the abuses of a firm’s monopoly power are detrimental to competition (Sloman 2008: 262). If the Competition Commission decides that firm is guilty then it would introduce appropriate remedies, for example, forbidding many firm’s practices. If firms abuse their monopoly power by trying to refuse producing products, enforce unfairly trading conditions or trying to produce less with higher prices; then it would result to market failure, because there is no fair competition in the market. The consequences in the market would be high prices products as dominant firms determine the prices and lower quantity of productions – almost there are only their goods in the market as other competitors are being eliminated. Thus, the consumers do not have many choices, people with high income or average income might be still afford the high price goods, however those with low income or unemployment would find it difficult. The firms did not make maximising efforts to provide goods and services at lowest prices so there is no efficiency, on the contrary, it is a waste of resources. If there is competition in the market and it is fair, then there will be opening for all players who benefit from perfect information on prices and availability of goods and services, and they will do all their best to compete with each other. Hence, the result will be lower prices and increasing more innovation with new products variety and quality. Therefore, the need for Competition Policy and especially in the UK is necessary. To be able to advocate above conclusion and to understand more deeply how Office of Fair Trading (OFT) is working, the next part of this section will discuss about a case where the grocery market has been investigated. The OFT had decided to investigate on four largest supermarkets (Asda, Tesco, Sainsbury’s, Morrisons) about their supply of groceries on 2006 (OFT 2006). The OFT suspected that the big supermarkets have colluded with each other, and made it difficult and costly for other new stores to entry and compete in the market. It also thinks that the four largest supermarkets’ buyer power have increased, and pricing conducts (for instance, the suppliers prices introduce to big supermarkets have increased in the differences from the wholesalers and buying groups, price flexing) would distort the competition in the market, and harm the consumers choices in products (Crown copyright 2006). However, that is only the OFT suspecting and they were still investigating until 30th April 2008 that the Competition Commission published its final report (Peter Freeman 2009). In 2009, the government has basically agreed to OFT and their remedies. In summary, an investigation in such large supermarkets take a lot of time (few years) and it is also take quite a number of time to obtain the government agreement and impose the remedies to the firms. Section 4: Oil Prices between July 2007 and July 2009: Oil prices have increased significantly between July 2007 and July 2008 (from $72.81 to $147.49). On the contrary, after the peak price since July 2008 to July 2009, the oil prices had decreased considerable to $65.63. To be able to explicate what happened to oil prices between July 2007 and July 2009, the assistance of supply and demand analysis is necessary. Supply and demand analysis is defined as an evaluation of a good or service on the basis of factors affecting its supply and demand. Supply-demand analysis is supposed to determine if an imbalance exists or will exist between supply and demand for a good or service. For example, if the supply of a good is expected to exceed demand, its price can be expected to decline. Supply-demand analysis incorporates information on manufacturing capacity, currency exchange rates, consumer incomes, interest rates, and many other factors that influence availability and purchases (LoveToKnow, Corp. 2009). According to the figure 1, from July 2007 to July 2008, there had been a substantial rising in demand for fuel, oil from the developing countries (such as Asia: China, India) and especially US, Japan, Western Europe (the demand curve shift to the right). Because of the price elasticity of demand of oil is fairly inelastic (PED<1), the consumption of oil did not change much (fuel- oil is necessary for people life so they cannot easily cut its consumption back). As the result, consumers have to reduce their spending on clothes and cinema, food, etc to be able to afford the increasing in fuel consumption; hence, there is a fall in contribution to consumption (C) during 2007 and 2008. In addition, higher oil prices also lead to increasing in the costs of production and shortage in oil; it eventually causes firms to reduce its supply or go bankruptcy (the supply curve shifts to the left). For those reasons, the rising in oil prices during 2007 and 2008 has cause recession. From July 2008 to July 2009, there was a decline in demand after the peak in July 2008 ($147.49) thus there a fall in price (the demand curve shift to the left). The reason may be very simple is because the price was too high and the consumers had to adjust their spending on fuel to decrease the cost of living. In summary, the changing in oil prices have a large impact on people whether the producers or the customers. Conclusion: According to our research, we believe that the market share does increase because for example, Tesco have remained at the top of the market for the last couple of years and as each month goes by they start making more shares, especially during the peak season such as Easter and Christmas. On the other had there are also downfalls such as the second highest in the market is Asda, so they would be wanting to make promotional schemes to attract customers and catch up to Tesco. If the economy doesn’t face any recessions or credit crunch, there is a positive future for the supermarkets in the UK, because when recession hits customers start panicking and the staff start spending their money. In the last few years, the UK has suffered a few recessions continuously. I can relate to this because in the War we can predict a future recession, we also know that the expenditure for the war is expensive; so therefore, the government in one way or another have to pay them. If the government focus on their payment then there will be quite difficult to keep the economy stable and secure. This is a positive way for the supermarkets in the UK to have a brighter future.

CUNY Lehman College Sex Lies and Consent Analysis Comparative Essay

CUNY Lehman College Sex Lies and Consent Analysis Comparative Essay.

For the topic you will introduce, it will be consent. This is number 1 on the attached form.For number 2 you can use this as an example or change it as long as it is the same topic that relates to the text “Sex, Lies & Consent”I am pasting a previous assignment, so it will not exactly be like this but you can use it for points and you can use some of the text to reconstruct your argument (you can use that part)For the rest of the paper, you can just follow the directions. Premise 1: It is morally wrong to have sex with a person without their valid consent.Premise 2: Deceiving an individual into sex involves engaging in the act with them without their morally valid consent.Conclusion: Deceiving someone into sex is seriously wrong.Analysis: Sex, Lies, and ConsentThe argument presented above is valid because all the premises are true and consistent with the conclusion. Although a section of the readers may disagree with the premises and conclusion of the argument, it is clear that readers that adhere to the conventional forms of morality would agree with the argument. We can assess the validity and soundness of the argument by re-examining the appropriateness of the first and the second premise, and further relating the premises to the conclusion.In the first premise, the assertion that it is wrong to have sex with someone without his/her morally valid consent is true. Sexual intercourse should only occur between two consenting individuals. Considering that humans feel degraded and exploited when they learn that they had been engaged in non-consensual sex, the premise holds. Having sex with someone without his consent is a serious crime because it functions to lower and harm the other person’s esteem. Inducing someone in non-consensual sex is similar to other forms of sex such as rape. This premise, moreover, stresses that sex can only be morally right if there is a “morally valid consent”. Morally valid sex means that before sex, the two individuals must rightfully agree and allow the other to have sex with them. Therefore, agreements made due to the influence of drugs and alcohol are not “morally valid” because the person giving the consent is incapacitated to make right and moral decisions.The second premise claims that deceiving someone into sex occurs when one has sex with someone without seeking his/her morally valid consent. Although the premise tends to stress “deception” as a moral crime, the main crime emphasized in the premise is the “non consensual sexual act”. In this case, deception is taken as one of the causes of non consensual sex. In essence, deception functions to facilitate and promote non consensual sex. Deceiving a person into sex places the other party in a position where he/she is limited to certain information, thus giving the consent unknowingly of the offender’s intent. Therefore, when one is deceived into sex, he/she does not have the opportunity to give morally valid consent because he/she is influenced to make the decision. For instance, when a man, say John, learns that, a woman, say, Mary, is obsessed with engineers and thus pretends to be an engineer yet he is a mere foreman, and eventually have sex with Mary, the consent given by Mary is not a morally valid one. Deception functions to vitiate consent, thus making them morally invalid.To sum up, the conclusion that “deceiving someone into sex is seriously wrong” is true. The conclusion is deemed true not only because its premises are consistent with the conclusion but also because the statement is undeniably true. In essence, it seriously wrong to have sex, someone, without seeking his/her morally valid consent.
CUNY Lehman College Sex Lies and Consent Analysis Comparative Essay

Case study – Newcomers are not Welcome here

Case study – Newcomers are not Welcome here.

Refer to chapter 2 content, finish the case study. 5 pages, double space.For each myth on the list, discuss the following questions:
How do notions of power contribute to this statement?
Does this statement marginalize men or women? What does it mean for other important differences such as race and social class?
Describe abuses of power related to this statement.

How much genuine participation occurs in decision making if this statement is true?
What is the basis of rationality for the statement?
How are these statements viewed in different parts of the world? Myth List: Men are stronger leaders than women during organizational crises. Women are more nurturing managers than men.Management must exercise control for organizations to succeed. Only a select few are capable of innovating. Our social class determines our future.
Case study – Newcomers are not Welcome here

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