At an International Cosmetics company (referred to as C)’s board meeting, the firm’s chief executive officer (CEO) reported that C was planning its production schedule for the upcoming quarter. She stated that the firm did not have the internal capacity to meet the projected demand and that the only short-term possibility was to outsource some of the demand to a third-party supplier. She indicated that C had been reluctant in the past to use vendors in this way because of the proprietary nature of the company’s product line. However, she had been in negotiations with a local supplier that was prepared to sign a secrecy agreement. She indicated that she would need board approval before proceeding down this path. The board’s chairman asked how much of the projected product demand might have to be subcontracted out and cautioned against exposing C’s complete product line to an outside vendor. She stated that the analysis could be completed along with a recommendation within a week using C’s analytics-based linear programming model and a further review of the candidate vendor.About the company: The company C produces and distributes a wide range of cosmetics offerings through a subscription-based e-commerce model. Customers can choose fromdifferent pricing plans, and the products are delivered to their homes monthly. The subscription model provided C with a stable income stream while continuing to build brand loyalty, particularly with regards to its 3 flagship products: face cream, body cream, and hand cream.With sales approaching $150 million annually, C had experienced double-digit growth over the past few years. Its marketing department estimated that the demand for the 3 products for the upcoming quarter are 12,000 cartons of face cream, 8,000 cases of body cream, and 18,000 cases of hand cream.The manufacturing process consisted of a two-stage production procedure that used four ingredients: purified water, oil, scents and colours, and emulsifiers. Stage 1 involved materials preparation and initial mixing while Stage 2 focused on final blending and packaging. The cost for raw materials is $1 per pound for purified water, $1.50 per pound for oil, $3 per pound for scents and colours, and $2 per pound for emulsifiers. C’s available first-shift capacity for the next quarter was 15,000 labour-hours for stage 1 and 10,000 for stage 2. The first-shift hourly rate was $8.50 for stage 1 and $9.25 for stage 2. A second shift was available with a 10% reduction in capacity and a 10% increase in wage rates. C could also subcontract with a local supplier identified by CEO for face cream and bodycream at a cost of $40 per carton and $55 per carton, respectively. This vendor had the capacity to meet the demand requirements that were in excess of C’s capabilities.The production department had available 205,000 pounds of purified water, 50,000 pounds of oil, 7,500 pounds of scents and colours, and 16,000 pounds of emulsifiers.Face CreamBody CreamHand CreamLabour (Hours/carton)Stage 22.214.171.124Stage 20.81.00.5Materials (pounds/carton)Water8.06.07.0Oil1.03.02.0Scents and Colors0.50.40.4Emulsifiers0.50.70.6(i) Use the given labor stages and material requirements provided above, what are the costs for producing the three products in-house (i.e., the internal production costs per carton)?(ii) Develop a Linear Optimization model to determine optimal production strategies, including the use of outsourcing. Specify the decision variables, constraints, objective function. What is the optimization class of this model?(iii) Solve your optimization model from part (ii) using Solver. What production schedule minimizes total cost including outsourcing, and what is the corresponding value of the objective function?(iv) What labour and material resources are completely used up, and what are the corresponding shadow prices?(v) Suppose that the board only allows outsourcing one product, i.e., only Face Cream or only Body Cream but not both. Under this additional requirement imposed by the company’s board, what production schedule minimizes total cost including outsourcing?
Optimization and Proc. Analytic
Leadership Traits and Ethical Leadership
Leadership Traits and Ethical Leadership. I need support with this Management question so I can learn better.
1. Please watch the video, “What you can learn from Steve Jobs (Links to an external site.).” Based on the content presented in the video, what leadership traits made Steve Jobs an effective leader? Some researchers have found that leaders have certain traits related to social intelligence; how did Steve Jobs’ social intelligence play a role in his success and how did it impact people and results? Do you consider Steve Jobs to be a transformational or transactional leader? Respond to at least two of your classmates’ posts.
2. Give an example of ethical leadership. What are the characteristics of ethical leadership? And why do you think ethical leadership is important?
Support your claims with examples from required material(s) and/or other scholarly resources, and properly cite any references.
Leadership Traits and Ethical Leadership
Introduction to Psychology: Key Psychologists and Theories
assignment helper Introduction to Psychology: Key Psychologists and Theories. Sigmund Freud Sigmund Freud explored the human mind more thoroughly than any other who became before him. And His is known as the Father of Psychology. His contribution to psychology are big. In 20th century, Sigmund Freud is the one of the most influential people. Besides his contribution to psychology, people are also influenced on his art and literature and even the way they bring out their children. Words like neurotic, denial, Freudian Slip, libido, anal(personality) and cathartic that used by people now’s a day was introduced by Sigmund Freud. Besides that , Sigmund Freud also known as Father of psychoanalysis. Psychoanalysis is a treating method for mental illness and. Besides, psychoanalysis can also known as a theory to get know of human behaviour. During the process of psychoanalysis, Sigmund Freud encourage his client to sit on his couch and talk something related to their symptoms and what was in their in their mind. The Case of Anna O Bertha Pappenheim as known as Anna O. Sigmund Freud has met his turning point in this cases of Anna O. Psychology today is also influenced by the case of Anna O. Anna is a people who suffered from hysteria. A person who suffered from hysteria will exhibits paralysis, convulse, hallucinate and loss of speech without apparent physical causes. Josef Breuer the doctor of Anna and also the friend of Sigmund Freud, the one who succeed in treating anna by helping her to recall her memories of traumatic events. Josef has discussed this case with Freud and out of these discussion came of germ of an idea that Freud was to pursue to his life. In [Studies in Hysteria, 1895 Freud] proposed that physical symptoms are often the surface manifestations of deeply repressed conflicts. Freud has advancing on explanation of a particular illness and also proposing a revolutionary new theory of human psyche itself. This theory shows a ‘bit by bit’ as a result of Freud’s clinical investigations and it led him to propose that there were at least 3 levels to the mind. The Psyche Freud (1923) later developed a more structural model of the mind comprising the entities id, ego and superego (what Freud called “the psychic apparatus”). These are hypothetical conceptualizations of important mental functions. The id operated as unconscious level according to pleasure level. These id contains two biological instincts or dives. And Freud called it as Eros and Thanatos. Eros, or life instinct, helps the individual to survive; it directs life-sustaining activities such as respiration, eating and sex (Freud, 1925). In contrast, Thanatos or death instinct, is viewed as a set of destructive forces present in all human beings (Freud, 1920). Dream Analysis (Freud, S. (1900). The interpretation of dreams) considered dreams to be the ‘royal road to the unconscious’ as it is in dreams that the ego’s defenses are lowered so that some of the repressed material comes through to awareness, albeit in distorted form. Dream Analysis involves the manifest content into trustful content. Understand the step various distorting will helps to understand the latent meaning of dream. Condensation is a process of combination of two or more idea/images into one. A dream about a car might be condensation of worries about the security of car. When we transform something or someone we really concern about to someone else is where Displacement take place. For example, there are a patient of Freud who hated Freud’s sister in law and always used to refer to her as a dog and this patient dreamed of killing a dog. Sigmund Freud interpreting this as represent the wish of killing of his sister in law. When the unconscious mind strings together wish-fulfilling images in a logical order of events further obscuring the latent content will causes Second Elaboration. WILLIAM JAMES (1842-1910) William James, one of the famous contributor for us in psychology. He born in January 11, 1842 in New York City. His father , Henry James Sr who is very interested in philosophy and theology eager to provide a good study environment to his children. William James and his brothers had gone to Europe frequently. William James and his brother had attended a lot of famous school and immersed with culture and art. At the end William James became one of the important psychologist. While his brother Henry James became on of the famous author. Before William James started his study in Harvard, he told his father what he actually interested in. In the earlier state William wanted to be a painter. After he persisted his father, Henry promised his son to study painting. However, William James gave up his ambition to became a painter after studying few years with the artist William Morris Hunt and started his new life in Harvard with Chemistry. Suffering from a lot of stress, he continued his study in France and Germany.William James had a new friend, name Hermann von Helmholtz who focused on illusion.This was the time where William James became gradually interested in psychology. William James got his M.D. from Harvard and started teaching psychology at Harvard. In 1890 William James had his first book which is ‘The Principle Of Psychology’ followed by ‘Will To Believe’ and ‘Pragmatism’. (James, W. (1890). The Principles of Psychology. New York: Henry Holt and Co.; James, W. (1902)) William James had came out with some theory like Functionalism and James-Lange Theory of Emotion. He believed that the mind has the function of helping us adapt to the environment and human behavior was influenced by the evolution. Human acquire their behavior distinguish them from others species. This approach is called functionalism and is focus on adaptive purpose. For example, Darwin’s finches illustrated the interaction between genes and adaptation to the environment. The different species originated from common genes but their beak change in time for adaption in different places and different food supply. Another theory is James-Lange Theory of Emotion. William James had a same thinking as Carl Georg Lange. Carl Georg Lange (December 4, 1834 – May 29, 1900) was a Danish physician who made contributions to the fields of neurology,psychiatry, and psychology. At the same time , Carl Lange was also writting about emotion similar to William James. Based on this theory, an external stimulus cause psychological effect. Our reaction based on how we interpret those physical reactions. For examaple, when we see a lion suddenly appear in front of us, our heart bit will increase and we will breath faster, then we will start being affraid. Introduction of Wilhelm Wundt Wilhelm Wundt, 1832-1920. Wundt is credited with making psychology an independent science, separate from philosophy. Wundt original training was in medicine, but he became deeply interested in psychology. In his laboratory, Wundt investigated how sensations, images, and feelings combine to build personal experience. Wilhelm Wundt is commonly identified as the father of psychology. It is because Wundt’s formation of the world’s first experimental psychology lab is noted as the official head of psychology as a clearly perceptible science. Wundt take psychology from philosophy and biology to make it a field of study. Wilhelm Wundt granted a degree in medicine from the University of Heidelberg. In 1864, Wundt became an associate professor and independent tutor at the University of Heidelberg, and was promoted in 1871. Wundt had published the Principles of Physiological Psychology (1874), which help to establish experimental procedures psychological research. Wundt founded what is considered to be the first psychology laboratory in Leipzig, Germany in 1879. He used the technique known as introspection to probe the perceptual processed of his experimental subjects.His approach was called structuralism as he focused on the elements or structure of mental processes. Structuralism Structuralism refers to a theory of consciousness. Structuralism describes the structures that compose the mind. Wundt believed that psychology was the science of intentional experience and professional observers could precisely describe thoughts, feelings, and emotions through introspection. Contributions to Psychology: Wilhelm Wundt is known for establish the first psychology lab in Liepzig (Germany) generally titled as the beginning of psychology as a field of social science divide from philosophy and physiology. In addition, Wundt had published the psychology journal Philosophical Studies. Wundt had also his students who become successful psychologists. For example, Edward Titchener, Hugo Munsterberg, G. Stanley Hall, James McKeen Cattell, Charles Spearman, Charles Judd. Contributions to psychology Margaret Washburn was the first woman to be awarded a Ph.D. in psychology, in 1894. Over the next 15 years many woman followed her pioneering lead. Nowadays, more than half of the members of the APA are woman and nearly 75 percent of college graduates in psychology have been women. Obviously, psychology has become fully open to both men and women (Hyde, 2004). Being a psychologist, Washburn published in the areas of perception and imagery. She also developed a motor theory of consciousness, and she is still best known for her work in comparative psychology, (Goodwin, 2008, p. 200). The book The Animal Mind which was published in 1908 focused on research that used scientific data. This work was focused on the cognitive processes of perception, attention, and consciousness, as the behaviors of various species exhibited, (Goodwin, 2008). This book later became a textbook on comparative psychology. Now it is still in circulation. In 1916 Margaret wrote her another book, Movement and mental imagery. This book focused on movement, existing as the ultimate fact of science, and mental imagery, the world of imaginary objects, (Washburn, 1916). In the introduction to the book Movement and Mental imagery Washburn writes “ movements which an animal makes are belong to the world of external observation; they have direction, they have velocity and they are complex movements. An investigator like Professor Loeb can entertain the confident hope that science will someday be able to show their relations to the movements of lifeless things,” (Washburn, 1916, para.4). She wowed an all men’s Wittenberg seminar with her theory on dualistic motor functioning in 1927. Recognition was being received by her from the science circles that draw women out previously. This positive outlook in science was a contribution to help her became the president of the American Psychological Association (1922). She was the second woman to hold this title. Later she was appointed a membership in the National Academy of Science, again in 1931. She was also the second woman to do so. So the conclusion is, Margaret Floy Washburn was truly a dynamo of psychology. She loved science and the study of the mind with such a passion. This passion made her to accomplish much in her life span. Her career lasted from 1894-1937. Financial status and skin color of Margaret allowed her in doors of experimental psychological word mainly shut to women and people of color. Margaret died from stroke in Poughkeepsie, New York, on October 29, 1939. The psychological world is indebted to her hard work, her dedication, and her contributions to psychology. She is a good contributor of psychology. She will continue to inspire women and men interested in the science of psychology. Introduction to Psychology: Key Psychologists and Theories
Wireless Communication Systems
Introduction Wireless communication is part of today’s world and is greatly in demand as such resources are preferred in today’s world and so the sales are increasing day by day with equipment which involves wireless communication. The G which means generation, in the technology today amongst phones covers the technology improvement in the last few decades. The first mobile phone technology started with 1G which involved analogue technology. In the early 1990s the next generation of communication developed named 2G which was in a digital technology which also had text messaging with the idea of SIM cards coming into practice. SIM is short for (Subscriber Identity Module). Other technologies that evolved were CDMA(Code Division Multiple Access) and GSM (Global System for Mobile Communication). The next generation which followed made the data carrying better, making it potential to carry information such as websites as how they were originally. In 3G technology the iPhone has become the latest. As of today the agreement of 4G technology has not yet been established. It has been planned to have fast transfer speeds and should have good security. Something else that the 4G technology should meet is that it should reduce blips in transfer of the device when moving between different networks. The 4G mobile network should also be able to use the networks like the ones on the internet with IP addresses. 4G mobile is not yet implemented as an approved set of standards, so its characteristics are at present simply goals rather than requirements. As well as considerably desired increasing data transfer speeds, 4G mobile as well as should use improved security measures, When a device moves one place to another place between this area covered by different network reduce the blips in transmission is the another goal .4G mobile networks should also use a network based on the IP address system used for the internet. Two major systems using 4G technologies are WiMax and Long Term Evolution. WiMax began testing its 4G technology in Baltimore in 2008. The opposite system LTE was expected to be ready to be tested in 2010 and is expected to be ready for use in 2013. All this information above is described in detail in this research. All the topics covered above are broadened below. 3G 3G technology comes with better features than previous mobile network technologies. It has transmission which is at high speed, better multimedia access as well as connection globally.3G used with mobile phones a connects the phone with the internet and other IP connections which allow voice as well as video calls to be accessed. Not only this but also helps to download and surf the internet. From lower mobile technologies, 3G technology has higher data speed, better audio and video access, video calling support, Web use at quicker speeds and TV through the Internet. In 3G networks the transfer speed is between 128 and 144 kbps for devices that are fast and 384 kbps for slower ones. Wireless fixed LAN’s have a sped beyond 2Mbps. W-CDMA,TD-SCDMA, WLAN and cellular radio, among others are some of the technologies that 3G includes. WCDMA The third-generation Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) will be able to deliver high data rates of up to 384 kb/s at widearea applications or even 2 Mb/s indoors . This is achieved by using wide-bandwidth signals with Code-Division for Multiple Access (W-CDMA). The user data are multiplied by a fast pseudorandom spreading sequence before phase modulating the radio-frequency (RF) carrier. The resulting signals which are then broadcast have a bandwidth of approximately 4.5 MHz. Parameter W-CDMA Uplink 1920-1980 MHz Downlink 2110-2170 MHz Access DS-CDMA Duplex procedure FDD Modulation QPSK Pulse shaping Root-raised cos, Chip rate α = 0:22 User data rate 384 kb/s; 2 Mb/s Bandwidth/channel 5MHz Max. output power 21 dBm (Class IV) TD-SCDMA It was proposed by the China Wireless Telecommunication Standards group to the ITU in 1999.60MHz has been reserved for CDMA2000 and UMTS, but TD-SCDMA has reserved 155MHz.In common with UMTS-TDD,TD-SCDMA does not require separate uplink and downlink and offer speeds from as low as 1.2kbps up to 2 Mbps. Uplink and downlink traffic can be transferred in the same frame but in different time slots, and there can be up to 16 codes allocated per slot, more time slot can be devoted to downlink transfer than in the uplink. This allocation of time slots is dynamic and if a symmetric allocation is required, which is usually the case for a telephone call, then this will also be allocated the required resources. The minimum frequency band required for this system is 1.6 MHz and the chip rate is 1.28Mcps.it does not have soft handover mechanism but has a system similar to GSM where the mobile device are tightly synchronized to the network, and it is from here that the term ‘syschronous’ is derived. it is designed to work with a GSM core network is similar way to WCDMA and can also use the UTRAN signalling stack when it is deployed as a complementary technology. The frame is 5 ms rather than 10ms in WCDMA and split into seven slot.. 4G The future system technology of 4G should bring something that is very enchancing when compared to the previous technologies. 4G yet does not have a meaning as it has not yet been established. However the current targets for it are as follows: system interoperability:-flexible interoperability of the various kind of existing wireless network, such as satellite, cellular wireless, WLAN, PAN and system for wireless access to the fixed network. It ability to roam between multiple wireless and mobile standards. Due to the interoperability of different mobile and wireless network through the same terminal we can identify the three possible configuration. There are Multimode terminals:-this is obviously achieved by incorporating multiple interfaces to the terminal, one for the access methods of every different kind of wireless network. The ability to use many access methods will enable users to use a single device to access the 4G network irrespective of the particular access method used. Overlay network:- In this architecture user will access the 4G network through the Access Points of an overall network. The AP will perform protocol translation and Qos negotiation for the connections. Since APs can monitor the resource used by a user, this architecture supports single billing and subscription. Common access protocol:-this choice calls for use one or two standard access protocol by the wireless networks. A possible option is for the wireless networks to use either ATM cells with additional headers or WATM cells. Terminal bandwidth and battery life:- Future generation network will be covering a large range of banwidths from about a couple of kbps to about 100 Mbps or above. The battery life is expected to be about a week. This will happen with a reduction of the size of the battery. Packet-switched fixed network.:- This 4G technology will use wireless IP based fixed networks which will be able to connect the mobiles with the wireless networks effectively. Varying quality of bandwidth for wireless access:- Having a range of networks together will cause it to overlap with other networks. Due to where they are, the user will be abl to use different qualities of wireless by the change of bandwidth. Distribution layer: This layer of the network will be able to help with digital video as well as broadcasting and due to a good coverage will cover all areas. Cellular layer: This layer of the wireless network will give a load of capacity providing many users as well as provide good coverage in highly populated areas. It will allow data sizes of over 2 Mbps. The cell size will also be small compared to the distribution layer, and will support good mobility. Hot-spot layer: This layer will help with good service over a short distance. It will include WLAN systems like IEEE 802.11 and HIPERLAN. This layer will not provide great coverage in particular as it is a short distance however roaming should be available. Personal network layer: This layer will include wireless connection however in short ranges say through the use of Bluetooth. Mobility will be less but roaming should be available. Fixed layers: This layer uses an access system which is fixed. Advanced base stations: In the future for networks, the new smart antennas will make the capacity bigger as well as base stations having self-configuration not needing the need for employment. This would reduce costs. They will include a good range of terminals. High data rates: The 3G system will be changed using what it has already to form the new 4G generation. The 4G generation will offer higher speed than the 3G generation. The introduction of 4G needs specific targets which are named above. To get to these targets, 4G needs the basis on how to achieve this which is explained in detail below.. How 4G works: In the networks which have the 4G wireless technology, each one will be given an IP address which will have a home IP address and an address which represents its real location. When the computer in the Internet wants to communicate with another device perhaps a mobile phone in the wireless network. The computer will be able to send packets to the IP address of the 4G technology getting to know the home address too. To the phone’s address, the directory will send the packet through a tunnel, or a mobile IP, whilst on the meantime the directory server would also let the computer know that the phone’s address is correct. After this the other packets can be sent. The use of4G-IP address (IPv6) is that it will be able to carry more info than in the past with the IP address (IPv4). In this IP address, software can use them to tell the differences between services and to communicate with network areas of different sorts. This could be with the computer and the phones network. An example includes Moreover which uses 4G technology not only has this transmission way but also uses OFDM, MC-CDMA, LAS-CDMA, UWB *7 and Network-LMDS. Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing abbreviated as OFDM, passes on figures on a great quantity through a radio wave. Changing the radio signal into many small signals then transferred at the same time through different frequencies to the receiver is the method in which this is carried out. OFDM is a digital technology through modulation which increase strength of these signal; this is good for high digital data transition. This is a great digital technology method in which through the process of modulation increases the strength of the signal and is good for a transition of high quality digital data. In this time, users might have a good question about how theses waves targeted the correct destination. A OFDM makes the radio wave target the right place though a couple of devices which are wireless, which make a connection tunnel when they start communication. After connecting the target, the radio wave splits into smaller signals which have the correct direction towards the target. MS-CDMA stands for Multi-Carrier Code Division Multiple Access, which is actually OFDM with a CDMA overlay. The users are multiplexed with orthogonal codes to differentiate users in MS-CDMA and single-carrier CDMA systems. It allows flexible system design between cellular system and signal cell system. However, in MC-CDMA, each user can be allocated several codes, where the data is spread in time or frequency. LAS-CDMA the shortened form for Large Area Synchronized Code Division Multiple Access, is made through by LinkAir Communication which is basically wireless technology through the developed 4G technology. LAS-CDMA makes voice capacity better, with high speed and the latest original solution called Code-Division Duplex (CDD) which combines the LAS-CDMA technology with the greater data transmission type of Time-Division Duplex (TDD). This combination makes Code-Division Duplex to be very spectrally efficient as well as having high speed available today as a great system. LAS-CDMA is seen as being the great 4G technology’s ‘World Cell’. If two wireless devices for instance are a quite big distance apart then using this protocol which has IPv6 to create the connection. In the 4G world, UWB radio which solves the multi-path weakening matters through its clever use of electrical impulses which has all frequencies at one time. Due to its low-power condition though, this UWB cannot be used outside of being indoors or underground. UWB should be used however with OFDM which cal transfer digital data on a large scale. This is positive though as the UWB would be running insides equally as the OFDM runs outside which means that the signal can stay strong. UWB also needs to be used in small distances inside the buildings through 4G technology. The broadband technology which is wireless used to carry video, data Internet as well as voice in 25 GHz is the Network-LMDS Local Multipoint distribution system. This method makes sure all these things are carried together at once, and this can be the result in the fading issue locally.  Differences between 3G and 4G: The main factors in which 3G and 4G technologies vary is due to their services, their ways of transmission, access to the web, the rates of transfer, security as well as quality. 3G technology can only carry upto the speed of about and up to 2 Mbps however 4G technology can go much higher to a better speed. 4G technologies can provide global connection whereas for 3G markets it is difficult to roam globally. Technology which uses 4G can provide global roaming at a lower price. 3g is based on the notion through circuits and packets through things like WCDMA, CDMA and TD-SDMA. However 4G uses the use of packets. As mentioned above about the differentiation between the 3G and 4G, this has been broadened in the tab le below. Feature 3G wireless technology 4G Wireless technology Speed Up to 2Mbps Full-mobility: up to 100Mbps Low-mobility:up to 1Gbps Service 1. Difficult of global roaming 2. Expensive 3. good for voice transmission 1. roaming smoothly 2. inexpensive 3. good for any type of transmission Core Network 1. Wide-area concept 2. Circuit and packet switching 1. broadband IP-based 2. Entirely packet switching Technologies 1. WCDMA 2. CDMA 3. TD-SDMA All access convergence Main: 1. OFDM 2. MC-CDMA 3. LAS-CDMA 4. UWB 5. Network-LMPS Wimax Wimax which stands for Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access was made to give a ordinary structure for wireless connectivity in permanent, moveable, and mobile environments. WiMAX is a wireless technology intended to give high throughput over a distance. It gives the quick broadband of link. It also provides wireless access which reduces costs which involves the fibre and making buildings. It has a range that goes beyond WiFi. A WiMAX uses two hardware components — a WiMAX tower as well as WiMAX receiver. This tower covers a 30 mile radius. The tower joins to the Internet using a wide connection through a wireline, or it offers a wireless link to other WiMAX towers with Line Of Site (LOS for short) microwave links. The receiver could be anything. NLOS (non-line of sight in full) connections join devices to the tower using a frequency range of 2-11 GHz as low wavelength signals are strong. LOS connections however do not cover as large area but covers and area of 4-6 miles. QoS is the aspect in a technology to deliver high bandwidth services. Examples of such include VoIP and IP video services as well as other services as such. To provide such QoS service, the WiMax need to make sure they have a low latency. WiMAX security is defined in the Privacy Sub-layer in the MAC Layer, as specified by WiMAX standards. Fixed WiMAX (802.16-2004) typically uses X.509 certificates for authentication and 56-bit Digital Encryption System (DES), while Mobile WiMAX (802.16e-2005) uses EAP for authentication and Advanced Encryption System (AES) for encryption. Both employ Privacy Key Management (PKM) for authentication between base station and subscriber station.. LTE Long Term Evolution (LTE) is a 4G wireless broadband technology made by the Third Generation Partnership Project. LTE has many benefits for not only the consumer but also the workers too: Performance and capacity – one request that the LTE is to provide downlink rates of a minimum of 100Mbit/s and needs the technology to allow for speeds that are over 200Mbit/s. Simplicity From below 5MHz up to 20MHz, LTE supports carrier bandwidths. LTE also supports both FDD (Frequency Division Duplex) and TDD (Time Division Duplex). Ten paired and four unpaired spectrum bands have so far been identified by 3GPP for LTE. it is easiest to deploy 10MHz or 20MHz carriers, and eventually deploy LTE in all bands. plug-and-play, self-configuration and self-optimization will simplify and reduce the cost of network roll-out and management. LTE will be deployed in parallel with simplified, IP-based core and transport networks that are easier to build, maintain and introduce services on. Wide range of terminals- LTE supports hand-over and roaming to existing mobile networks, all devices can have ubiquitous mobile broadband coverage from day one. COMPARSION BETWEEN WIMAX AND LTE Aspect Wimax LTE Access technology Downlink(DL) Uplink(UL) OFDMA OFDMA OFDMA SC-FDMA Frequency band 2.3-2.4GHz,2.496-2.69GHz ~2GHz Bit-rate: DL UL 75Mbps(MIMO 2TX 2RX) 25Mbps 100Mbps(MIMO 2TX 2RX) 50Mbps Channnel bandwidth 5,8.75,10MHz 1.25-20MHz Cell radius 2-7km 5km Cell capacity 100-200 users >200 users in 5MHz >400 users for large BW Spectral efficiency 3.75[bits/sec/Hz] 5[bits/sec/hz] Mobility: Speed Handovers Up to 120km/h Optimized hard handovers supported Up to 250km/h Inter-cell soft handovers supported Legacy IEEE802.16a through 16d GSM/GPRS/EGPRS/UMTS/HSPA MIMO DL UL No. of code words 2Tx X 2Rx 1Tx X NRx(Collaborative SM) 1 2Tx X 2RX 2Tx X 2Rx 2 Standardization coverage IEEE 802.16e-2005 PHY and MAC CN standardization in Wimax RAN(PHY MAC) CN Roaming framework Wimax forum Auto through existing GSM/UMTS .Verizon has devoted to using Long Term Evolution starting by soon, ensuring to deliver ten times the data throughput of 3G technologies in the current time. Others, including NTT DoCoMo in Japan, France Telecom, Vodafone in the UK, AT
I’m working on a nursing report and need a sample draft to help me understand better.
This final summary reflection is expected to be a minimum of 2-3 pages in length (double-spaced).PromptsReflect on the concepts that have been covered throughout the course, and describe at least three key takeaways.Review your self-assessments (you took one during the first week of the course, and you updated it again recently); describe and reflect on your own growth over the past semester in regard to personal biases.Reflect on the role of the nurse in providing holistic care, and what you will do to incorporate holistic care concepts into your nursing practice to support patients’ healing journeys.Describe what you will do to promote holistic self-care and wellness, during your remaining time in nursing school, and when you enter professional practice.Add any other thoughts about holistic health, and how it applies to professional nursing.-I attached some lectures which will help you to do the reflection on those topics we took this semester.
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