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Onion Dna Extraction easy essay help American History essay help

ANSWERS TO STUDENT QUESTIONS 1. Buffer: A solution that will maintain a constant pH, chelate metal ions and generally maintain an environment that will prevent disruption of the experiment. Precipitate: The solid which is visible when a substance becomes insoluble from a solution. Filter: To separate by passing a mixture through a selective membrane. Emulsify: To physically break up lipid into smaller lipid globules. 2. To maintain an environment in which the DNA will not be degraded and to help separate the DNA from other cell components.

Tris maintains a constant pH. EDTA chelates metal ions. NaCl provides Na+ ions that will block negative charge from phosphates on DNA. 3. Negatively charged phosphates on DNA cause molecules to repel each other. The Na+ ions will form an ionic bond with the negatively charged phosphates on the DNA, neutralizing the negative charges and allowing the DNA molecules to come together. 4. Any non-starchy vegetable should work. Potatoes would not work well. 5. Answers will vary. 6. DNA in cells will absorb UV light. When it does it can be damaged.

If the damage occurs in a cell cycle gene, then growth may become uncontrolled leading to skin cancer. STUDENT PAGE 1 DNA Isolation from Onion INTRODUCTION The process of isolating DNA from a cell is the first step for many laboratory procedures in biotechnology. The scientist must be able to separate the DNA from the unwanted substances of the cell gently enough so that the DNA is not broken up or shredded. The procedure you will be doing is a modification of the “Marmur” preparation which is used worldwide in biotechnology laboratories.

A “Filtrate” is made of onions treated with salt, distilled water and detergent(SDS). An onion is used because it has a low starch content which allows the DNA to be seen more clearly. The salt shields the negative phosphate end of DNA which allows these ends to come closer so they can precipitate out of a cold alcohol solution. The detergent causes the cell membrane to breakdown by emulsifying the lipids and proteins of the cell and disrupting the polar interactions that hold the cell membrane together. The detergent then forms complexes with these lipids and proteins, causing them to precipitate out of solution.

Collectively, the salt solution and detergent are referred to as a lysing buffer. DNA Extraction Detergent/Salt Solution Add 20 ml of detergent to 20 g non-iodized salt and 180 ml of distilled water. The detergent salt solution is used to break down the fat and proteins that make up the cell membrane. The sale causs the phosphate ends of the DNA to come closer together which will make it easier to precipitate out of solution. | Meat Tenderizer Solution Add 5 g of meat tenderizer to 95 ml of distilled water. Enzymes in the meat tenderizer will break down proteins| Ethanol Solution

Add 5 ml of distilled water to 95 ml of ethanol (alcohol). Rubbing alcohol can be substituted. Place this solution on ice, the colder the better. Alcohol is used to precipitate the DNA. Because DNA is soluble in water, alcohol (ethanol) causes the DNA to precipitate and come out of the solution. DNA will rise into the alcohol layer. | The process of extracting DNA from a cell is the first step for many laboratory procedures in biotechnology. The scientist must be able to separate DNA from the unwanted substances of the cell gently enough so that the DNA is not broken up.

It is both interesting and important to understand the reason for some of the steps in the procedure below. An onion is used because it has a low starch content, which allows the DNA to be seen clearly. The salt shields the negative phosphate ends of DNA, which allows the ends to come closer so the DNA can precipitate out of a cold alcohol solution. The detergent causes the cell membrane to break down by dissolving the lipids and proteins of the cell and disrupting the bonds that hold the cell membrane together.

The detergent then forms complexes with these lipids and proteins, causing them to precipitate out of solution. DNA is a nucleic acid located in the cell’s nucleus. It is found making up the genetic material and is bound to several types of proteins. The nuclear and the cell membranes are a tough protective barrier, made of lipids and proteins, which need to be eliminated in order to release the DNA. It is very important that the directions be followed carefully to ensure good results.

IT-140 Translate requirements to solve problems computationally

ScenarioYou work for a small company that creates text-based games. You have been asked to pitch an idea to your team for a text-based adventure game with a theme and environment of your choice. Your game must include different rooms, items, and a villain. The basic gameplay will require the player to move between different rooms to gather all of the items. A player wins the game by collecting all the items before encountering the villain. The player will have two options for commands in the game: moving to a different room, and getting an item from the room they are in. Movement between rooms happens in four simple directions: North, South, East, and West.
You must include the designs for your game as a part of your idea pitch. Specifically, you have been asked to provide a map that displays the different rooms and items. You have also been asked to use pseudocode or flowcharts to design code for moving between rooms and getting items. If your pitch gets approved, these designs will help your team members understand the pitch, and will help the team develop the game in the future.
DirectionsIn this project, you will break the problem down into a set of requirements for your game program. Then you will design your game by creating a storyboard and pseudocode or flowcharts. Remember, in Project One, you are only designing the game. You will actually develop the code for your game in Project Two.
Review the Sample Dragon Text Game Storyboard in the Supporting Materials section to see a sample storyboard for a dragon-themed game. You will begin by creating a storyboard to plan out your game. Using one of the templates located in the What to Submit section, write a short paragraph that describes the theme of your game by answering all of the following questions:What is your theme? What is the basic storyline?
What rooms will you have? (Note: You need a minimum of eight.)
What items will you have? (Note: You need a minimum of six.)
Who is your villain?

Next, you will complete your storyboard by designing a map that organizes the required elements of the game (rooms, items, and villain). Using the blank map in your template, organize the different rooms and the items in each room. The following requirements must be met:There must be a minimum of eight rooms.
Each room must contain one item, with the exception of the “start” room and the room containing the villain.
The “start” room is where players will begin their moves and should not contain any items.
The room containing the villain should not contain any items.
Remember, to win the game, the player must move through the rooms, collect all the items, and avoid the room with the villain until all of the items have been collected. Make sure that it is possible for the player to win the game. For example, the room with the villain should not block a room containing an item.Note: The blank map in the template is provided as a guide. You may add more rooms or change the locations of rooms to suit your needs. This map is for your planning purposes; the player will not have access to this map in the game. You will be able to use your map later when creating and testing your code as a part of Project Two.
Carefully review the Sample Dragon Text Game Walkthrough video and Sample Dragon Text Game Output reading, located in the Supporting Materials section. These will give you an understanding of how the text-based game should work. As you read, consider the following questions:What are the different steps needed in this program? How might you outline them in a way that a computer can understand?
What information would you need from the player at each point (inputs)? What information would you output to the player at each point?
When might it be a good idea to use “IF” and “IF ELSE” statements?
When might it be a good idea to use loops?
When might it be a good idea to use functions (optional)?
Note: You are not required to turn in anything for this step. However, this step is important to prepare you to design your code in Steps #4 and 5.
Create pseudocode or a flowchart that logically outlines the steps that will allow the player to move between rooms using commands to go North, South, East, and West. Use your notes from Step #3 to help you design this section of code. Be sure to address the following:What input do you need from the player? How will you prompt the player for that input? How will you validate the input?
What should the program do if the player enters a valid direction? What output should result?
What should the program do if the player enters an invalid direction? What output should result?
How will you control the program flow with decision branching and loops?

Create pseudocode or a flowchart that logically outlines the steps that will allow the player to get the item from the room they are in and add it to their inventory. Use your notes from Step #3 to help you design this section of code. Be sure to address the following:What input do you need from the player? How will you prompt the player for that input? How will you validate the input?
What should the program do if the player enters a valid item (the item in their current room)? What output should result?
What should the program do if the player enters an invalid item (an item not in their current room)? What output should result?
How will you control the program flow with decision branching or loops?

What to SubmitTo complete this project, you must submit the following:
Design Document or Design PresentationSubmit your completed Design Document Template or Design Presentation Template, which should contain all of the designs for your program. Be sure that you have completed the following pieces of the template:
Storyboard (Theme Description and Map)Include a paragraph (if using Word) or a slide (if using PowerPoint) that describes the theme, the basic storyline, the rooms, the items, and the villain. Submit your completed map with the layout of the different rooms and the items in each room. Your map should be on one page of the Word document or one slide of the PowerPoint presentation. You completed these items in Steps #1 and 2.
Pseudocode or FlowchartsInclude the pseudocode or flowcharts showing how the player will move between rooms and get the item from each room. Input, output, and the decision branching and loops that control the program flow should be clear. You completed these designs in Steps #4 and 5.