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Old Aged Poverty In Hong Kong Sociology Essay

Actually, the poverty situation of the elderly people in Hong Kong is quite worrying. According to the figures released by the Census and Statistics Department, the poverty rate of the elderly people has been over 30% since 1998, which means that one out of three elderly people is living in poverty. However, the problem was not solved any more. In 2008, the problem was getting much more serious. There has been already twenty-seven thousands elderly people were in poor. According to the figure released by the European Union Sustainable Development Indicator, the poverty rate of the elderly people in Hong Kong is comparatively higher than other countries while comparing the situation to other countries such as the U.K and the Italy. It is predicted that the number of the elderly people will be around two millions. The above figures reflect that the life of those elderly people could not be protected well after retirement. Now, I am going to discuss the reason why those elderly people would still have the serious financial difficult even they had been working for many years before retirement. Undoubtedly, the rapid change in the labor market in Hong Kong definitely leads to the current old age poverty. First of all, whether the elderly people would be in poverty probably depends on their working history before retirement and the employment market at that time. In the past, light industry in Hong Kong was very popular in the 60’s and 70’s. There was a great demand of working labor. Many people who were low educated and lack of specialist skills would chose to work as a worker in the factories. Of course, their salary would relatively low. However, their working situation had become much more difficult after Hong Kong has been transformed into a knowledge-based society. More and more industrial factories have moved to the mainland and those workers’ salary would keep declining. In the 80’s Hong Kong evolved from a largely manufacturing based economy to one which was service-based (Suen and Chan 1997), as most factories moved to mainland China to exploit the cheaper labor costs (Suen 1995; Tao and Wong 2002). As a result, their savings were extremely limited and they did not have extra money for investment in order to earn more money. Under the knowledge-based society, the higher educational level people get, the higher salary they would have. For those 60’s and 70’s people, they could hardly have a higher educational level as working in the factories for so many years. It means that their income would keep in the low level. As a result, it is not common that they would easily become poor and ask for help from the government after retirement. Lacking a comprehensive pension system Comprehensive Social Security Assistance is the only social security system in Hong Kong. If retirees had financial difficulty, they would apply for the CSSA to see whether they are eligible or not. However, CSSA would not help to solve the poverty in the old age after retirement. First of all, financial investigation would be done once the elderly people have applied for the CSSA. Actually, the assets limit for the application of the CSSA is quite low. If the old aged person has around ten thousands dollars in the bank account, he/she would not be eligible for receiving CSSA. It totally reflects that what the policy proposed by the government was based on the perspective of residual welfare. As a result, only the deserved poor would be helped by the CSSA. Thus, the CSSA system would lead to the stigmatization and only the poorest people would have opportunity to be included into the social security system, which means that some of the elderly people might not be eligible to receive CSSA even they have financial difficulty after retirement. Besides, The implementation of the Mandatory Provident Fund (MPF) scheme in 2000-a system of mandatory personal savings (5 per cent of workers’ salaries and an equal contribution from employers) deposited in individualized savings accounts to accumulate benefits for retirement-is unlikely to be of much help to these workers. Most of the people who have retired would probably need to maintain their daily life by their MPF. However, the value of the MPF probably depends on how much salary people earned in the past. If the person who earned only little in the past, his/her MPF would not be adequate to enjoy the rest of the life. The relationship between Early Retirement and poverty From my point of view, early retirement would also be one of the main factors that contribute to poverty in the old age. As I have mentioned above, due to the longer lifespan and insufficient retirement income protection, the majority of older workers strive to stay in the labor market for as long as possible in order to earn a living. Unfortunately, most of them were forced to retire because of long-term unemployment, especially those with a low education level (Chou, Chow and Chi, 2003). According to a survey of 2003 older adults aged above 60 in Hong Knog conducted by the Deloitte and Touche Consulting Group (2007), it showed that most of them did not want to retire although they have already reached the normal retirement age because they want to work so as to earn more until they can no longer to do so. However, many of them have been out of expectation. The survey also showed that those workers in Hong Kong who expect to work until they can no longer do so are actually more vulnerable to unemployment, or even early involuntary retirement. It is because they have comparatively lower educational attainment and lower incomes-and hence were more likely to be unemployed and/or to be under financial strain (Chou, Chow and Chi, 2003). As I have mentioned above, those worker who worker in the manufacturing industry would have low wages and they could hardly strive in the nowadays market after the society has already been transformed into knowledge-based. As a result, this kind of workers would be forced to retire early due to either labor market restructuring or obsolete skills. While concluding the above factors how retirement is a determining factor of poverty in old age, it is expected that there will be three categories of old workers. The first group consists of those who will prefer to retire at a particular age and who will be well protected by retirement schemes. The second will be composed of early retirees, forced to retire before the age of 65. The third group will consist of those who plan to continue working until either they are expelled from the competitive labor market or their health does not allow them to continue. As a result, those who are in low educational level would face a great financial difficulty after retirement. Ways to prevent poverty after retirement After examining the reason why retirement is a determining factor of poverty in old age in Hong Kong. In the followings, I would like to suggest some ways to help relief the old-aged poverty after retirement in Hong Kong. To commence with, I would suggested that the government should propose a pension system for the old-aged poor instead of only running the current CSSA system to help this special group. While dealing with the old-aged poor, only finding ways for them to escape from the poor on their own might not enough. It is important for the government to satisfy their financial and social needs in order that their later life would not be affected by the poverty. Secondly, I would also suggest that the government needs to deal with the problem of age discrimination in Hong Kong as it would probably affect older workers’ prospects of recruitment, promotion and training (OECD 1995; Walker and Taylor 1993). Although there is no mandatory retirement age in Hong Kong, employers would point out that older workers are unwilling to learn new skills and do not want to accept new responsibilities. Thus, many people would think that these workers are more difficult to train (Chiu and Ngan, 1999). As a result, older workers in Hong Kong are certainly more likely to be unemployed and less likely to be promoted or selected for training than younger workers (Ho, 2000). Therefore, there is a great need for campaigns directed at employers to encourage best practices in the workplace for all ages. To my mind, legislation is needed so as to eliminate age discrimination. As I have mentioned before, people’s life span has already been much longer in this decade, people would still be physically healthy even they are above sixty years old. That means, they are still competitive in the labor market. If they were forced to retire early, they would have no more opportunity to earn and save more. In fact, many of them do not earn much in their work. After retirement, poverty would be the next difficulty for them to come across. To deal with this problem, I suggest the age of retirement would be delayed as long as possible once they lost their earning ability one day. Conclusion To conclude, elderly people in Hong Kong do not have much choice when it comes to retirement or work. Most of them are either forced to retire early or strive to stay in the labor market for as long as possible in order to meet their financial needs. The problem of poverty in the old age would be getting much more serious in the future. Retirement nowadays seems to be a signal which shows to the old workers that they would face poverty if they would not earn much when they were young. To solve this problem, redefining retirement is needed as many people are definitely able to work well even they are over 60 years old. At the same time, reframing the idea of MPF and setting up a new pension system for the elderly is also necessary because many elderly, other than the deserved poor, also need to receive financial welfare.
you are a manager running a unit in a rehabilitation center..

Imagine that you are a manager running a unit in a rehabilitation center. Up to this point, your primary population of payers has been elderly patients who come into the center for physical therapy. Recently, there has been a demographic shift in the community. A large number of your primary population has moved out of the area or died, which has caused a shift in your revenues. You have been tasked by your director to illustrate the cost and revenue numbers relative to insurance payouts to ensure that your cost does not exceed your revenue. Drawing on your current professional expertise and understanding drawn from the required resources for this week, create an initial post in which you communicate how the potential payer mix relates economically to changing demographics in your given community. What potential solutions would you suggest to your director that might overcome the demographic shift? Analyze economic theories that are germane to your provision of services and identify one theory that might apply to this specific situation. 2-3 pages doubled spaced support your information with at least 2 references from Ashford U library
you are a manager running a unit in a rehabilitation center.

San Diego State University Race and Campaign Fund Mobilization Article Analysis.

I’m working on a political science question and need guidance to help me learn.… Typical Anatomy of a Journal Article in Political ScienceThe Title of an article appears on the first page of the article. The Title is brief, typically no more than 5-10 words, and identifies for the reader the subject of the article.The Main Point of an article is typically found in the Abstract. An Abstract is a summary of the article which is located on the first page, after the Title. The main point may be in the Introduction of the article.The Question of an article is typically found in the Abstract. The question may be in the Introduction of the article as well.The Puzzle is a missing piece of knowledge that the article seeks to fulfill.The Debate is how scholars currently argue the subject of the article. Debates have at least two sides, and the two sides we are most familiar with are “pro” and “con”. However, debates can be more complex.The Theory is how the author thinks something works. For example, we may have a theory about how campaigns influence voters. Theories consists of constants, variables, and the relationships between variables.The Hypotheses are derived from the Theory. A hypothesis is the expectation that one variable affects another variable in a specific way.The Research Design is how the author compares the effect of the explanatory variable (X) on the outcome variable (O) in a group (G) or set of groups.The Empirical Analysis is the use of quantitative or qualitative evidence to explore whether the hypothesized relationship between two variables does indeed occur in the world.The Policy Implications are how the findings of the article should influence the behavior of individuals, groups, organizations, or governments.The Contribution to the Discipline is how the article helps fill the missing Puzzle pieceFuture Research offers suggestions for future research that build on the findings from the article.
San Diego State University Race and Campaign Fund Mobilization Article Analysis

Mathematics homework help

Mathematics homework help. This is a paper that is requiring the student to discuss Capstone’s Corporation legal claims case study. The paper also provides additional information to use in the writing of the assignment paper. Below is the assignment description:,Discuss Capstone’s Corporation legal claims case study,In this assignment, you’ll need to decide whether Paula Plaintiff has any legal claims arising from another series of unfortunate events. After reading the scenario, answer the questions that follow, making sure to fully explain the basis of your decision.,Paula’s bad luck continues. Five days after the events detailed in your last assignment, Paula returns to work at Capstone Corporation. Unfortunately, she used her company e-mail to send her mom a personal note about her injuries, despite being aware that Capstone’s company policy prohibits use of company e-mail for personal communication. Paula’s supervisor, Mikey Manager, discovers Paula’s violation and Paula is reprimanded. When Paula goes home, she uses her personal computer to post disparaging comments about her boss and Capstone Corporation on social media. The next day, Paula is fired from her job.,After several days of bad luck, Paula believes her luck is about to change. She finds a new job in a nearby town. Paula had been using the bus to go to work at Capstone Corporation, but she will need to purchase a car to commute to her new job. Fortunately, her neighbor Freddy Ford has just purchased a new vehicle and is selling his old Mustang. Paula meets with Freddy and agrees to purchase the Mustang for $1000. The parties also agree that Paula will bring Freddy the money the next day when she picks up the car. The next day, Paula calls Freddy and says, “I have the money. I’d like to come pick up my car.” Freddy replies that Paula is too late. He sold the car earlier in the day.,Instructions,In a 6–10 paragraph paper, answer the following questions:,Does Paula have any legal claims against Capstone Corporation? What about Paula’s actions? Does Paula have a contract with Freddy to purchase the car? Consider the following:, Does Paula have a right to privacy when using Capstone Corporation’s e-mail system? Discuss ,one’s right to privacy, and relate it to the facts in the scenario., Can Paula be legally fired from her job for making negative comments about her boss and her company on social media? What about free speech? Discuss these issues and relate them to the facts of the scenario., Do Paula and Freddy have a contract for the sale of the Mustang? Discuss the elements of a contract and relate those elements to the facts of the scenario.,Attachments,Click Here To Download,Mathematics homework help

University of The Rockies Dissident Terrorism in Ireland Discussion

term paper help University of The Rockies Dissident Terrorism in Ireland Discussion.

Research the dissident terrorism that occurred in Northern Ireland between Catholic nationalists (Republicans) and Protestant unionists (Loyalists) beginning in 1969 to present time. We often only hear about the actions of the Irish Republican Army (or Provisional Irish Republican Army), but there were two sides to this conflict and both engaged in political violence. Briefly describe a tactic or method of attack used by either side during this period. What was one thing that you learned about this conflict that you found interesting?
Explain your answers in full detail.  Provide resources to support your position.
University of The Rockies Dissident Terrorism in Ireland Discussion

Homework Help Needed (Marketing/Psychology)

Homework Help Needed (Marketing/Psychology).

Topic 2: Loyalty and Distribution Methods
loyalty programs more likely to be successful for certain kinds of
products and service than for others? Given
the proliferation of loyalty programs, how can you differentiate your
program from competitors programs? What
are your thoughts on using a franchise as a method of distribution for a
business? Describe
the pros and cons referenced with examples to support your thoughts.
Developmental Research
There are a number of
research designs that are used in developmental research. As discussed in your
textbook, longitudinal and cross-sectional research is used to assess
developmental change and to explore developmental topics and changes over time.
Go to the KU Online Library
and select either a longitudinal or cross-sectional research article. What is
the research question, and how did the researcher(s) attempt to answer this
research question? Prior to discussing the steps involved, be sure to name the
research method, which should be either longitudinal or cross sectional.
Finally, use caution when directly quoting from the article, ensure that you
are summarizing using your own words.
Use this article:
Parent child conflict.pdf
Homework Help Needed (Marketing/Psychology)

Fran Lloyd Wright: Biography and Architecture Style

Fran Lloyd Wright: Biography and Architecture Style. Fran Lloyd Wright (1867-1959), a great morden architect from the US. His design leads us to a new perspective of builind and living. He believes in sincere and simple design concept. The aspects of his design ideas are the organic buildings, prairie style and the incorpration of fuctional and form. The main fucouse of his design is always base on the natural ansd real that the building need to respect by the surrounding enviornment. Wright designed everything from private houses to commercial spaces, from architecture to furniture, and urban design as well. He had his own personal characteristic and expression that make his work a big difference from the mainstream of design at the time. Herbert F. Johnson House, “Wingspread” (1937, Wisconsin) Context: The Wingspread house which was a commission of Herbert F. Johnson, the presidence of S.C. Johnson Et Son Company in 1937, when Wirght was underway of the construction to begin on the Fallingwater House. The house was completed in 1939, and it was built on a very opened prairie surround with woods and ravines at Wind Point. In the early 20th century, Wright’s works were mostly related to the nature by developing the relationship between human and nature, integrating the building and nature, also the use of natural materials. The Wingspread House, as Wright called it “ the last of Prairie houses”. Based on Prairie-style, in order to have a natural flow of the space, we often see large open plans for public areas, such as living room or dining room. Up to today, it is considered as one of the Wright’s most beautiful and expensive houses. Concept: A house in the open prairie, the design of the Wingspread House is about embrace nature. Just like the name of this house, an idea of windmill comes to the overall shape of the house. Indeed, the shape is also like something grows from the earth, and perfectly blends to the natural as well as the use of nature materials. Private spaces set to different wings that extended from the central of the building where is designed for the family activities. The mezzanine and changes of levels brings more sense of human scale of this large space. This irregular shape even though is not organic, but still bring a very unusual way of design residential house, which is like the natural will always over our imagination. In order to emphasize the interaction of each family number, the concept of this house is also allowed them to communicate in diffierent levels. Wright also considered a lot of the kids which to design the space both functional and playful. Organization: The overall floor space is 14,000 sq.ft. The center of the house where the entrance hall, family room, living room, music room, library and dining room are located. The master bedroom, children’s bedrooms, guests’ room and servants’ room are placed in four different wings where they all have their own private space. Instead of partition, a tall stone chimney is designed as a feature element from floor to ceiling with four fireplaces build at ground floor, and one on the mazzanine level. This also divides the main area into different function zones. Also, a spiral staircase is set in a playful way on side of the indoor chimney for kids to go up to the roof. A high dome ceiling with three rolls of sky light gives more natural lights and sense of spacious. The master bedroom wing is for Mr. and Mrs. Johnson and their daughter. It has three bedrooms and a sitting room. And each bedroom has a bathroom. This wing is at the mezzanine level, and the rest three wings are at the ground floor. The children’s wing has three bedrooms and three bathrooms, and it is connected to the outside terrace with a swimming pool, and a playroom as well. The kitchen is set on the servant wing, with three maids’ room, one shared bathroom and sitting room. Also the guest’s wing is connected to the access of a garage for five cars. Details: The use of natural material often sees in Wright’s project. The Wright House as well bring the brick work from the out side of the house to the interior to apply the 30 foots chimney, which also give a sense of masculine and power to emphasize as it is the feature of the main area. The oversize concrete squares for the flooring in the living room is about to keep the temperature at a comfort level by the radiant heating. Also, after the construction, Johnson Was designed specific product to give a low gloss finish for the flooring. The build-in wood furnitures bring a harmony of the space and also neutralize the roughness of the brick. Windows surround the most of the house, as well as the rows of skylight in the main area to give as much as the natural light. Wright said that, “ This house, while resembling the Coonley House, is much more blood, masculine and direct in form and treatment-excuted in more permanent materials. The house has a heavy footing course of Kasota sandstone, the best brickwork I have seen in my life- and the materials of construction throughout are everywhere substantial…” Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum (1943, New York) Context: In 1943, Wright got a commission from Baroness Hilla von Rebay to build a new museum to collect Solomon R. Guggenheim’s non-objective painting. Guggenheim required designing the museum that is unlike any other. The museum is one of Wright’s famous projects, and also known as his longest project that took about 16 years until opened to the public in 1959, six month after he passed away. During the long process of this project, Wright had many chanllenges of design the museum, in terms of the WWII, economic crisis in the late 40s, and building code requirements. It is located at the Fifth Avenue in Manhattan and next to the east face of the famous Central Park where is also the downtown area of New York City. Even Wrights had to modify and redesign many versions of this museum within the 16 years, but the final result is still something marvelous. His design language brings out the simplicity and naturality. Wright always tries to design things unusual, so the Guggenheim Museum is also become to an impressive mark in Manhattan. Concept: “I am so full of ideas for our museum that I am likely to blow up or commit suicide unless I can let them out on paper.” Wright wrote to Rebay shows that he has all his passion and ambitious about the museum project in 1943. He provided six complete perspective drawing that implied architectural, structural, electrical and mechanical. Wright defined that, “ A museum should be one extended expansive well proportioned floor space from bottom to top – a wheel chair going around and up and down, throughout.” This idea also shows that he is not only design an object itself, but also considering with a humanist approach and then bring it to the design. The shape of the building is described as an “inverted ziggurat”. The exterior concrete bands grow slightly larger at each higher level that gives a feeling of powerful. As well as the interoir space offsets the curved wall from exterior and continued ramp from the first floor to the top to feel natural and smooth. The ramp gives visitors freedom to walk around the whole building without any staircases. It stands in a high contrast to the surrounding traditional building. The organic shapes and the sense of simplicity make it like a natural product. The building itself is actually like an artwork, a sculpture than leading people want to go inside and explore. Although, there are still some different opinions concern about overpower design of the building that may compete for attention to the exhibit. Organization: The interior of this museum is very expressive with a central well from the first floor to the sixth level that provide a large open hollow design with a 97 feet glass dome for skylight. The entrance is located in the ground floor with the vestibule and waiting room. In the basement, it provides the lecture room with a mezzanine below the central court. The main gallery stars from the first floor where is above the ground floor, and there is also a library. To go to the upper level, the ramp continues up to the sixth floor that the rotation ends without a full revolution. There are toilets and elevator on each level, also a triangular stairwell on the side as an emergency exit. Offices and workrooms are on the second floor. At the top floor, it has an outdoor balcony, and also the director’s office. Details: Frank Loyd Wright’s design concept of organic architecture also applies to some details. The glass dome is designed in to different geometric shapes, which are triangles, ovals, arches, circles and squares. The skylights not only appear from the top ceiling. From the exterior view, concrete bands seem like floating on top of each other, and they actually have skylights along the circle on every top of each level. In this case, we can see how Wright tried to repect the use of natural lights. Indeed, the triangle recessed lights and staircases are also nutrualise the overall organic shape. A feature pond built at the ground floor that can be noticed from every level above. However, the curved interior wall is controversial from some artists who complained about the placement of their painting. But this does not sinfluence the love and praise of the visitors for it. To compare with the expansive main gallary, the entrance is relative low, small and conceal. That gives visitor a contrast leading suddenly into an open space. Every period of his time, from naturalism, organicim, prairie style to mordenism, he had also caused new influences and impacets on the world’s architecture. Frank Lloyd Wright provided an exploration and important referencefor the future design. Fran Lloyd Wright: Biography and Architecture Style