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Ohio State University Leadership Development Discussion Post and Response

Ohio State University Leadership Development Discussion Post and Response.

I’m working on a writing discussion question and need an explanation to help me study.

INITIAL POSTING – Complete the Servant Leadership Questionnaire in Box 11.8 on pages 388-389 (previous chapter), then discuss your own personal journey of leadership development in the discussion. Explore your leadership journey (as discussed in Chapter 12) as a leader up to this point and then project 5-10 years out what path(s) your leadership journey may take. Describe your journey and action steps you will take to reach your goals. Connect your journey with the servant leadership behaviors you identified in the Questionnaire.In your initial posting, don’t forget to include references to your readings in the text citing page numbers as it relates to your examples (minimum 250 words) Pg. 388-389RESPONSE POSTING – Revisit this discussion and read your classmates’ contributions and make 1 additional substantive comment 150 words Response question For this discussion I decided to score one of my former managers and here are the results:Altruistic calling: 16/20Emotional healing: 17/20Wisdom: 15/20persuasive mapping: 18/20Organizational development: 18/20His overall score was 84/100. I was expecting those results. I had worked with him for three years before he retired and he had been one of the best people to work with. He is not only a manager, he is a good one and a great leader, who understands employees and will anything he can to help us in any situation. Everyone loved him. So when I chose him for this assignment, I honestly did not expect any less. He was the first person we would think about asking for advice, or help regarding work or other things. He is the type of person who would know what to say and what to do. It all seemed so effortless to him. He was honest, had empathy and absolute understanding. As mentioned in the book, servant leaders are known for their empathy, integrity, honesty, and wisdom (Johnson & Hackman, 2018). I am certain that I am not the only one who appreciate the type of leader that he was, he made us want to come to work, no matter how hard it could get, he supported us as much as he could, and always made us feel like we belong and that we have a voice, and that we are not only good for following orders. As for my own leadership journey, I still have quite a lot to learn and skills to develop. I do believe that I am on the right track and will continue to better myself by getting better at communicating, at working in teams and by being proactive. “Great leadership does not just happen, if you want to become an effective leader, you will need to be proactive, taking responsibility for your development” (Johnson & Hackman, 2018 p. 402). It makes sense that becoming a great leader will be the result of a series of intentional actions. I do see myself in a leadership position 5-10 years from now, whether it is pursuing a career in Human Resources management or starting my own business. The actions that I will take will be to enhance my communication skills and work towards becoming a servant leader by intentionally work on my emotional healing and my persuasive mapping which are the areas where I lacked the most. Leadership is an ongoing journey which never really ends as you keep growing, learning. You just have to be open to the idea of learning and growing and always act intentionally.
Ohio State University Leadership Development Discussion Post and Response

Saint Theresa was born as Marie-Françoise-Therese Martin. Her feast day is October 1st. She was canonized in 1925, and became a Doctor of the Church in 1997. She wrote many prayers, and most famously an autobiography called Story of A Soul. St. Therese is the patron of missions and missionaries. (Catholic Online) Her mother and father both aspired to be religious people, a saint and a monk, respectively. They gave birth to nine children, with only five daughters surviving. (Catholic Online) Therese was the youngest daughter, her father’s “little queen” (National Shrine of St. Therese). She suffered a great loss when her mother died of breast cancer when she was only four years old. She was then raised by her father and her oldest sister, Pauline. Her journey to the religious life started five years later when Pauline entered the Carmelite convent, the convent she would later join(Catholic Online). In Therese’s early life, she was spoiled and sensitive, always wanting, and getting, more than she needed. Therese was often sick, physically with flus and mentally, (National Shrine of St. Therese) Therese was also sensitive and childish. She attributes this to the sudden and painful loss of her mother. Her sensitive nature was further worsened when her sister, Pauline, whom she called her second mother, left the Martin home to be a nun in the Carmelite Monastery in Lisieux. (Society of the Little Flower). Therese was a very intelligent girl, literate and quite aware. (Catholic Online) She could read, although Louis Martin would not allow his Little Queen to read the paper. He wished to protect Therese form becoming too worldly. However, Therese often read the paper anyways. (National Shrine of St. Therese). Therese learned at home, and through her sisters lessons until she entered the Benedictine Abbey school of Notre-Dame du Pre as a day boarder, at the age of eight. (Society of the Little Flower). Therese was quite bright, and was advanced several times. However, being smart did not help her gain friends. Therese, smart and spoiled, had very few to no friends in her school, making it an unfriendly and cold environment. (Society of the Little Flower). When Therese was 11, she fell violently ill. No one really knows what she was ill with, although it has been speculated to be nervous breakdowns, kidney infections (Society of the Little Flower), neurotic attacks, and fevers. (Catholic Online). Whatever the illness, it was violent and terrifying. Therese would have tremors, ran a fever, (Catholic Online) horrible headaches, insomnia and terrifying hallucinations. 11 year old Therese, small and fragile, was racked by an unknown illness, severe and brutal to the small child. (Society of the Little Flower). Many of her relatives thought her to be dying. She was bed bound, left on display for relatives saying what they thought to be their last goodbyes to the fifth of the Martin’s children. While sick, Therese often saw her sisters pray to a statue of Mary. (Catholic Online). One day in May, Therese started to pray to the same statue. She saw the Blessed Virgin smile at her, and she was then healed. (Ronald Knox, Autobiography of St. Therese of Lisieux; 93-94; ch.10) After her illness, Therese was never the same. She became ill just months after her sister Pauline joined the Carmelite convent, and Therese was profoundly changed by the loss of her second mother, and her healing by the Blessed Mother. Almost a year after her miraculous healing, Therese celebrated her first communion. This united her further with God, but also brought problems into the young girl’s life. Therese became preoccupied with never even thinking about sinning, and this gave the fragile young girl a great deal of stress. She often cried, had anxiety attacks, and her horrible headaches returned. Her father removed her from her school, and hired a private tutor instead. This relieved some stress from Therese, but not a huge amount. (Society of the Little Flower) During Therese’s home tutoring, she became very close to her sister Marie. Marie was much older, and helped Therese with her fears. Therese began to look to Marie as her third mother. Then, Marie also entered the Carmelite convent. Therese was heartbroken again, and now was determined to join the Carmelite convent (Society of the Little Flower) Therese’s complete conversion was Christmas Eve of 1886. At the time, it was the custom for children to leave their shoes out to be filled with presents. (Catholic Online) Therese was old to still be doing this, but she still did. When she left her shoes out, and began to walk to her room, she heard her father say that he was glad that it was the last year of such a childish tradition. Therese was about to cry when she was flooded with courage. (Catholic Online) was no longer a sensitive child, but became a strong adult, determined to devote her life to Jesus as a Carmelite nun. (Society of the Little Flower) Therese’s Christmas conversions took place when she was only 13. At the time, young girls were not allowed to enter convents until they were 16. Therese, however, did not want to wait. Barely 14, Therese went to a priest to talk about becoming a professed nun. (Society of the Little Flower). The priest denied her, but told her that the bishop might be able to help her. The bishop also denied her the “yes” she so desperately wanted, although the eager young girl left a strong impression on the bishop. (Catholic Online) Louis Martin, unwilling to lose his youngest daughter, decided that the remaining Martin Family should take a pilgrimage to Rome. (Society of the Little Flower) On their trip, Therese and her family visited many holy places. However, the most important place they visited was an audience with the Pope. Although Therese was not supposed to speak, she did. She begged that the pope allow her to enter the monastery at Carmel. The Pope brushed Therese’s begging off, saying that she should obey her superiors. Therese, however, was persistent, and eventually had to be carried away from the Pope by guards. (Society of the Little Flower) Therese was eventually admitted to the convent, at the age of fifteen. Therese’s romantic visions of convent life were proven to be the complete opposite. Therese, as a novice, worked hard, and found little hope in her dreary duties. (Catholic Online) Soon after Therese became a nun, her father suffered a series of strokes, leaving him disabled mentally and physically. He became delusional, and was then institutionalized. The worst part was that Therese could not even visit him! (Catholic Online) This caused a short period of extreme tension in Therese’s spiritual life. Therese was often so frustrated, that she would fall asleep in prayer. (Society of the Little Flower) Therese spent much of her life in her convent giving up little things to Jesus. She offered up little frustrations, such as someone clacking her rosary in church, to Jesus. This became Therese’s legacy. (Society of the Little Flower) Therese was childlike in her mannerisms, although adult in her spirituality. She had faith in God as a little child has faith in the good of people, never failing. (National Shrine to Saint Therese) Therese did make one large sacrifice in her life. She gave up the chance to become a higher ranked nun, so that her second mother, Pauline, could be prioress, or head-nun of the Carmelite convent. This meant that Therese would always have to take orders from everyone, and would never be able to attain any authority, other than being in charge of the youngest of the novices. (Catholic Online) From the time Therese was young, she wished to be a priest. However, because she was a girl, she could never become a priest. So Therese made it her mission to pray for the priests, as she felt this was all she could do. She prayed, and was blessed, in her own words. (Catholic Online) Therese’s blessing is not what I, or most likely you, would call a blessing. Therese’s blessing was her slow, painful death by tuberculosis, a painful disease that causes the victim to cough up blood and lung tissue, in its earlier stages. Therese took almost a year to die, finally dying at 24, the age at which priests were then anointed. She felt blessed to die at this holy age, not wanting to live with not being a priest, which she had been called to be. During this time, Pauline had her write a diary, later published. (Catholic Online) Therese offered every bit of suffering to Jesus. It is said that because of this, Therese ascended straight to Heaven. (Society of the little Flower) Her legacy that remains is left from her book and scraps of information from her fellow nuns and peers. She left us a legacy that we can follow. Therese performed no great deeds in her life. She didn’t lead troops, or instantaneously heal people. She was very much like us. She only devoted each day to God, and put up with little frustrations, offering them to God. This, if nothing else, is the one thing I hope to receive from Saint Therese. She was my age when she recognized her call to God, and only one year older when she fought for God. This is something we all can hope to emulate.
The hospital industry is one of the most important components of the value chain in the healthcare industry. The industry is growing at the rate of 14% annually. The size of the Indian healthcare industry is estimated to grow at Rs. 1,717 billion in 2007. It is estimated to further grow by 3,163 billion at 13% compounded annual growth rate. The private sector accounts for 80% of the healthcare as compared to the public sector which is just 20%. According to surveys conducted by WHO, a country as populated as India needs to add 80,000 beds each year for the next five years to meets its ever growing population. The current rate of hospitals and beds stands at a bare 15,393 and 8,75,000 respectively. (Apollo, 2009) The growing standard of living of many Indians is leading to spurring demand for high quality medical care and transforming the healthcare sector into a profitable industry. In addition to that, medical tourism is fast changing the face of the so called traditional healthcare industry. India’s cost advantage and explosive growth makes it a favourable place for healthcare opportunities. (Apollo, 2009) The country has been well known around the world for spiritual healing and now with the boom in modern medicine, latest technology and skilled healthcare professionals it is soon becoming a preferred destination for medical tourism. According to Ministry of Commerce and Industry, Indian medical tourism that was once valued at USD 350 million in 2006 is estimated to grow into USD 2 billion. (Apollo, 2009) Company Introduction The dream for Apollo Hospitals was cultivated and developed within Dr. Prathap C Reddy, the founder Chairman of Apollo Hospitals. In 1983 the chain began its first hospital in Chennai bearing 150 beds. However, today the group comprises of diagnostic clinics, pharmacies and over over 8065 beds across 46 hospitals in India and overseas. The groups’s efforts towards a better medical future in the country include clinical research, BPOs and health insurance services. (Apollo, 2009) After 25 successful years of achievement and dream realisation today Apollo Hospitals is not just one of the country’s premier healthcare providers but also a pioneer in helping India become a centre-of-excellence in global healthcare. Apollo group has been successful on a very large scale to take quality healthcare across India. They have been successful in touching 10 million lives and giving hope to the medically backward Indian population who had limited infrastructure. (Apollo, 2009) Apollo has scripted the medical landscape in the country by continuous innovations and gone out to become a quality healthcare provider. It has been a major player in scripting the medical landscape of the nation. (Apollo, 2009) By the beginning of the new millennium, Apollo Hospitals Group had become an integrated healthcare group with owned and administered hospitals, diagnostic clinics, dispensing pharmacies and consultancy services. In addition, the group offers visit to patient’s doorstep, clinical

A World Health Organization

Why is health a social issue? Health, in the light of World Health Organization definition, is understood as subjectively felt physical, mental and social well-being as a result of appropriate adaptation to the environmental conditions. Psychical health relates to proper human system functioning. Mental health is connected with ability to recognition of people’s feelings and emotions, coping with difficult situations, problems and stress. Social health concerns the human community, its development and adaptability to the environmental conditions, what means ability to live independently as well as in a social group and retain both individual and group identity. There were many attempts to classify factors conditioning health. During early 20th century up to 1970s, it was considered, that health mainly depends on health service. At the beginning of the 1970s way of perceiving determinants of people’s well-being changed. In 1974 Marc Lalonde, Minister of Health for Canada, proposed The Health Field Concept, in which he distinguished four basic factors conditioning health (Fig. 1.): Lifestyle (50%) Physical and social environment (20%) Human Biology (20%) Health Care Organization (20%) This approach influenced on change in health policy and established base for health promotion In modern societies, some of the main problems regarding the health such as illnesses induced by ageing, globalization, new technologies, and genetic engineering have cultural and social grounds. State of health is strongly dependent on social processes and occurrences such as lifestyle (for instance nutrition, recreation, reaction for stress), social cohesion, wealth, education, working conditions and emotional relations. All this things can on the one hand make worse or on the other hand improve the state of health. Currently, it is considered that, the socioeconomic factors (for instance incomes, social status, education level, social support) affect a persons’ health to the highest degree. Depending on these conditions, the people’s lifestyle can favour health or be harmful to it. Poverty and low level of education are reasons of health inequalities. In general, people with low social status are less healthy, have worse access to health care and take risky for health actions more often. Social support in human living environments is regarded as significant factor shaping positive health and fighting pathogenic influence of potential stressors. In recent decades, people witness a dynamic development of technology and science. As might be expected, new technologies facilitate human lives and make them more efficient. It is possible to say, that in present circumstances, people are able to have an influence on their state of health. However, not always advances of science and in technology go hand in hand with improvement of quality of life. People, preoccupied with making their lives more comfortable, more and more frequently forget about their biological existence. New facilities, means of transport, automation, all kinds of machines are reducing physical activity in their daily life to a minimum. Mass-media, especially television, take them a lot of free time and force them to the sedentary way of life. Nowadays, people suffer from many ailments defined as civilization diseases, which increase alongside with the (continuously) quickening pace of living. Undoubtedly, work is also a very important determinant of health. When it is done for pleasure, work can give a sense of happiness and positive energy. In practice, it means that actions based on harmony with the environment and self-realization favour person’s health. Work, which is not a vocation, is a reason of stress, unwillingness and apathy. Meanings of health change in the popular culture and public awareness. Besides strivings for avoiding diseases, more and more people need fitness, vitality, good looks and good mood. Apart from interest in length of life, there appeared care for its sense and quality. In recent years, there is observed a considerable increase in importance of health in sphere of personal aspirations, aims, and values of individual. Health is no longer defined only as an absence of disease and discomfort. Healthy lifestyle becomes in many environments a phenomenon on the verge of fashion. Health issues come into prominence in public discourse, concerning inter alia social and political priorities. The right to health is one of the most important elements of the human rights. Nowadays, health and disease become “valuable goods” of expanding market.

Cultural Factors Involved In Health Communication With Individuals Nursing Essay

i need help writing an essay Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp There can be health communication issues among nurses giving care to patients such as for example patients positive with breast cancer. Health communication among nursing care unit is a tough responsibility wherein oncology serves as one underlying factor in determining actual communication process. There can be imperative base of nurses skills in a clinical manner in which several cancer oriented nurses have received formal training in dealing with patients and communicate with them in all care level. Thus, there might have inadequate health related communication provided by nurses, can be due to culture related factors of breast cancer patients themselves like for instance, age and gender factors, family and social economic factors that adhere to the everyday life and work of these patients. Poor healthcare communication among nurses may come into the picture without spontaneous and precise conformity of both sides. This means that, nurses should overcome culture related hindrances to apply effective healthcare communication mostly to those breast cancer patients living in remote areas and or indigenous sites. Health communication problems that are brought about by certain culture barriers can ideally cause such distressing mood for breast cancer patients as well as with their families, who often want considerable and accurate information coming from nurses and care providers more often as possible. Some of the patients leave consultation unsure about diagnosis and prognosis when culture communication issues strikes in a confusing way and the lack of compelling awareness by nurses in lieu to further diagnostic tests on patients’ situation and true standing of well being, putting communication issues in black and white state can lead to unclear health management plan and in turn, nurses will be uncertain about real therapeutic intent on the breast cancer treatment. Accordingly, there have been initiatives upon improving health communication skills training for nurses and other care professionals located in the breast cancer field from influencing culture continuum in broader communication stature of nurses giving ultimate patient care and support. Health communication difficulty may slow down conscription of breast cancer patients into clinical trials, delaying introduction of effective innovative treatment into healthcare base. The shortage of effective health communication among nurse specialists and care setting can cause culture oriented perplexity and such loss of poise amongst nursing care team. Culture disparities can put the scenario on higher assumption, healthcare system advocates will acknowledge insufficient training in health communication and management skills can be served with little dedication thus, contributing to nurses’ stress, lack of job pleasure and poignant burnout in the work area. Case Study Example There has been patients with an Egyptian background believe that dignity, identity, and security are conferred by belonging to a family and dealing with illness within a family context (Butow, Tattersall and Goldstein, 1997), Navajo culture provides another example of diverse cultural attitudes toward illness. Navajos feel that order and harmony are disrupted by receiving negative information (Baile, Lenzi, Parker et al., 2002) receiving an unfavorable diagnosis and prognosis is seen as curse (Mitchell, 1998). In some cultures, the negative stigma associated with the word cancer is so strong that the use of the word can be perceived as rude, disrespectful and even causal. Another case was a study investigating the puzzling factors and solutions of family related barriers to truthfulness with patients who have terminal cancer was conducted through a nationwide survey conducted in Taiwan. The results showed that families believe it is unnecessary to tell aged patients the truth, and patients can be happier without knowing the truth (Hu, Chiu, Chuang et al., 2002). For Ethiopian refugees who are diagnosed with cancer, it is important to tell the family first but also important not to give unfavorable information at night so as to avoid the burden of sleepless night (Mitchell, 1998). There was awareness of the use of communication in some cultures and the psychosocial impact of terms such as cancer is helpful thus, it is essential to assess and consider patients cultural beliefs when communicating with them about their cancer. In addition, there was also study of breast cancer experience of Asian American women (Tam Ashing, Padilla, Tejero et al., 2003) found that a lack of knowledge about breast cancer, cultural factors related to beliefs about illness, gender role and family obligations and language barriers contributed to Asian American women’s apparent lack of active involvement in their care. Cultural background greatly influences many aspects of the communication process. Although some cross-cultural descriptive studies have been conducted, especially on the views about disclosure of the diagnosis, relatively little is known about the specific influence of culture on the interaction between patients and their health care practitioners. How cultural variables might affect the information patients want, patients’ preferred and assumed participatory styles, and other aspects of the interaction warrant future study. Cultural Factors Age, Race, Ethnicity and Communication An important area of communication problem center on differences in communication between nurses and doctors and the patients as well, better patient and nurse communication has been associated with patient choice about treatment, satisfaction with care and the quality of cancer care, particularly for older and disadvantaged patients (Liang, Burnett, Rowland et al., 2002). There was a study examining health care disparities in older patients with breast cancer found that older age and Latina ethnicity were negatively associated with physician provision of interactive informational support, and these patients received less interactive informational support from their physicians than did younger patients (Maly, Leake and Silliman, 2003). The proponent have concluded that improving the quality of communication at the level of patient-physician interaction could be an important avenue to reducing age and ethnic group treatment disparities among patients with breast cancer (Maly, Leake and Silliman, 2003). In one investigation, patients aged 80 years and older reported receiving markedly less information about treatment options than did younger patients, were less likely to state that they were given a choice of breast cancer treatment, and were less likely to initiate communication or to perceive that their surgeons initiated communication (Liang, Burnett, Rowland et al., 2002). Silliman, Dukes, Sullivan et al. (1998) highlighted the importance of communication between older patients with breast cancer and their physicians. Investigators found that although older women obtained information regarding breast cancer from different sources, they relied most heavily on their physicians for information. Despite expectation, knowledge about importance of patient nurse communication, and the increasing use of breast conserving surgery, breast cancer patients undergo surgery less frequent than younger women. Even though many factors could explain patterns of care, (Zuckerman, 2000) it is possible that quality of communication between patients and their nurses contribute to observed treatment variability though medical standard of care (Zuckerman, 2000). Socioeconomic Status Younger and educated patients are most likely to take an active role in medical decision making. Some researchers have observed that low income women who are not as well educated do not communicate as well with their physicians about their treatment preferences or concerns and fears (Degner, Kristjanson, Bowman et al., 1997; Hietanen, Aro, Holli et al., 2000; McVea, Minier and Johnson Palensky, 2001; Zuckerman, 2000). Being unmarried, having low socioeconomic status, and having treatment options discussed less frequently are risk factors that, in addition to older age, predicted receiving conservative primary tumor therapy (McVea, Minier and Johnson Palensky, 2001). Influence of Culture/Ethnicity/Language By using culturally appropriate approaches to communicating about cancer may lessen levels of distress for the patient and/or members of the patient’s family. Developing an awareness of cross-cultural practices regarding cancer disclosure issues allows the clinician to become more sensitive to the expectations of culturally and individually diverse cancer patients. When discussing diagnoses and treatment options with patients from different cultures, it is important for clinicians to consider how to balance a commitment to frank discussion and a respect for the cultural values of the patient (Hern Jr, Koenig, Moore et al., 1998). In common, patients whose dominant culture is derived from a Western philosophy subscribe to certainty, predictability, control, and obtainable outcomes (Mishel, 1990). This culture has engendered an approach that fosters self determination and autonomy in making treatment decisions (Gordon and Daugherty, 2003). The patient centered society values having fully informed patients who make accurate assessments about their health as cultural prerogative (Hern Jr, Koenig, Moore et al., 1998). Western cultural assumptions exist about what is good and just in medical care. One such assumption is the principle of self-determination and its importance in enabling patients to make autonomous treatment decisions (Baile, Lenzi, Parker et al., 2002). The Cancer Patient’s Family Families can help patients make better decision about their care (Ballard-Reisch and Letner, 2003), some believe that patient centered approaches emphasizing patient autonomy in medical decision making should be shifted to family centered approaches because most decision making in health care is carried out in the context of family care and obligation. Health care professionals are valued when they establish a structured and ongoing dialogue with family members about treatment goals, plans of care, and expectations regarding patient outcomes (Given, Given and Kozachik, 2001). Family caregivers must be considered an integral part of the advanced cancer care partnership (Given, Given and Kozachik, 2001). In one investigation, being welcomed into the medical setting was a simple action, greatly appreciated by caregivers, allowing them to move on with unfolding events (Morris and Thomas, 2001) also taking legitimate place in the cancer scenario, nurses may easily attend to the needs alongside those of cancer patient (Morris and Thomas, 2001). Other Communication Barriers Some researchers have found that indirect cues signaling informational and emotional needs are far more common from patients than direct requests for information or support. In parallel, doctors readily respond to direct expressions of need but find it difficult to detect and respond to indirect behaviors cueing patient needs. The indirect forms of communication that are particularly difficult for many doctors to apprehend are allusions, paraverbal expressions and nonverbal behaviors (Butow, Brown, Cogar et al., 2002). Patients may assume that their doctors will tell them whatever is relevant; others worry about appearing foolish if they reveal their ignorance by asking questions some feel guilty about taking too much of busy nurses’ time (Fallowfield and Jenkins, 1999; Maguire, 1999). The other barriers to communication may include the multiple specialists that patients, multiple clinicians and others that the patient may see within the treatment team (middle level practitioner, nurse), challenges posed by variations in education level, cultural difference and ethnicity as well as the anxiety that often accompanies an initial stake affecting patient comprehension and understanding (Towle and Godolphin, 1999; Ballard-Reisch and Letner, 2003). Role of Nurses and Communication Nurses play an important role in communication and supporting patients through crisis of cancer and play an important role in today’s multidisciplinary cancer team. Nurses perform key functions at almost every stage of breast cancer trajectory. Clinic and inpatient nurses are frequently the first clinical contacts for patients and family members and, through their initial interactions, (Fallowfield and Jenkins, 1999; Maguire, 1999) set the tone for the support the patient will receive throughout his or her care. Nurses are sources of information about procedures, treatments and other aspects of patient care. Spending the most time with the patient compared to physician members of the treatment team, nurses are frequently most trusted member of the cancer team when it comes to obtaining information (Fallowfield and Jenkins, 1999; Maguire, 1999). Nurses attend to patient and family emotional needs after bad news is given and deal first with other emotionally draining situations such as angry patients or family members or patients who are withdrawn and depressed, nurses provide direct patient care, often acting as physician extenders and managing much of daily care of the breast cancer patient. Health communication with patients has been recognized as one of important aspects of nursing people (Armstrong-Esther et al., 1989; Van Cott, 1993). Furthermore, communication serves as an important aspect of the quality of care, from several studies it appears that poor communication is the largest source of dissatisfaction in patients (Macleod Clark, 1985; Ley 1988; Davies and Fallowfield 1991). As an outcome, the quality of care may improve with effective communication. Effective communication does not just depend on the acquisition of the right communication skills (Wilkinson, 1991). From the preceding account, there appears that time pressure, especially in the residential home, is determinant for the verbal communication of nurses and the topics that come up for conversation. As nurses experience more time pressure they talk less about topics concerning lifestyle and emotions. There can be an important point for consideration because, in nursing, high pressure is often present, appeared that simply employing more staff does not lead to better communication (Pool, 1996; Liefbroer and Visser, 1986; Wilkinson, 1991). Conclusion Therefore, poor communication with health professionals, particular nurses does create most distress for families of patients with cancer that, difficulties communicating with families also have been identified as potentially stressful for nurses. This is particularly the case for nurses working in breast cancer care settings. In addition, small research has been undertaken to examine specific culture related problem and challenge confronting nurses who endeavor to communicate with families of patients with cancer in healthcare setting. There will be a need to describe nurses’ perceptions of communication issues, potential barrier and strategies associated with nurses’ interaction into certain cancer care setting. Thus, it can be that nurses described communication difficulties being encountered when interacting with cancer patient families. The culture related factors appeared to be central determinant of quality of nurses’ healthcare communication as nurses described difficulties associated with delivery of bad news and treatment plans that are not evidently defined for the breast cancer patient. Indeed, effects of poor communication on nurses were remarkable and brightly described, recommendation for nursing clinical practice and subsequent research are to take place in time. Lastly, upon continuing of nursing education nurses should be trained to be sensitive to the needs of patients and will need to create atmosphere that facilitate cancer patients’ question and express imperative needs. Amicably, nurses should be trained to use their time efficiently thus, appeared that nurses’ verbal communication is hardly connected to patient characteristics. Then, it is important for nurses to learn how to standardize cancer patient needs, in order to offer nursing care that is tailored to effective health communication and the success of it. Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp

Biology – Meiosis and Nondisjunction

Biology – Meiosis and Nondisjunction.

Q. You have a diploid cell that has a N of 3. If cell goes through meiosis to form gametes and nondisjunction occurs in meiosis 2 … what is the number of chromosomes in each of the four gamete cell?Q. What process begins with 2 haploid cells and ends with one diploid?Q. What would a defect in these kindle lead to?Q. What do homologous chromosomes come together form?he chromosomes are bound tightly together and are aligned by a protein lattice called a synaptonemal complex and by ————- proteins at the centromere.
Biology – Meiosis and Nondisjunction

The Relationship Between the Past and the Present in 18th-19th Century London Writing Essay

Introduction London is considered Great Britain’s quintessential city. It has been the capital of Great Britain since the 12th century. In almost any country, the capital plays a role as the center of cultural and scientific life. Nowadays, it is a monumental city that displays the jewels of its historical heritage, such as London Bridge and the other bridges over the Thames, Big Ben, Trafalgar square, and others. Many writers have lived or visited London in order to be closer to the information hub the city represented throughout the centuries. Its libraries, palaces, and clubs have become places for the brightest minds in England to communicate and exchange ideas. However, the relationship between the writing world and London is very complex, as the city has changed its image multiple times. The first major change to London happened during the 14th-15th centuries when the population of the city grew. The second change occurred in the 17th century when London was struck by the bubonic plague. Finally, the city began taking a more modern form in the 18th century during the industrial revolution. The nature of city life in comparison to life in the less urbanized past, as well as the ongoing comparison between the city and the rest of the country, have become a centerpiece of London writing. The overall trend has focused on the romance of the country compared to the dark, dreary, or routine realities of the city. However, that representation could not be farther from the truth. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the relationship between the past and the present in 18th-19th century London writing using The Country and the City by Robert Williams, as well as “Modernist Space and the Transformation of Underground London” by David Pike in the book Imagined Londons, as central texts. Historical Context Medieval Period Before delving into English writers’ perceptions of London, the countryside, the people, and life in general, it is important to understand the historical context in which they lived. Stories, tales, and poems written by English writers paint a picture from a specific person’s perspective, which is inherently biased and distorted by the prism of personal observations, beliefs, and political views. These cannot be considered absolute in terms of historical evidence. London is an ancient city that traces back to the late Roman Empire and the conquest of Britain. It has since been burned and rebuilt several times. It increased in geographic size as the population grew. Historically, the buildings were placed very close together in order to save space. Since the city was protected by a wall, any increase in the city’s area would require additional walls to be constructed for their protection. This is the reason why many writers, such as Arthur Conan Doyle in his tales about Sherlock Holmes, describe London as a conglomerate of two to three story buildings and narrow alleyways. Any city has its richer and poorer quarters. Typically, the widest streets are around the central square, where the city’s governing facilities and the King’s palace are often found, and the areas where the rich and powerful lived. These parts of the city are aesthetically beautiful and allow for a wide range of motion, as the rich, the nobility, and the ruler all used horses and carriages, which require space. In addition, the large central streets and squares were frequently used for various celebrations, parades, and public events. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The slums of the city, on the other hand, where the poor people lived, were typically the areas farthest from the center. As horses required high maintenance, they were unlikely to be found in possession of the poor citizens of London. In addition, the wide spaces used in the central and rich parts of the city were only possible due to the narrowing down and cramping of the city’s slums. Statistically, more of London’s citizens lived in its poorest parts than anywhere else. This explains the narrow, angular alleyways often described in mystery and adventure novels, as they were the result of saving space and a lack of utilities for horse riding. Lastly, there is the Thames River. Historically, almost all major cities were built next to a large body of water. In London’s case, this was done for several reasons. First, the river was a large source of water, which was used for cooking, fishing, and other amenities. Second, it provided a natural obstacle against invasion. Third, the river provided a convenient way to dispose of refuse and human waste by washing them down the river. Historically, the houses closest to the river were also considered some of the most undesirable places to live. Finally, the Thames acted as the main trade route for London, allowing transport and merchant ships in and out of the harbor. It was always a very busy place full of people loading and unloading cargo, transporting goods, and trying to sell dubious wares to travelers and sailors alike. The Industrial Revolution The industrial revolution in England changed the appearance of London as well as many other cities. It facilitated the growth of the urban environment and the decline of the rural countryside, as fields and villages were remodeled and unified to form larger pastures that could be used for raising sheep and conducting mechanized agriculture, which used fewer laborers than the conventional horse and plow techniques. This period saw mass migration of people from villages into the cities, where they became laborers. This period is renowned for its economic growth and the mass production of goods and equipment that became available to the rich and the middle-class. However, it is also known for the sprawling growth of slum areas, where the majority of the workers lived, as well as detrimental effects on the local ecology, as the wastes from increasing numbers of households and factories flowed freely into the Thames. The operation of coal-powered engines, electric plants, and other industrial facilities added to the gloomy atmosphere of London, already augmented by the fog. Finally, the increase in city size and population, along with the percentage of poor individuals and migrants from other countries, created various issues in public safety. Poverty generates crime associated with illegal trade, robberies, kidnappings, human trafficking, and many other varieties of antisocial behavior. Child begging is amply described in Doyle’s “Adventures of Sherlock Holmes,” where the detective purchases the services of vagabond children to serve as his eyes and ears around the city. The Past and Present of London in English Literature As is evident in the historical context described above, the past and present of London are interconnected by generations of building the city as well as its subsequent growth due to natural increase and heightened migration. Due to the number of problems appearing because of migration, many writers and poets describe the bad parts of the city very vividly. Raymond Williams explores the comparisons between the past and the present in his book, entitled The Country and the City. We will write a custom Essay on The Relationship Between the Past and the Present in 18th-19th Century London Writing specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More According to Williams, the past in poetry and literature is frequently described in an idyllic way. Many works present the village as a place of rest and relaxation, with nature being preserved in a relatively pristine state. The communities are depicted as friendly and heartwarming, having maintained the cohesion and traditions held dear by English culture. This creates the illusion of time standing still and represents the everlasting virtues that often become the centerpiece of many existential works of literature. Because of these qualities, the village plays the role of the nostalgic past, where everything was “slower, simpler, and more beautiful and attuned to nature,” as often depicted by the authors. London, as the biggest and busiest city in England and marked by progress and innovation along with its various shortcomings, on the other hand, is depicted as an antagonist to the still beauty of the past. One of the most prominent features in big cities is the atomization of society and the destruction of communities as they are known in the countryside. Virginia Woolf describes London as “the city of strangers,” where individuals do not know one another well and where the circles of friends and acquaintances are much smaller. This can be seen in almost every urban story that is set in London. Sherlock Holmes, for example, is described as having only two or three friends, such as Doctor Watson, his housemaid Martha, and some of his colleagues from Scotland Yard. The theme of loneliness in a crowd of people is also accentuated by the weather, which is commonly described in dark, mysterious, and pessimistic tones. The weather in Great Britain has always been wet and soggy, which is further accentuated by clouds, fogs, and smog from the factories, along with a damp cold that forces people to wear cloaks, hoods, and hats. The “Present” is often painted in cold and unforgiving colors, where individuality and warmth are dissolved in a dull and boring routine. The historical factors mentioned in the previous section play a great part in this. Charles Jenner, an 18th-century poet, describes London using the following words: Alas for me! What prospect can I find To raise poetic ardor in my mind? Wherever around I cast my wandering eyes, Long burning rows of fetid bricks arise, And nauseous dunghills swell in moldering heaps. (Jenner, 1772) In this short verse, it is possible to see all of the typical descriptions of London during the transformational period, where late medieval London was becoming industrial London. “Long burning rows of fetid bricks” refers to the three-story apartments placed very close together, while the “nauseous dunghills” reflect an evident lack of hygiene due to how sprawling London had become. Based on these descriptions, it could be said that the majority of romantic writers of the 18th and 19th centuries viewed London as a bleak place to live, and they highlighted the feelings of loneliness, misery, and melancholy that were accentuated by the city’s architecture, weather, and social norms. Crime is a popular motif in many of the stories, either as a primary subject or something mentioned in the background. The writers present London as the epitome of the dark side of progress. Therefore, they create an interesting dichotomy of the “bright past” versus the “dark future.” However, there is a case to be made against this notion. Raymond Williams explores the contrast between the country and the city in his book of the same name. As he indicates, a good portion of British literature suffers from the problem of perspective. The majority of English writers came from relatively privileged backgrounds, which afforded them not only education, exposure to literature, and good manners, but also travels outside the city to their country residences. These residences are not villages in the strictest sense, but rather places to rest, relax and enjoy nature and fresh air. This created a nostalgic and distorted vision of country life based around leisure experiences rather than actual community life as practiced by peasants and shepherds in the countryside. Not sure if you can write a paper on The Relationship Between the Past and the Present in 18th-19th Century London Writing by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More According to Williams, the “beautiful and nostalgic past,” as he calls it, is nothing but an illusion that does not represent the enmities, hardships, and social conflicts existing in rural England prior to the great movement from villages into the big cities. Life in a medieval village had its own share of miseries. The writers prior to the industrial revolution write much about the hardships of everyday peasant lives. Large families had to survive on the produce of their little patches of land, which was redistributed as the families multiplied, becoming smaller and smaller as a result. Backbreaking labor from early morning until the evening was a common occurrence, as small patches of land did not allow for owning or using any mechanized agricultural equipment. Only a small number of wealthy farmers owned horses, and the shortage of useful land was a common problem. In addition, the production of goods was heavily taxed by the local landowners, which further exacerbated poverty. Disease and hunger were a common occurrence in pre-industrial villages. This was due to a lack of the sanitation, clean water, electricity, and combustible fuels more readily available in the city. Of course, these issues were often overlooked by romantic writers, whose experience was based on living in country residences that they visited during the summer to enjoy the good weather. At the same time, London was more than the dark mirror of exploitative capitalism that many writers of the contemporary era, including Arthur Conan Doyle, Charles Jenner, Charles Dickens, and Sam Sevron seemed to have depicted. Williams highlights the fact that although the majority of the writers “hated” London, most of them lived in it for long periods of time. One of the biggest reasons for this was that London was the center of scientific and intellectual activity. Many writers, both British and foreign, often visited one another in order to find inspiration or engage in debate. Progress, on the other hand, takes time. In addition, there were some improvements made to the lives of average citizens as well. The article by David Pike, entitled “Modernist Space and the Transformation of Underground London,” talks about the construction of the underground portion of the new London, which was designed to accommodate current and future uses of the sewer system for the London population. It is considered a work of modernist art due to its architectural as well as structural design. However, Pike also states that the new methods of construction and city-building suggested by Harry Beck were met with suspicion and mistrust, like all innovative practices. This highlights another issue with how literature and writers viewed London. As it was a hub of innovation not only in writing and science but also in politics and architecture, it was met with mistrust and concern, which only added to its already mysterious and dubious reputation promoted in works of literature. Nevertheless, the transition from the past to the future for London has not been seamless, but it has managed to purge many of the injustices and impurities of the old city life and pave the way for London as it is known nowadays. Conclusions Much of British 18th-19th century literature favors the past over the future by presenting an idealized and utopian version of country life and using London as a dark mirror of the “present” capitalism-driven society. Some of the realities of life in London are portrayed accurately, namely the poverty, misery, and pollution that the poor had to live in during these times. However, this does not exonerate the writers for portraying life in the country as an idyllic and peaceful place that was in harmony with nature. However, as shown by Williams and Pike, writers such as Arthur Conan Doyle, Charles Jenner, Charles Dickens, Sam Selvon, and many others may have been suffering from nostalgia about the past and a desire to reconnect with nature, which resulted in their idealistic portrayals of the past. However, the present of London also had numerous wonderful things to make up for it. The mysterious atmosphere coupled with the grandiose architectural monuments of the Victorian era are just as much part of London as is the river Thames and the ever-present noir surrounding it.