Hypothesis ResponseFrom a research perspective, the hypothesis is the most important foundational piece. It’s the keystone of the entire project. If you get this part right, the rest of the project makes much more sense.Review Ch. 7, especially the five criteria for a good hypothesis. Then, complete problems #1 and #4 on p. 139. In this assignment, you will find five empirical research studies related to your research project, identify their hypotheses, and evaluate the hypotheses on the five criteria. You will need to use OCU Discovery Services (online library) or Google Scholar to locate empirical research studies.This assignment will help you prepare for your research project by serving as a literature review and giving you another chance to see what makes a good hypothesis.Question 1 Go to the library online or in person and select five empirical research articles (those that contain actual data) from your area of interest. For each one, list the following(A) What is the null hypothesis (implied or explicitly stated)?(B) What is the research hypothesis (implied or explicitly stated)?(C) And what about those articles with no hypothesis clearly stated or implied? Identify those articles and see if you can write a research hypothesis for them.Question 4Go back to the five hypothesis that you found in question one an evaluate each using the five criteria that were discussed at the end of the chapter1 be stated in declarative form2 posit a relationship between variables3 reflect a theory or a body of literature variables4 be brief and to the point and5 be testable
Ohio Christian Whether Facemasks Prevent Covid 19 Hypothesis Importance Discussion
Cardiovascular disease is the #1 cause of death in the United States. One reason is the lack of commitment to heart healthy lifestyle. Your lifestyle is not only your best defense against heart disease, it’s also your responsibility.Follow the instructions below, then click the link above to submit the assignment.Written Research Assignment:Research and discuss the causes of cardiovascular disease and its relationship to diet and exercise. Compare and analyze your own personal wellness data (Portfolio Lab assignments) to determine your risk of the disease and form a conclusion as to what changes you can make to decrease your risk. Finally, share information with others in order to encourage healthy behaviors within the community.Assignment RequirementsWritten Paper with a minimum of 350 word in paragraph formYou must cite at least 3 credible sources in the text of your paper and in the bibliography at the end. Example: “According to Joe Smith from the Mayo Clinic, individuals are at risk…”, you would then cite the reference in the bibliography with complete source. You can use any style to cite the reference.TypedClick link above to submit paperAssignment TopicResearch and discuss the causes of cardiovascular disease and its relationship to diet and exercise. Compare and analyze your own personal lifestyle choices (Portfolio Lab assignments) to determine your risk of the disease and form a conclusion as to what changes you can make to decrease your risk. Finally, share information with others in order to encourage healthy behaviors within the community. The following information will help you with the type of information that should be included. You are not limited to this, it will just give you a general idea of what I am looking for in the assignment.Part #1- Research and discuss the causes of cardiovascular disease.(Use at least 2 credible sources for Part #1- be sure to cite source IN THE TEXT and as a bibliography at end)What are the causes?Why is it a health concern?What is the incidence of the disease/how many are affected?Is it preventable?What is the cost of the disease to the US?Part #2- What is the relationship between cardiovascular disease and diet and exercise? (Use at least 1 credible source for Part #2- be sure to cite source IN THE TEXT and as bibliography at the end.)What types of foods contribute to our risk?Does physical activity help in prevention?How does inactivity increase our risk?Part #3- Compare and analyze your own personal lifestyle choices that contribute to YOUR risk of cardiovascular disease. Cite the lab assignments that you refer to. Example: “According to my BMI lab assignment, I am at greater risk…” or, “After reviewing my Nutritional Analysis Lab assignment, I realize…”What are the lifestyle choices you are making that increase your risk?Look at data from the following assignmentsBMI assignmentHow Healthy is Your Lifestyle SurveyFast Food nutritionNutritional AnalysisFood Color Chart assignmentSugar assignmentBe sure to cite the source of this information. (Example: “According to my Nutritional Analysis I do consume too much…”)Part #4- Form a conclusion as to what changes you can make in your own personal lifestyle choices in order to decrease risk.Specifically what can you do to decrease your risk NOW.How will those changes benefit your future healthPart #5 Civic Engagement and Social ResponsibilityHopefully your workouts have allowed you to experience the positive benefits of physical activity. It is now time to share that with others. Physically inactive individuals are at greater risk for cardiovascular disease. According to the Center for Disease Control, if every physically inactive person became active, we would save 77 billion in health care costs every year. Only 1 in 5 adults and 1 in 3 children get the recommended amount of physical activity.Invite at least 2 people (adult or child) to participate in a workout with you. It can be your regular workout or you can do something different (ride bikes, take a free class at gym, try a new workout DVD etc.)Reflect on this experience and include the following information:Who did you invite to workout out with you and why did you choose that person?What information did you share to encourage them to participate?Did you notice a difference in the individual’s attitudes toward physical activity with regards to their age, ethnic background, or socioeconomic background?Explain the possible implications on our nation if everyone who is active encouraged others to become active too.What other ways could you encourage physical activity in adults and children?
The University of Texas at Arlington Cardiovascular Disease Research
Testing Two Different VR Environments in Educational Value
Table of Contents 1 Introduction 3 1.1 Explanation of the project overview 3 1.2 Background literature………………………………………………………………………………….. 3 1.3 Project scope ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 4 1.4 Reason for project ……………………………………………………………………………………… 5 2 Objectives 6 2.1 Aim and objective ………………………………………………………………………………………. 6 2.2 SMART analysis…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 6 3 Project Scope 8 3.1 Deliverables 8 3.2 Functionality 8 3.3 Milestones 9 4 Sources Requirement 10 4.1 List of resources 10 4.2 List of sources 10 5 Project Risks 11 6 Gantt Chart 12 7 Evaluation of PSEL 13 7.1 Professional 13 7.2 Social 13 7.3 Ethical 13 7.4 Legal 14 8 References 15 1 Introduction 1.1 Explanation of the project overview This project will test two different types of VR environment and compare the difference in educational value. Overview, one of VR environment is called a non-immersive VR environment that represents the traditional design media models, such as some 3D sketching models used in math class that students will respond for creating, explore, and move objects. Usually, non-immersive VR environment uses some traditional models to build up and interact with the mouse in the screen interface. Another VR environment is an immersive collaborative virtual environment that gives the user a feeling of being in a VR experience. It uses VR equipment to close and connect the user’s visual, auditory, and sensing systems to provide an immersive and dedicated environment. In this environment, students can sketch the models, and enable students to interact with the environment. Thus, this report will test the non-immersive and immersive collaborative VR environment for as a teaching aid. In this project, except testing the non-immersive VR environment and immersive collaborative VR environment, it will also explain the difference between two types of environment. Representing the different main features or qualities based on the educational value such as resolution, sense of immersion, focus field and so on. It also gives the pieces of evidence about the advantages and disadvantages of two different types used in education. So that, to receive the result, which VR environment is the best and recommendation teaching tool to use in the class. 1.2 Background literature Today’s the history of virtual reality technologies build on the date the back to early 1800s. In 1838, Charles Wheatstones demonstrated that using a stereoscope to view two side-by-side images would give the user a sense of immersion (Brown, 2017). In 1960s, Ivann Sutherland created the first VR headset for use in a military training exercise. Until 2014, Oculus VR represented a new technology with fully functioning VR systems for users, and it creates an immersive experience to play the games (Brown, 2017). In recent years, there are more applications by using 3D graphics and virtual reality experiences to present images, movies, and products. Therefore, VR technology becomes more popular in various fields, especially in education. Comparison with traditional education, the advantages of VR education is that gives students an immersive environment to experience or interact with some difficult subject, in order to understand the aims of teaching. It means students can study through different senses, “the benefits of sensory integration and a constructivist view of learning, support the use of learning paradigms in which the learner is allowed to form knowledge through context and experience.” (Christou, 2010). Thus, it will make more convenient use of VR technological method to replace the traditional education in the future. 1.3 Project scope In a wider context, the objective of this project is to test the two different VR educational environments and make a comparison and analysis. The scope of this project that needs to achieve a satisfactory result, for example, which VR environment is more effective and beneficial for educational value, and the development of building a comfortable VR environment for education. Thus, for this project, it will develop a specific studying environment which can teach children languages based on some existing models. And then, testing the differences between non-immersive an immersive collaborative virtual environment for educational value. 1.4 Reason for the project In recent year, the Virtual reality is a fashion and development technology which used in healthcare, training, video game, business, education aspects and so on. Education is one of popular application and the biggest beneficiaries with the development of teaching and learning (Virtual Reality Society, 2017). Moreover, according to Higgin (2018) researched, “70% of kids (ages 8 to 15) express interest in it,” and many teachers are looking and developing for new experiences to help students. Hence, the reason for this project is to conclude which VR educational environment is the best methodology for learning and teaching. Also giving students an immersive and efficient study environment to reinforce their sense of class participation, and giving a teacher an efficient and convenient teaching process assistant tool. 2 Objectives 2.1 Aim and objective To aim this project, it will develop the VR environment for teaching languages based on some existing models. Also, testing the difference between a non-immersive environment and an immersive collaborative environment. Identify the result which one VR environment is more efficient and helpful teaching process assistant tool to use in education. Yet, the environment should look more friendly and professional. The following list of objectives has been created and applied to the project to ensure that the required needs were met: The design of the interface must be friendly The design must look professional and clear The user will be provided with the option to move and click the items, and enter the answer of questions The design with an immersive sense of environment The user will be provided with the option of how to view the results Navigation on the screen is easy to follow 2.2 SMART analysis Specific: to develop and design a well-done and immersive VR educational environment for teaching languages, and testing the differences between the non-immersive and immersive VR environment. To set the objectives are that the project is languages studying application for teachers and students to access and learn the basic languages. Measurable: identify exactly the user can use this application to study languages and interact with items on the interface. The user will gain the information successfully, and easy to follow and use the application. Achievable: to achieve the aim, the project will use some existing model and environment setting, and try to develop them to become more professional and friendly to use. Realistic: the objective behind the goal is because VR is an efficient teaching process assistant tool to help students and teachers for learning and teaching. Time Bound: to keep the timeline flexible and realistic for this project, keep going the researches and developing before the deadline. 3 Project Scope 3.1 Deliverables The Project Deliverables in a VR environment development project, the “object models-use 3D Max to create different items”, “background-colour, location”, “interface design-navigation, button, structure”, and “environment setting- use Unreal to build for the position, indoors or outdoor environment ” are the deliverables. In the testing part, there are differences including advantages and disadvantages in educational value between two environments, are the deliverables. All deliverables might take for few months are required to complete. Yet, all deliverables will identify for all activities including all models, design image, research documents, and demo. 3.2 Functionality There is a list of functional and non-functional requirements would be created so there would be a better understanding of achieving the aims. Functional requirement: Help user easy to use Help user to study efficiently The Virtual Reality application must have a navigation/button system The Virtual Reality application must show sentences of each question with answer options The Virtual Reality application must display models professionally and friendly The Virtual Reality application must show details of each model when the user clicked or selected However, there are a few non-functional requirements which will meet. The VR environment would have shown the different types of products or objects with explanations to help the user interact with it and understanding clear. Another non-functional requirement is to change the location of the environment, for example, this VR environment hs not included all of objects or goods that the user has seen before in the real world. These would be something that will develop in the future. 3.3 Milestones Milestones are checkpoints chart in this project including each content of the project that helps to check the tasks and deliverables have been completed, and then it allows to move on to the next aspect of the project. Depending on this project, use 3D Max to create models is the first important process that should mention with start date and ending date in milestones. All of the significant events have to be completed successfully; it helps to determine whether each event to proceed as planned. 4 Sources Requirement 4.1 List of resources Software: 3D Max (basic models), Unreal (environment setting), Photoshop (help for creating models) Hardware: VR headset, sensors, camera (3D images) Company: ClassVR (2018) Company designed VR interface for students and teachers, provide an exciting but simple interface to allow students and teachers to access the educational content. Students just use their hands to move and select the options and activities. The ClassVR shows more simple and non-immersive VR environment for students and teachers to use, without any immersive sense of feeling. It can be an example model to manage and develop a new environment and compare with it. 4.2 List of sources Dictionary: an explanation with objects Academic research about non-immersive and immersive VR environment in educational value 5 Project Risks VR has a physical impact on a person’s health and kind of mind mental issue; especially make sure children use the VR headset safety and health. Oculus Company warned before “Some individuals may also experience severe dizziness, epileptic seizures or blackouts when exposed to certain flashing lights or patterns” (Korolov, 2014). In additional, to ensure that children should take breaks and avoid overtime to use because the flashing lights or other patterns will have a negative effect on children’s eyes and dizziness. Thereby, the limit of time in this project should no more than 30 minutes, and the interface will display a flashing prompt message like “Have a break!” every 30 minutes. Also, family and teacher should monitor them the time of using VR headset, in order to any safety and health issue whether happened or not after children used. Furthermore, in the VR educational environment interface, there are some aspects of items or models including for teaching languages, for instance, display the area of food, clothes, or others basis for children to learn. Unfortunately, it might have risks for a shortage of information or information incomplete because there are huge numbers of models and details for languages lectures must to build and created. Thus, to recover the situation, more time and references supporting are needed to build a completed and professional environment system in the project. 6 Gantt Chart 7 Evaluation of PSEL 7.1 Professional The project will protect the Computer Misuse Act (1990) right included that “personal data shall be kept safe and secure”, so the user’s details would be responded by the data storage, and cannot be changed without authorization. For this project, the VR system just for the educational experience and assessment evaluation, so it cannot be used for the purposes of direct marketing (DPA, 1998). Thus, all of the data and personal information must be protected and safe without any problems of damage or loss. 7.2 Social The social issue of this project that impacts on educational value, it is already to recreate a VR environment with 3D objects to learn the knowledge. The immersive environment allows students to interact with objects and instead of traditional experiences. Thus, the interesting and enthusiasm of students are improved by using VR education. However, Passig (2010) discussed that misuse and ineffectiveness of shared decision making. Thus, the education programs cannot be changed and modified and all application should consist with the social facts. 7.3 Ethical Ethical issues were addressed throughout the BERA and Market Research Society ethical Guidelines (2011). This project must ensure the language appropriate to a user even children age to use. They were having the chance to provide the opinion or feedback for this project, also can quit the VR interface at any point. On the other hand, there is an ethical issue about the desensitisation of VR, in this protect, all models and items are unreal and virtual 3D meshes to set up the environment, as a consequence, some user starts blurring the real and virtual world. It may lead to a false or negative knowledge or memory, thus, it is important to proceed with caution and try to provide an age-appropriate environment in this project. 7.4 Legal There are legal issues that may be related to this project, include privacy content, and safety problems. Depending on the educational environment, the data privacy and education system related to each other, and the user personal information also included. When the system developed, the data privacy will update and improved, but sometimes without the knowledge or consent. This will raise questions of ownership and privacy about that the 3D models such as shape, colour or appearance are very similar to the other systems displayed. Moreover, immersive VR environment should be evaluated for safety and health issue. If the user spends more time on the immersive experiences, they will appear symptoms of dizziness, eyestrain, etc. 8 References Brown, L., 2017. A Brief History of Virtual Reality [Online]. Wondershare: Filmora. Available at: https://filmora.wondershare.com/virtual-reality/history-of-vr.html [Accessed 26 October 2018]. Christou, C., 2010. Virtual Reality in Education [Online]. 1 (12) (June), pp. 228-243. Available via: Research Gate [Accessed 30 October 2018]. ClassVR, 2018. A Virtual Reality User Interface Made for Education [online]. ClassVR: Avantis System. Available at: http://www.classvr.com/school-virtual-reality/education-student-vr-interface/ [Accessed 31 October 2018]. Computer Misuse Act, 1990. Computer Misuse Act 1990: Computer misuse offences [online]. Available at: https://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1990/18 [Accessed 01 November 2018]. Costello, P.J., 1997. Health and Safety Issues associated with Virtual Reality – A Review of Current Literature [Online]. pp. 1-23. Available via: Advisory Group on Computer Graphics [Accessed 25 October 2018]. Digility, 2015. Children and Virtual Reality: Emerging Possibilities and Challenges [online]. Available at: http://digilitey.eu/wp-content/uploads/2015/09/CVR-Final-PDF-reduced-size.pdf [Accessed 01 November 2018]. Higgin, T., 2018. What the Research Says About VR in Classrooms. Common Sense Education [online blog]. 03 April. Available at: https://www.commonsense.org/education/blog/what-the-research-says-about-vr-in-classrooms [Accessed 30 October 2018]. Korolov, M., 2014. The Real Risks of Virtual Reality. Risk Management [online blog]. 01 October. Available at: http://www.rmmagazine.com/2014/10/01/the-real-risks-of-virtual-reality/ [Accessed 01 November 2018]. Lexis, 2018. Data protection and computer misuse offences: Data Protection Act 1998 [online]. Available at: https://www.lexisnexis.com/uk/lexispsl/corporatecrime/document/391421/55KB-9471-F188-N2K4-00000 00/Data_protection_and_computer_misuse_offences_overview# [Accessed 01 November 2018]. Okeil, A., 2010. Hybrid design environments: immersive and non-immersive architectural design [Online]. 15 (March), pp. 202-216. Available via: Journal of Information Technology in Construction [Accessed 25 October 2018]. Passig, D., 2010. The Future of Virtual Reality in Education: A Future Oriented Meta Analysis of the Literature [online]. pp. 269-293. Available via: THEMES IN SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION [Accessed 01 November 2018]. Sharma, A., et al., 2018. Virtual Reality: Blessings and Risk Assessment [online]. 11 (20) (May), pp. 1-20. Available via: Research Gate. [Accessed 01 November 2018]. Virtual Reality Society, 2017. History of Virtual Reality [Online]. UK: The Virtual Reality Society. Available at: https://www.vrs.org.uk/virtual-reality/history.html [Accessed 25 October 2018]. Virtual Reality Society, 2017. Virtual Reality and Education [Online]. UK: The Virtual Reality Society. Available at: https://www.vrs.org.uk/virtual-reality-education/ [Accessed 26 October 2018].
Gender Differences in Perceptions of Gender
term paper help Gender Differences in Perceptions of Gender. Student: 3222650 Perceptions of IQ. Abstract This study examined individual estimations of their own, their mothers and their fathers IQ. Fifteen males and fifteen females participated. It was hypothesized that participants would estimate their IQ to be higher than both mother and father. They would estimate their fathers IQ to be higher than their mothers and their mothers IQ lower than their fathers. The male participants estimations of their own IQ would be higher than the females. The results found supported the hypothesis and were similar to other studies carried out. Introduction Intelligence is a concept and there are arguments in deciding if it can be defined at all. It can be seen as having mental ability for reasoning, problem solving and learning (Colom, Karama, JungGender Differences in Perceptions of Gender
Accounting as a Profession Essay
Accounting plays a significant role in the collection, analysing, and communicating financial information to society. Nevertheless, to create a broader understanding of the term accounting and on its primary purpose, we have to consider it from a social perspective. In any society, people coexist by the creation of relationships with each other (Walker, 2016). Besides, there are three significant areas in a community; the categories are economic, social, and political arenas. Therefore for the community sections to effectively function, the communication among them must be active. However, it becomes impossible to achieve interactions without proper accounting. Studies show that accounting information serves multiple essential purposes. This paper focuses on analysing accounting purposes through the identification of various users in the societies, and the implications drawn from accounting needs and functions as this discipline serves the interested parties. The Purpose of Accounting Accounting helps in communicating the financial health of an organisation or a business to all parties interested in the information. The role helps in assessing all liabilities, assets, cash flow, or the entity for both current and future investors. Accounting acts like the lifeblood of sensible businesses that provide central information to ensure various organisations get their jobs done. Financial statements are an excellent example of information generated from accounting work (Sherman
Turkey’s Role in the Syrian Crisis Essay
Introduction Syria has been embroiled in a violent uprising since 2011 when the Syrian opposition began widespread demonstrations against president Bashar al-Assad and his government. The Syrian crisis was fueled by the winds of revolution that were blowing through the Arab world. This Arab uprising led to the toppling of regimes in Tunisia, Egypt, and Libya due to popular uprisings by the citizens of these countries. The Arab Spring Revolutions have been the most significant political event in the region and they have had huge ramifications as regimes have been toppled and governments have been obligated to engage in reforms. In the case of Syria, President Assad has refused to leave power in spite of the widespread opposition against him and international pressure for him to do so. Instead of relenting to the popular uprising against him, Assad engaged in brutal repression of the demonstrators in his country. This violent repression led to the formation of armed rebel groups that have been fighting to topple the Assad regime for almost three years without any real success. The events in Syria have attracted the attention of the international community and the country’s regional neighbors. Turkey, which is a regional power, has been heavily involved in Syrian affairs since the crisis has some impact on Turkey due to its common border with Syria and its strategic interests in the region (Idrees 88). Turkey has therefore emerged as the country that has played the most monumental role in trying to resolve the Syrian crisis. This paper will set out to provide an in-depth description of the efforts that Turkey has engaged in to assist mitigate the Syrian crisis and speed the process of stabilizing the nation. The paper will begin by articulating the reasons behind Turkey’s interest in Syria and then proceed to outline the role that Ankara has played in the Syrian issue. Turkey’s Interest in the Syrian Events Even as the Syrian Crisis gets to its third year, Turkey continues to demonstrate a great commitment to ensuring that the crisis is effectively resolved in the shortest time possible. From the onset of the Syrian crisis, Turkey demonstrated an interest in the actions carried out by the Assad regime and by the opposition. Turkey shares a 911km border with Syria making instability in Syria an issue of concern for Turkey. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Turkey has a vested interest in the outcome of the Syrian Crisis. In recognition of the critical ramifications that the events in Syria would have on Turkey, the Turkish Prime Minister Tayyip Erdogan described the situation in Syria in 2011 as “an internal Turkish issue” (88). Turkey has made a huge regional and domestic capital in overthrowing the Assad regime and the current policy supports the armed rebels and the Syrian opposition. Ankara has been the most prominent foreign actor in the Syrian affairs since the revolution against the Assad regime broke out in 2011 (Idrees 88). The Turkish Foreign Minister asserts that Turkey is obliged to act on the Syrian issue not only because it needs to defend its own national strategies but also because it is a regional power in the region (47). Turkey’s role in Syria will contribute to its growing influence in the region. Analysts predict that if the Syrian opposition succeeds, it will set up a government modeled after Turkey’s ruling AKP government and look up to Ankara as the mentor. Phillips suggests that by backing the Syrian opposition and promoting the SNC, Turkey is establishing a good relationship with the future successors of Assad; therefore boosting its own influence in the country (138). Turkey’s involvement has also been prompted by concerns that the Syrian crisis might contribute to a reemergence of the Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK) problem in Turkey. The PKK is a Kurdish nationalist movement that has been fighting for secession from Turkey. Egin declares that the anti-Assad policy adopted by Ankara has “breathed new life into the Turkish Kurds’ long struggle for independence” (66). Because of Turkey’s denouncing of the Assad regime, the Syrian government has retaliated by covertly funding the PKK groups operating along the Turkish border. Egin reports that the Assad regime has reversed its longstanding anti-Kurd policies and provided the Kurd fighters with a degree of logistical support and refuge from Turkish forces (66). This has reinvigorated the PKK and enabled it to resume an armed struggle against Turkey. We will write a custom Essay on Turkey’s Role in the Syrian Crisis specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Turkey’s Humanitarian Efforts One of the areas where Turkey has played a major role is with regard to the Syrian refugees. Since the outbreak of the Syrian conflict, the number of Syrians looking for refuge from their country’s violence has been rising. Since Turkey shares an expansive border with Syria, many Syrians have sought to cross into Turkey to escape the violence in their country (Laqueur 77). Sly reports that while refugees have moved into the other countries surrounding Syria, Turkey has received the greatest percentage of refugees (1). Turkey is currently home to over 400,000 Syrian refugees who continue to put a strain on the resources of the Turkish government as their daily needs are met. In addition to the refugees already living in Turkey, the country is admitting between 500 and 1,500 Syrians each day at certain border crossings. The flow of refugees into Turkey has at times been so high that the Turkish government has been forced to close key border crossings in order to regulate the flow of Syrians. However, Turkey has demonstrated a great desire to assist the Syrians fleeing from the violence in their country. Turkey has been deeply involved in humanitarian efforts aimed at assisting the vast number of Syrian refugees within its borders. Turkey has established numerous camps in its territory to accommodate Syrian Refugees. Jodi reports that the camps established by Turkey for the Syrian refugees are some of the best refugee camps in the world (1). Some of the camps established for refugees include pre-fabricated houses that contain two rooms and a bathroom making the lives of the refugees in Turkey very decent. Most of the money used to sustain the refugees has been from Turkey’s own financial reserves. The country has also demonstrated great generosity by spending close to $1billion dollars on Syrian refugees in order to alleviate their conditions while in Turkey. In spite of limited international support for the refugees fleeing Syria, Turkey has continued to offer great support to Syrian refugees. Jodi observes that the international aid to alleviate the humanitarian crisis occurring at the Turkey-Syria border has been minimal with most Western countries providing limited aid (1). Turkey has filled this void by providing substantial support to meet the needs of the Syrians. However, analysts contend that Turkey’s ability to deal with the humanitarian crisis might be hampered if the Syrian crisis extends beyond 2013 and the influx of refugees across the Turkey-Syria border increases. Not sure if you can write a paper on Turkey’s Role in the Syrian Crisis by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More International diplomatic efforts Turkey has engaged in a lot of international diplomacy to try resolving the Syrian crisis. Turkey has exploited its good relationship with Western nations to carry out diplomatic efforts concerning the Syrian crisis. Turkey is a part of the “Friends of Syria” group, which is made up of countries that are concerned about the Syrian crisis and are engaged in diplomatic action to resolve the crisis. Turkey hosted the major meeting by this group held on April 2012 and in this meeting, the Turkish PM called on the international community to take action against Assad’s regime. In line with its stance against the Syrian government, Turkey reiterated its opinion that Syrian rebels should be given the means with which to defend themselves from Assad’s onslaught. Turkey has been involved in international efforts aimed at keeping Syrians safe in their own country. Turkey has engaged in advocacy for more stringent actions to be taken against Assad by the international community. The Turkish government is the strongest supporter of a no fly zone that, once enacted, would ensure that Syrians are safe in the Northern parts of the country. Sly observes that most Syrian refugees in Turkey have been forced out of their country by the frequent aerial bombardments carried out by the Assad regime (1). Imposition of a no fly zone would stop the airstrikes and make the area safe for Syrians to live in. The no-fly zone has also been aimed at protecting turkey from Syrian attacks. Following the shooting down of a Turkish Air Force jet by the Syrian army in June 2012, Turkey called on its NATO allies to enforce a no-fly zone in Syria. While a no fly zone is yet to be implemented in the crisis, the Turkish administration continues to advocate for it at the UN and through NATO. Turkey has urged the international community to engage in limited military intervention against the Assad regime or increase its support to the Syrian rebels. In the recent past, the Turkish Foreign Minister has called on the international community to take action against the Assad regime. Following a car bombing in May 12 in a Turkish border town that led to the death of 46 people, the Turkish government has called for action against Syria to ensure that the violence there does not spread into the neighboring countries (Burch 1). However, the international community has shown great reluctance in responding to the Syrian crisis. Major powers such as the US are apprehensive and have not taken any solid step in the issue (Williams and Colleen 50). Diplomatic Efforts with Syrian Actors In addition to the international efforts, Turkey has used its regional influence to attempt resolving the Syrian crisis domestically. At the onset of the conflict in Syria, Turkey attempted to use its close ties with the Assad regime to control the activities taking place in Syria. The Turkish government tried to persuade Assad to stop his brutality against the opposition forces. Instead of engaging in a ‘zero problems’ strategy in the Syrian case, Turkey has adopted a ‘values-based’ foreign policy that supports democratic forces (Phillips 138). Turkey has publicly criticized the Assad regime and lobbied for greater participation by the Sunni majority in the Syrian government (Kouskouvelis 48). Damla reveals that in August 2011, the Turkish Foreign Minister, Ahmet Davutoğlu held a lengthy meeting with Assad in which he tried to get Assad to engage in dialogue with the rebels (43). The Turkish government representative officially impressed on Assad that it was necessary for his government to share power with the majority Sunni community and make major reforms in the country. However, these talks did not yield positive results since Assad was unwilling to resolve the problems facing his regime through dialogue and reforms. The good relationship between Turkey and the Syrian opposition has enabled Turkey to play an influential role in the crisis. Turkey has moderated over talks between the US and the moderate opposition forces in Syria to try and come up with a strong and unified opposition coalition that can challenge Assad. These efforts are significant since at the moment, the Syrian opposition is made up of many disparate groupings, some of which are affiliated with radical Islamic terror outfits such as Al-Qaeda. Western powers are unwilling to back a Syrian opposition that has affiliations with terrorist organizations. Turkey has therefore played a key role in initiating dialogue between the opposition and the US and some EU countries to reach a consensus on the composition of the Syrian opposition. Turkey and the Syrian Opposition In spite of a decade-long good relationship between the Turkish administration and the Assad regime, Turkey denounced the Syrian government following the rise of the resistance against the Assad government in March 2011. Before the Crisis, Turkey had engaged in a “zero problems” foreign policy with Syria. This policy was aimed at eliminating all the historical issues that Turkey faced with Syria and promoting trade in the region. The Syrian crisis caused Turkey to abandon this policy of disengagement and play a more pronounced role in Syrian affairs. Syrian rebels have received significant support from the Turkish government. Arango reveals that in addition to providing a permanent base for the umbrella resistance group, the Syrian National Council, the Turkish government has opened up some areas on its side of the border with Syria to the rebels. This opposition fighters are allowed to plan, coordinate, and launch their attacks against the Assad regime from Turkish soil (1). Turkey has also served as a safe harbor for military defectors from the Syrian Army. As the civil conflict in Syria carries on, hundreds of military officials have defected from Assad’s brutal regime. Turkey has offered refuge to these defectors with the Turkish Army protecting the camps where these military officials are staying (Damla 43). In the latest development in the Syrian crisis, the US and Syria’s main ally Russia have announced their intention to engage in cooperative efforts to end the conflict through diplomacy. Such action would require the participation of the Assad regime and the Syrian opposition. Leaders from Syria’s opposition coalition are going to meet under the supervision of Turkey in Istanbul to deliberate on whether they will be involved in this international conference that might probably lead to an end in the Syrian conflict. The involvement of Turkey in this matter is of great importance since as a Muslim country, Turkey has the required legitimacy that the West lacks when dealing with Syria. Military Force The Turkish government has publicly stated that it is not willing to engage in an all out military confrontation with Syria to help resolve the crisis. Because of this policy, Turkey has by the large avoided direct military involvement in the Syrian Conflict (Krajeski 1). While it would be in Turkey’s best interest for the conflict to end soon, an outright military intervention by the Turkish military in Syria would not only be expensive but very unpopular. The Turkish population is not in support of military intervention by its country’s military. For this reason, Turkey has avoided engaging in unprovoked military intervention and its actions have often been in response to Syrian strikes in its territory. In spite of the desire to avoid military action with Syria, Turkey has been forced to take some military action in retaliation to Syrian attacks on Turkish soil. The first publicly acknowledged attack by the Turkish army took place in October 2012 following a Syrian mortar strike that hit southeastern Turkey, killing 5 Turks. This attack prompted retaliation by the Turkish army, which launched counter-battery fire into Syrian territory (Krajeski 1). In the events where Turkey has been forced to take military action to protect its borders, the situation has been quickly de-escalated by both sides. The focus on de-escalation can be seen from the fact that even when Syrian missiles have landed in Turkey, the Turkish forces have limited their retaliation measures to counterattacking the units perceived to have opened fire across the border. The reason for this is that both Turkey and Syria are keen to avoid an armed retaliation since such action would have major negative repercussions for both sides. While it is unlikely that Turkey will choose to invade Syria, the government has the power and support of the politicians on this issue. Following fears that Syria was compromising the Turkish territory, the Turkish Parliament held a debate on the acceptability of a direct military response to Syria. On October 2012, the Parliament passed a resolution that authorized the government to send troops across the border if necessary (Arango 1). Turkey has taken steps to protect itself from threats from the Syrian Army. As a member of the major military alliance NATO, Turkey has requested for military assistance from the organization. In response to this, NATO supplied Turkey with the Patriot Missile Air Defense System in January this year to shield Ankara from its vulnerability to Syrian air attacks (Egin 65). NATO has also provided Turkey with four hundred military personnel to help fortify the Turkey-Syria border and deter any attacks from Syria. Future Role Turkey’s involvement in Syrian affairs is in part due to the self-interest of the country. An unstable Syria poses a threat to Turkey since the violence might spill over into the country. Damla asserts that a prolonged Syrian civil war will result in regional instability with an influx of Syrian refugees into Turkey and the possibility of a revival of the PKK threat from across the Syrian border (49). Ankara’s support for the opposition forces is in anticipation of the toppling of the Assad regime. Damla suggests that Turkey wants to establish a strong relationship with a possible new Syrian government and protect future investments in the country under a post-Assad administration (47). Turkey’s role can be expected to extend into the next few years regardless of the outcome of the Syrian situation. Analysts indicated that Turkey will continue to play a critical role in Syrian affairs for the next many years due to its position as a regional leader (Idrees 88). Even if the Assad regime is toppled, the Syrian opposition does not show the unity needed to pull the country from the brink and establish the pre-crisis normalcy that Syria enjoyed. Turkey will therefore have to play a critical role in stabilizing the country and ensuring that Syria gets back on its feet. Conclusion This paper set out to provide an in-depth description of the role that Turkey has played in Syria since the development of the Syrian crisis in 2011. It began by highlighting the reasons why Turkey is playing a pronounced role in Syria. The paper then revealed that Turkey has played a prominent role in dealing with the humanitarian crisis produced by the Syrian conflict. Turkey has also engaged in domestic diplomatic efforts to try end the conflict by talking with the Assad regime and the Syrian opposition. Turkey has also used its international influence to try to get the international community to act on the Syrian issue. In some instances, Turkey has had to engage in military action in retaliation to Syrian strikes on Turkish territory. However, the general objective has been to avoid an all out military confrontation between the two countries. From this paper, it is clear that Turkey is a key player in Syrian affairs. The country’s position as a Muslim nation and a regional power has given it significant influence when dealing with the Syrian issue. Turkey’s role has been and will continue to be integral to the eventual resolution of the conflict. Works Cited Arango, T. On Edge as Syria’s War Knocks Ever Harder on the Door to Turkey. 2012. Web. Burch, J. Turkey says world must act against Syria after bombings. 2013. Web. Damla, A. “Turkish-Syrian Relations Go Downhill.” Middle East Quarterly 19.2 (2012): 41-50. Print. Egin, O. “The game changer Syria, Iran, and Kurdish Independence.” World Affairs, 13.3 (2013): 64-72. Print. Idrees, M. “Turkey and Iran Rivalry on Syria.” Turkish Journal of International Relations 10.2 (2011): 87-99. Web. Jodi, H. Is Turkey’s approach to Syrian refugees sustainable? 2013. Web. Kouskouvelis, I. “The Problem with Turkey’s ‘Zero Problems’.” Middle East Quarterly 20.1 (2013): 47-56. Web. Krajeski, J. Will Turkey go to War. 2012. Web. Laqueur, W. “Reality Check: The Hazards of Optimism”. World Affairs 175.6 (2013): 75-83. Web. Phillips, C. “Turkey’s Syria problem.” Public Policy Research 12.3 (2012): 137-140. Web. Sly, L. “Turkey blocks Syrian refugees Turkey blocks Syrian refugees.” The Washington Post. 27. Aug. 2012. Web. Williams, P. and Colleen P. “U. S. Foreign Policy And The Arab Spring: Ten Short-Term Lessons Learned.” Denver Journal of International Law
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