You will take the following modules: Care practice and provision – meeting service user needs, multidisciplinary teams, promotion of quality assurance by services, legislation. Anatomy and physiology in practice – respiratory system, cardio-vascular system, digestive system, reproductive system, renal system and musculo – skeletal system. Child development – patterns of development, influencing factors, theories of play, how to plan and make a learning aid for a child. The anatomy and physiology module will be exam assessed.
The others will be portfolio assessed. General Hints and Tips * Back up all coursework – do not rely on one computer/ memory stick to keep files on. * Put page numbers on coursework – they are needed for marking! * Refer to texts used throughout your writing. * Bring this booklet to all lessons where you are likely to work on coursework. * Hand in coursework on time and do not leave completion until the last minute. * Bring in coursework as you go along if you are unsure that you are working on the right lines. I have exemplar coursework (both excellent and very bad) which you are welcome to look at for ideas/ guidance. Care Practice and Provision During this module you will learn about: * Meeting the needs of service users at a local level. * How servicers and practitioners meet individual needs. * Ways in which practitioners within services work in multi-disciplinary teams. * How quality assurance is promoted by services. * Effects of national policy and legislation on care practice and provision. * Conducting a survey relating to quality assurance. This module is portfolio assessed.
Coursework You need to produce an investigation to show how demographic factors influence the provision of health, social care and early years services in the local area, illustrating how two different local services meet the needs of one service user. AO1 Marks: 10 What do I need to do? Choose two demographic influences which have influenced the organisation and provision of services in the local area from the following: • Health needs • Disability • Age of populations • Unemployment • Numbers of single parent families • The number of older people in the population.
Research your two chosen demographic influences using the internet, National Trends, local information sources. Write a factual account of the stages in local planning of services which includes information about: * How local plans are produced. * How demographic characteristics/trends are used to assess local needs * The ways in which services are commissioned * A description of the involvement of local stakeholders who contribute to the plan * The influence of national and local targets * How local services are organised (look at them nationally, locally and internally). The processes of monitoring and evaluating service provision. Describe ways in which national and local standards, targets and objectives may influence planning (you can include this when showing how plans are produced.
Mark Scheme Extract (Top Band) * 4 marks – Candidates select two demographic factors which have influenced the planning and provision of services; candidates use written expression which uses appropriate specialist vocabulary to comprehensively describe how relevant demographic characteristics/trends are used to assess local needs and inform the planning and provision of services. 3 marks – they produce a comprehensive description of the planning of services. * 3 marks- they give a comprehensive explanation of the influence of national and local standards, targets and objectives on the planning and provision of services. AO2 Choose one national policy or piece of legislation on care practice which relates to the service user and services. Explain the impact that it has had. You must evaluate its effectiveness from the following: (i) The service user’s perspective (ii) The practitioners (iii) And/or the services. You must: * Identify the strengths and weaknesses * Make reasoned judgments Draw valid conclusions of the effects. You do not have to relate the legislation to the service user in the case study, but may choose to. Mark Scheme Extract (Top Band) * 4 marks – candidates accurately and independently apply in-depth knowledge and understanding to give a comprehensive explanation of the impact of one national policy or piece of legislation on care practice and provision; * 6 marks – candidates give a comprehensive explanation of the impact from two different perspectives, e. g. from the viewpoint of the person who uses services, the practitioner and/or the service.
Possible Coursework Layout * Basic outline of the legislation. * Implications on case study and whether the law has a positive or negative effect * Effect of the law on service providers AO3 You should pick two quality assurance mechanisms (they can be the same for each service) used by two services (ideally relevant to your case study). The following is a list of possible quality assurance mechanisms: improving information and consultation with service users, e. g. ‘Your Guide to the NHS; implementing quality-service standards, e. g. National Service Frameworks; using performance measures, e. g. Star Ratings’; improving registration and inspection procedures; evaluating the quality of services experienced by users, e. g. through surveys such as the Patient’s Survey; rewarding good practice, e. g. the Charter Mark; developing procedures for complaints and providing opportunities for suggestions from service users and staff; raising the training levels within the sector. * Carry out research to investigate the quality assurance systems used by the services. Your research methods could include any from the following list, but you must use both primary and secondary sources: * Questioning practitioners Questioning service users * Interviews * Surveys * Observation of practice * Organisational documents * Publications * Textbooks * Internet. Give reasons for the research techniques you have chosen to use (either when discussing the information gathered or as an appendix). Step by Step Guide * Choose two quality assurance mechanisms (evaluating quality of services and improving information and consultation with service users are recommended). * Choose two services you would like to research. Choose methods of research – you must use some primary research e. g. questionnaire, interviews.
Keep it simple. You do not have to gather the same research for each service but this may help you later on. Remember that you will need to justify your methods. * Carry out your research. * You should find out about the methods of quality assurance – which do they use and how useful do they find the different methods? How do they gather the information and how do they use this information? E. g. using patient comment cards might flag up an issue with reception layout which they can then alter. * Write a description of the quality assurance methods you have found out about. Analyse them using the information you have gathered. Justify why each mechanism is used. Are there any disadvantages with using these methods? Is one mechanism more suited to one of your care settings than another? *
Justify your research methods. Why did you use each method? How useful and accurate are they? You can either justify these methods throughout your essay or as an appendix at the end. Mark Scheme Extract (Top Band) * 6 marks – Candidates undertake research using a wide range of appropriate primary and secondary sources of information, e. g. andidates collected primary evidence through interviews, surveys or observation and secondary evidence via the internet, organisational documents and publications. * 9 marks – candidates use the information gathered to carry out a comprehensive analysis of the quality assurance mechanisms used by two services; an in-depth analysis, with a range of appropriate examples, of a wide range of quality assurance mechanisms used by two services is evident. Possible Coursework Layout * Introduction. * Service one – 2 methods – advantages and disadvantages of each, why used etc. Service two – 2 methods – advantages and disadvantages of each, why used etc. * Why each research method was used. *
Bibliography AO4 Prepare questions to use to gather information from practitioners who work in two different services which provide care for your chosen service user. Make sure you identify the needs of the service user and relate this to PIES. Visit the services to gather the information you need and/or research from books and the internet. Explain the approaches used by practitioners working in the two services from the following: * Preventative and treatment The holistic approach * The empowerment approach * The behavioral approach. Use the two approaches to explain and analyse how practitioners meet the needs of the service user. You should include information about the purpose of individual care assessments and plans used in meeting the needs of the service user. Explain how practitioners work in multi-disciplinary teams to meet the needs of the service user. Use examples to highlight the information provided. Evaluate how well working in a multi disciplinary team benefits the service user. Mark Scheme Extract (Top Band) 5 marks- Candidates provide a comprehensive evaluation, making reasoned judgments and drawing valid conclusions about the approaches used by practitioners working in two different services; candidates use the approaches to give a comprehensive analysis of how practitioners meet the needs of the person who uses services; * 4 marks- a comprehensive analysis, using a range of appropriate examples, of how practitioners work in partnership is evident. * 6 marks- candidates apply in-depth knowledge, understanding and skills to comprehensively evaluate how working in partnership benefits people who use services.
Case Study Adam is a 19 year old student. He has just finished his A levels and is going to start university. His family and friends have noticed that he has been fairly withdrawn recently and his personal hygiene is deteriorating. He spends long periods of time in his room and will not socialise with his friends. Initially his mother persuaded him to see his GP and he was given mild antidepressants but then the situation got much worse and Adam attempted to take his own life. He was sectioned under the Mental Health Act and admitted to a local mental health unit.
He spent three weeks there after being diagnosed with schizophrenia. During his time at the unit he spent time sorting his medication out and coming to terms with his diagnosis. He has since been discharged and is now under the care of adult community care services for adults. In the town where Adam lives, the local NHS and Social Services have merged to form an NHS and Social Care Trust. AO1 Generic – requires candidates to look at two local demographic characteristics and show how these influence service provision (10. 2. 1). The 2 required could relate to your case study.
Which organizations are involved in planning and delivering services in your area? How are service users’ needs identified and met? Identify the stages undertaken at local planning level, i. e. how plans are produced, the role of stakeholders. Who would be involved in the planning? How do they monitor and evaluate the planning process? AO2 Adam will need to have his needs identified (PIES), e. g. physical – schizophrenia medication, intellectual – getting him back into study, emotional – helping him to come to terms with his diagnosis, social – rebuilding relationships/friendships.
Identify the two different services he will be using, i. e. community psychiatric nurse/consultant psychiatrist and a social worker. Describe how each practitioner meets Adam’s needs. What approaches does each utilise? For example, the merging of the two trusts gives a more holistic approach to Adam’s treatment and the social worker may look at the empowerment approach so that Adam feels that he is making decisions about his care, etc. How do the practitioners work in multi-disciplinary teams, e. g. care assessments, individual care plans, how often are these reviewed, how they link with the Inpatient unit Adam was in, etc.
AO3 Candidates need to find out what quality assurance mechanisms each of the services use. For example, look on the NHS website for star rating of the NHS and Social Care trust or do day services have feedback mechanisms for service users and their families? They could ask care workers and service users (if appropriate) their opinions of the services, using the internet or organizational documents to look at actual quality assurance (note: primary and secondary methods required for mark band 3). AO4 Candidates need to pick one national policy or piece of legislation which relates to Adam and the services chosen.
They need to say how it has affected the service user and service provider/practitioner (for mark band 3), providing an evaluation which draws valid conclusions of the overall effect of the legislation. For example, the NHS and Community Care Act 1990, the Mental Health Act 1993, the Health Act 1999 or the Care Standards Act 2000. If you want to look at a policy the NICE guidelines would be appropriate. Anatomy and Physiology in Practice This unit covers: * Respiratory system * Cardio-vascular system * Digestive system * Reproductive system * Musculo-skeletal system. This unit is exam assessed.
The following web sites may help you: * www. howstuffworks. com * www. bbc. co. uk/health * www. ama-assn. org/ama/pub/category/7140. html * www. askann. co. uk * www. merck. com/mmhe/index. html * www. med. wayne. edu/diagRadiology/Anatomy_Modules/Page1. html On the following pages you will find a revision schedule which has been published by the exam board. Revision Schedule: Anatomy and Physiology in Practice Topic | Details | Completed | Respiratory System | Understand the overall structure of the respiratory system and be able to sketch and accurately label the gross structures.
Understand the functions of the respiratory system and its homeostatic links with other systems. Understand at least one respiratory dysfunction in detail and the causes of the respiratory dysfunction(s). Understand the general principles and values of at least one respiratory diagnostic technique for the dysfunction(s) in detail. Understand the general principles and values of at least one form of treatment for the dysfunction(s) in detail. | | Cardio-vascular System | Understand the overall structure of the cardio-vascular system and be able to sketch and accurately label the gross structures.
Understand the functions of the cardio-vascular system and its homeostatic links with other systems. Understand at least one cardio-vascular dysfunction in detail and the causes of the cardio-vascular dysfunction(s). Understand the general principles and values of at least one cardio-vascular diagnostic technique for the dysfunction(s) in detail. Understand the general principles and values of at least one form of treatment for the dysfunction(s) in detail. | | Digestive System | Understand the overall structure of the digestive system and be able to sketch and accurately label the gross structures.
Understand the functions of the digestive system and its homeostatic links with other systems. Understand at least one digestive dysfunction in detail and the causes of the digestive dysfunction(s). Understand the general principles and values of at least one digestive diagnostic technique for the dysfunction(s) in detail. Understand the general principles and values of at least one form of treatment for the dysfunction(s) in detail. | | Reproductive System | Understand the overall structure of the reproductive system and be able to sketch and accurately label the gross structures.
Understand the functions of the reproductive system and its homeostatic links with other systems. Understand at least one reproductive dysfunction in detail and the causes of the reproductive dysfunction(s). Understand the general principles and values of at least one reproductive diagnostic technique for the dysfunction(s) in detail. Understand the general principles and values of at least one form of treatment for the dysfunction(s) in detail. | | Renal System | Understand the overall structure of the renal system and be able to sketch and accurately label the gross structures.
Understand the functions of the renal system and its homeostatic links with other systems. Understand at least one renal dysfunction in detail and the causes of the renal dysfunction(s). Understand the general principles and values of at least one renal diagnostic technique for the dysfunction(s) in detail. Understand the general principles and values of at least one form of treatment for the dysfunction(s) in detail. | | Musculo-skeletal and Neural Systems | Understand the overall structure of the musculo-skeletal system and be able to sketch and accurately label the gross structures.
Know the structure of a joint. Understand the structure of the neural system and parts of the brain and understand their functions. Understand the functions of the various types of joint. Understand the functions of the musculo-skeletal and neural systems. Understand at least one musculo-skeletal dysfunction in detail and the causes of the musculo-skeletal dysfunction(s). Understand the general principles and values of at least one musculo-skeletal diagnostic technique for the dysfunction(s) in detail. Understand the general principles and values of at least one form of treatment for the dysfunction(s) in detail. | Lifestyle| Understand the effects (not only physiological and but also those related to PIES) of dysfunctions caused by lifestyle choices on each of the body systems studied to include: * smoking * drug misuse * exercise (overindulgence and lack of it) * poor diet * obesity * environmental factors (including living conditions, pollution, etc). | | Some Useful Websites Please remember that these web sites will not be designed for those taking the health and social care paper. They may therefore be a little more advanced than you need, or may lack detail (but have been included as they will give you a brief overview). http://lgfl. skoool. co. uk/ – has some animations on enzymes and digestion under key stage 4 / biology. * http://www. biologyguide. net/ – useful notes on the cardiac cycle * http://www. biology-innovation. co. uk/ – useful notes on the digestive system * http://www. biologymad. com/ – some excellent information on the cardiac cycle and a kidney animation. * http://www. biologyinmotion. com/ – some great animations about kidneys and the heart. * http://www. kidneypatientguide. org. uk/site/HKWanim. php – video showing how kidneys work. * http://health. howstuffworks. com/adam-200142. tm – digestive system animation. * http://www. klbschool. org. uk/interactive/science/digestion2. htm – interactive digestive system diagram to label. * http://www. klbschool. org. uk/interactive/science/heart. htm – interactive diagram of the heart to label. * http://www. klbschool. org. uk/interactive/science/blood. htm – quiz on blood. * http://www. klbschool. org. uk/interactive/science/adh. htm – adh sentence to reorganise. * http://www. kscience. co. uk/revision/digestion/digestion_index. htm – some basic revision on the digestive system. * http://www. vtaide. com/png/respiratoryF. tm – respiratory system to label. * http://www. innerbody. com/htm/body. html – covers all body systems. * http://www. nhlbi. nih. gov/health/dci/Diseases/hhw/hhw_pumping. html – animation showing blood movement through the heart. * http://www. nhlbi. nih. gov/health/dci/Diseases/hhw/hhw_electrical. html – animation showing how electrical impulses travel across the heart. * http://www. kett6. net/adulteducation/heartanimations. html – heart cycle animation and activities. * http://www. curriculumbits. com/prodimages/details/biology/bio0018. html – breathing process revision activity.
Child Development We will cover: * Patterns of development * Factors that influence development and norms of development * Theories of play and how play can affect development * How to plan and make a learning aid/activity for a child (0-8). This unit is coursework assessed. AO1 Identify the key stages and describe in detail three patterns (milestones) of development for each of the following: * Physical development * Intellectual development * Language development * Social development * Emotional development. Your information will cover children’s development from 0 – 8 years. You ill also need to explain two methods used to monitor child development. Suggested Format Introduce a case study of a child of 8 years or above – you can base this study on yourself. Produce a table. For each key stage (infant, toddler, pre-school and school age) describe three patterns/milestones/norms for each area of development. Mark Scheme Extract (Top Band) * candidates will give a comprehensive description of two patterns for each area of development in children, from birth to eight years; there will be evidence of comprehensive knowledge and understanding of the patterns in the development of children (6 marks). candidates give a comprehensive explanation of two methods used to monitor the development of children, demonstrating an in-depth understanding of their importance (4 marks). AO2 Explain the factors which have affected the development of your chosen child. You must choose factors which have actually had an impact on the child’s development from: * The family * Environmental factors * Social and economic factors * Psychological factors * Behavioural problems. Explain the effect of factors on your chosen child’s development. Compare your child’s development with the norms for: * Physical development * Intellectual development Social development * Emotional development. Explain the variations from the norms. Suggested Format Produce a detailed comparison of your child’s development compared to the norms for each area of development (this could be started by adding to the table produced for AO1). In order to explain these differences/similarities you need to give a detailed explanation of the factors (at least two from above list) that have affected your child’s development. How do these help to explain any variations from the norms? Remember, the impact of these factors can be positive and negative. Mark Scheme Extract (Top Band) Working accurately and independently, candidates are required to provide detailed information about the factors that have affected the child’s development; influencing factors need to be considered and applied to the child studied. * They need to identify and describe in depth the effect of the factors on the child’s development. * Candidates will include a detailed comparison between the child’s development and the norm for each area of development, showing a high level of understanding; they will explain any variations from the norms. AO3 You must use three different sources of information to research two theories of play.
Research two theories of play. You could carry out your research by: * Visiting toy shops and analysing the toys available * Using catalogues to analyse toys available * Using books * Researching on the internet * Observing your chosen child playing. Analyse how two theories of play are reflected in your chosen child’s development. You must give two examples of each theory from the following list (although stages, types and benefits of play are all recommended by the exam board as they are easily applied to the child): * How play influences physical development. How play influences children’s cognitive development. * Benefits of play. * How play can be used as a theraputic process. * Types of play. * Categories of play. * Stages of play. You must keep a detailed record of all the sources you have used and record these in your bibliography. Mark Scheme Extract (Top Band) * Candidates’ evidence will show that that an appropriate and wide range of sources of information have been used for research, e. g. books, articles, internet and primary sources; a comprehensive record of the resources used will be kept (3 marks). The information will be comprehensive, with a comprehensive analysis which highlights candidates’ ability to make reasoned judgments of how two roles of play can be reflected in the child’s development (9 marks). * A wide range of appropriate examples will be used for each role (3 marks). AO4 Plan and make a learning aid/activity that will benefit your chosen child. Your choice must be designed to help their development in a specific way (use PIES). Say which area you think it will impact and make sure you justify your plan. Your plan must include: *
The aims of the learning aid/activity * The objectives of the learning aid/activity The outcomes to be achieved by the child using the aid/activity * The method of making the learning aid/activity * Resources used * Safety aspects considered * Timescales. Plan your data collection methods for evaluating the learning aid/activity. You could use: * Own observations – prepare an observation sheet * Parent teacher reflections – prepare questionnaires * Assessor records – prepare record sheet * Questionnaire * Interview. Use the learning aid/activity with the child and collect evaluation data. How did it benefit your child? Evaluate the learning aid/activity in terms of: * The child’s response Achievement of outcomes * Effectiveness of purpose * Benefits to the child * Recommendations for improvements – must be realistic. Discuss how you could introduce progression to your learning aid or activity. Mark Scheme Extract (Top Band) *
Candidates will have chosen an activity to do with the child studied that shows some thought about the impact on the child’s development and that will be sufficiently challenging for the child studied; the plan will be detailed and outline the methods to be used, including resources needed, and will give timescales, which will be accurate; reasons will be given for the actions taken. The evaluation will show ability to reflect on performance and to analyse in detail the benefits to the child studied. * Candidates will demonstrate the ability to make realistic and informed recommendations for improvements. Exemplar Coursework Layout * Justification of product – ? page. * Research showing how learning aid helps development and what this means- ? page. * Aims, objectives and outcomes – 2/3 page. * Table showing method and resources needed – ? page. * Weekly plan and detailed method – 1 page. * Safety – 1/3 page. Sources of feedback- 1 page. * Evaluation – 2 pages. * Improvements – 1 page. * Copy of questionnaire – 1 page. * Transcript of interview with parent – 1 page. Case Study Marie is seven years old. Marie lives with her mother who is her primary care giver and her twin sister. She has another brother and sister who are older than her but she does not know them well as she was not brought up with them. They were put into care when they were 3 and 4 years old as their mother could not handle them. Marie only occasionally sees her brother and sister.
Marie never had her father as a permanent part in her life as when she was three years old her dad moved away, he lived with her until she was eighteen months old before he split with her mum. Marie went to playschool at three years of age she also moved at the age of three. She has been to a variety of different primary schools and houses. Marie mixed well with all her peers mainly females at every school. She has good health apart from a small case of asthma and a slight eye problem. Her asthma is kept under control with asthma pumps and her eye problem is kept under control with wearing glasses.
Marie moved house again at the age of six which interfered with her upbringing as she was out of school for a while and when she went back she had to make new friends, which became harder to do as she became more self conscious about herself. Marie’s birth weight was 4 pounds 5. 25 ounces, which is below the ‘norm’ of 7-8 pounds. Marie’s height at birth was approximately 30cms, which again is below the average ‘norm’ of 48-50cms, because of this Marie had to go into an incubator, she was bought home after 10 days. Questionnaire 1. 1 Name: Marie 2. Age: 7 years old 3. Gender: Female 4. Length when born? Roughly 30cms 5.
Weight when born? 4 pounds 5 and a quarter ounces 6. Was your child premature/on time or late? Premature 7. If they were premature or late by how much? 3 weeks early 8. Did your child have to go into an incubator? Yes 9. If so why? Weighed under the norm and born too early 10. Were there any birth defects or complications? No 11. If so what kind? 12. Have they had any illnesses? No 13. If so what kind? 14. Was it a natural birth or a caesarean? Caesarean 15. Do they have any siblings? 16. Yes 17. If so how old are they? 7, 13 and 15 years old 18. What gender are they? 1-male and 2-female 19. Do they live with you? No 20.
Did your child grow up with them around? Not really/ saw them occasionally 21. Is there often any sibling rivalry from other siblings? Yes from older sister 22. If so why? Jealous of attention for younger sisters off mother 23. Did your child have good or bad temper tantrums when younger? Bad 24. Was there ever an arrival of a younger sibling? No 25. Did your child have to share a room with siblings or did your child have their own room? Shared a room 26. Who was the baby’s main caregiver? Mother 27. Were both parents together when the child went home? Yes, up to 18 months 28. If not did the child ever see the absent parent?
Yes/ occasionally after 18 months up to 3 years old 29. Does your child still live in the house they were born in? No 30. If not, how often have they moved? Roughly 8 times 31. What sort of home do you live in? Flat 32. How many bedrooms do you have? 2 33. How many people live in your home? 3 34. Do they go to nursery/playschool or have a childminder? Playschool 35. How old was your child when they started school? 4 years and started in September 36. Is your child at the same school they started at? No 37. If not, how many schools have they been to? Roughly 8 38. Does your child tend to play with girls or boys? Girls 39.
Does your child socialize well with others? Yes 40. If no why? 41. If yes why? 42. Brought up around a large family 43. Has your child ever been bullied? Yes 44. If yes what sort of bullying? Verbal and physical 45. Does your child go out to play around the area they live in? Yes 46. Has your child ever been in hospital? Yes 47. If yes why? Broken nose, drinking dettol and unfermented wine 48. How many times has your child been in hospital? 3 49. What sort of area do you live in? All right area 50. Do you work? No 51. Do you work part/ full time? 52. If you do how much do you earn? 53. Do both parents or one parent work? 4. Do you get benefits? Yes 55. If yes which? 56. Child benefit 57. Have there been any big changes in your Childs life? Moving around a lot 58. Have there been any traumas in your Childs life? Granddad died when 4 years old, another granddad died when 6 years old and an auntie died when 7 years old. Milestones Physical development | Development milestones | General age milestone is met | Age Marie met the milestones | Gross Motor Skills | Lifted head and chest when lying on stomach | 4 months | 3 months | Rolled over (stomach to back) | 4 months | 3 and a half months | Sat with support | 4 months | 3 months |
Pathophysiological processes and mechanisms of human disease
Pathophysiological processes and mechanisms of human disease.
Description The purpose of this assignment is to encourage analysis of one patient beginning with the history and progressing to the physical examination. Go over the pathophysiological processes and mechanisms of human disease, clinical signs and symptoms, and diagnostic data consistent with the pathology of common health problems. Determine appropriate medical treatment and nursing care based on best practices found in the literature. This assignment emphasizes critical thinking and problem-solving through the correlation of cellular and multi-system pathology with related assessment and diagnostic data, medical treatment, and nursing management. Directions Complete a comprehensive history and physical case study analysis incorporating topics presented in the course. You should include at least five current references less than five years old (of which three must be journal articles, not nursing textbooks). The paper is in APA, 6th edition, format. APA 6 format requires that you use correct grammar and spelling and double-space your entire paper. Average length of paper: 10 to 12 pages.
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