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Occupational Health and Safety Management Systems (OHSMS)

An Occupational Health and Safety Management System (OHSMS) may be defined as “a series of processes which provide a framework, for managing occupational health and safety (OHS) responsibilities so that they become more efficient and more integrated into overall business operations, around which good performance can be established and maintained and which will support the development of a safety culture.” (International Labour Organisation (ILO)-British Standards Institution (BSI) Joint-Definition) The main aim of the OHSM is to design measures to control and eliminate the likelihood of hazards in the workplace and promote a safe work environment. 1. Management commitment An effective management addresses all work-related hazards and employees’ welfare facilities and not only those stipulated by laws. There is a need for management to make the health and safety of workers a priority. It is essential that there be strong management commitment and strong worker participation in the effort to create and maintain a safe and healthy workplace. In each workplace, the lines of responsibility from top to bottom need to be clear, and workers should know who is responsible for different health and safety issues. Management is responsible that the organisation has the appropriate policies, programmes in place to ensure a healthy and safe workplace. Management commitment and employee involvement Charles reese (accident) Management commitment and employee are complementary. Management commitment provides the motivating force and the resources for organizing and controlling activities within an organization. Employee involvement provides the means through which workers develop and/or express their own commitment to safety and health protection, for themselves and for their fellow workers. Safety and health goals and objectives are also included to assist you in establishing workplace goals and objectives that demonstrate your company’s commitment to safety. 2. Health and Safety policy It is the responsibility of management to cater for the health and safety of its workforce. Clearly developed and concise policies set the direction for the organisation by communicating management’s goals and objectives. A good health and safety policy need to be: 1. Specific to the organisation and appropriate to its size and nature of works; 2. Clearly written so as to educate workers, clients, suppliers and general public about the health and safety policy of the organisation; 3. Specific about the responsibility and accountability of managers and supervisors at all levels; 4. Effectively communicated to all employees; and 5. Reviewed on a regular basis to ensure continuing sustainability. The best health and safety policies align health and safety with human resources management as employees are the key resource of an organization.(HSE Successful Health and Safety Management HS(G) HMSO 1997) The OSH policy should include, as a minimum, the following key principles and objectives to which the organization is committed: 1. protecting the safety and health of all members of the organization by preventing work-related injuries, ill health, diseases and incidents; 2. complying with relevant OSH national laws and regulations, voluntary programmes, collective agreements on OSH and other requirements to which the organization subscribes; 3. ensuring that workers and their representatives are consulted and encouraged to participate actively in all elements of the OSH management system; and 4. continually improving the performance of the OSH management system. (ILO Guidelines on the Occupational Health and Safety Management System 2001) Health promotion in the workplace This complements occupational health and safety measures to improve the well being of workers at the workplace. Workplace wellbeing According to ILO, it relates to all aspects of working life, from the quality and safety of the physical environment, to how workers feel about their work, their working environment, the climate at work and work organisation. Workers’ well being is directly related to the productivity of the organisation. The higher the workers’ well being, the higher will be the productivity of the organistion. Safety tasks and responsibilities Health and Safety audit and Performance review Health and Safety audit and performance review are the final steps in the health and safety management. Health and Safety culture In order to develop good health and safety practices, a good health and safety culture is needed at work. Employers need to incorporate health and safety practices in their day to day running of the business. Successful occupational health and safety practices necessitates the collaboration and participation of both employers/owners or management and employees in health and safety programmes, and it involves the consideration of issues relating to occupational medicine, industrial hygiene, toxicology, education, engineering safety, ergonomics, psychology, etc. Both workers and employers have a legal responsibility to look after health and safety at work together. Workers who contribute to health and safety at work, are safer and healthier than those who do not. Building and maintain a health and safety culture involve the use of all available means to increase awareness, knowledge and understanding of the concepts of hazards and risks and how they may be prevented or controlled. “The safety culture of an organization is the product of individual and group values, attitudes, perceptions, competencies and patterns of behaviour that determine the commitment to, and the style and proficiency of, an organisation’s health and safety management.” – Successful Health and Safety Management by HSE (2nd edition), pg 22 Training for health and safety Training means educating people on what should be done and not, how it should be done and when it should be done. Based on a survey carried out by ILO, workers often experience work-related health problems but do not realize that the problems are related to their work, particularly when an occupational disease, for example, is in the early stages. Hence, there is a need to train workers on safe way to do the job, hazards associated with the work and how to eliminate or control them. It is also important to train workers how to react in case of emergencies, like a fire outbreak. Training on first aid is also important. Training can be conducted at different levels: During induction course for new employees where they can be educated on how to work safely and also about the hazards and risks associated with the jobs, how to eliminate or control them. Training can be organized for management and Supervisors so that they know what are the hazards present in the workplace and this enable them to develop policies to combat these hazards Regular training to existing employees, to update them on new equipment and technologies being used. Health surveillance Health surveillance at work is very important. It is performed to look for early signs of ill health caused by substances and other hazards at work. It includes keeping health records for individuals and may include medical examinations and testing of blood or urine samples, so that corrective action can be taken. Health and Safety Committee Health and safety programs For all of the reasons given above, it is crucial that employers, workers and unions are committed to health and safety and that: workplace hazards are controlled – at the source whenever possible; records of any exposure are maintained for many years; both workers and employers are informed about health and safety risks in the workplace; there is an active and effective health and safety committee that includes both workers and management; worker health and safety efforts are ongoing. Charles D. Reese (2001) Accident/Incident Prevention Techniques – In order to effectively manage safety and health, a company must pay attention to some critical factors: policy of management regarding health and safety of workers health and safety goals of the company who is responsible for occupational safety and health how are supervisors and employees held accountable for job safety and health? what are the consequences of not following the safety rules are there set procedures for addressing safety and health at the workplace? A written safety and health program is of primary importance in addressing these items.
Extracting DNA from Fruit in Various Stages of Ripeness. INTRODUCTION This life science based experiment will test strawberries in their various stages of ripeness, in order to see which stage will yield the most extractable DNA. An extraction kit will be designed from common household items, such as salt and detergent, in order to purify the DNA so that it is visible to the naked eye and can be weighed. Three degrees of strawberry will be tested: strawberries that have not fully ripened yet, identified by their firm bodies that are still a mixture of green and red; strawberries that have ripened fully, identified by their firm-but-not-hard bodies and bright red color; and strawberries that are overly ripe, which can be identified by their mushy and easily bruised bodies, as well as their dark red color. PROBLEM STATEMENT Which degree of strawberry ripeness will yield the most extractable DNA: under ripe, ripe, or over ripe? SUMMARY OF PROJECT PLAN First, the 1/2 teaspoon of salt, 1/3 cup of water, and 1 tablespoon of detergent needed for the DNA extraction liquid will be mixed and set aside. Three strawberries of the first stage of ripeness will be placed into a plastic bag and mashed into a pulp. Three tablespoons of the extraction liquid will be added to the bag and blended via the same mashing process. The strawberry mixture will then be poured into a nylon-covered funnel set over a small glass, until the liquid and pulp have been separated. One teaspoon of the strawberry mixture’s liquid will then be poured into a test tube. 5 ml of chilled rubbing alcohol will be poured into the test tube after, so that it forms a layer atop the strawberry liquid. A droplet of blue dye will be added to the mix, so that it settles on the DNA between the layers and dyes it blue, making it easier to identify the DNA. The blue DNA will then be measured using milliliter markings on the test tube, and recorded. RELEVENCE Deoxyribonucleic Acid – better known as DNA – is a set of instructions that can be found in the cells of every living thing. The study of all DNA is very important. Without it, key medical discoveries that save countless lives every day would not be made. Using DNA, we are able to discover diseases a baby could inherit from its parents before birth, to detect whether a suspect is guilty or innocent, and to find chromosomal defects in patients with Downs Syndrome. The study of strawberry DNA specifically is also important, and can be applied to several real world scenarios. For instance, scientists are able to isolate particular proteins and chemicals that have been rumored to slow the spread of cancer. They are also able to clone proteins known for turning strawberries red and creating the strawberries’ flavor. The study of extractable strawberry DNA at various stages in maturation can also be applied to real world scenarios. Scientists are able to compare the growing process and maturation of strawberries to that of other fruits. It can also be used to advise consumers of when strawberries are at their peak, so that they are able to get the optimal amount of nutrients out of the fruit. A1. Literature Review Two studies were found that related specifically to this one. The first is an experiment conducted in 2009 by William S. Boyd. The second is another experiment conducted in 2005 by Kaeleigh Thorp. William S. Boyd – Extracting DNA from Fruit in Stages of Ripeness SUMMARY The objective behind Boyd’s experiment was to find out whether ripe fruit would yield more extractable DNA than unripe or overripe. His experiment involved bananas, kiwis, and strawberries. The result was that, in the case of the kiwis and strawberries, ripe fruit did in fact yield more extractable DNA. However, he found that unripe bananas yield more extractable DNA than ripe and overripe. He concluded that, as fruit ripens, the nutrients break down and it begins to decompose, which destroys cells containing extractable DNA. CONNECTION As is the case with this experiment, Boyd wanted to know which stage of ripeness would yield the most DNA. COMPARING AND CONTRASTING Procedures – Many of the procedures in Boyd’s experiment were similar yet different. Instead of putting the fruit in a bag and mashing it with his fingers, the fruit was blended in a food processor. The extraction liquid was chilled instead of the alcohol. The strawberry mixture was drained through nylon, but it was filtered and before being poured into the test tube instead of being filtered directly into the test tube. A graduated eyedropper was used to distribute the alcohol instead of pouring the alcohol down the side of the tube (Boyd, 2009). Materials – Many of the materials in Boyd’s experiment were also similar. He used salt, water, and detergent to make his extraction liquid, which are the same materials as the extraction liquid in this study. He used alcohol to bring the DNA fibers together, blue dye to enhance the visibility and measurability of the extracted DNA, and a graduated test tube for measurements. However, there were some notable differences. He added pineapple juice to his extraction liquid, and his experiment used bananas and kiwis as well as strawberries, instead of strawberries alone (Boyd, 2009). Kaeleigh A. Thorp – Extracting DNA from strawberries SUMMARY The objective behind Thorp’s experiment was to determine whether unripe, ripe, or overripe fruit would yield more extractable DNA. Her experiment used primarily strawberries. She hypothesized that ripe strawberries would yield the most extractable DNA, as under-ripe strawberries were not yet fully developed and overripe strawberries were too far into the decomposition process. Her findings supported her hypothesis, as the ripe strawberries did yield more extractable DNA (Thorp, 2007). CONNECTION Thorp’s experiment had the same objective as this study – to find out what stage of ripeness would produce the most extractable DNA in Strawberries (Thorp, 2007). COMPARING AND CONTRASTING Procedures – The procedures of Thorp’s experiment differed very little from this study. She chilled her extraction liquid by sitting it in a bowl of water and ice cubes, where this study did not require the extraction liquid be chilled. She used a blender to mash the fruit, instead of mashing it in a bag using fingers, and added water to it – also something this study did not require. Lastly, again instead of using a plastic bag and fingers, she used a glass extraction rod to mix the extraction liquid with the blended strawberries (Thorp, 2007). Materials – Thorp used nylon to filer the strawberry mixture, added blue dye to increase visibility and measurability, and used a graduated test tube for measurements, which are all in congruence with this study. However, instead of using salt, water, and detergent to make her own extraction liquid, Thorp used a premade ‘Powdered Buffer’ made up of sodium chloride, sodium bicarbonate, and papain enzyme. She also used a premade ‘Cell Blaster’, containing sodium dodecyl sulfate (Thorp, 2007). A2a. Experimental Design Steps Preparation: Put the rubbing alcohol in a freezer or refrigerator, so that it will be cold enough to use later. Step 1: Extraction Liquid Combine a 1/2 teaspoon of salt, 1/3 cup of water, and 1 tablespoon of detergent in a jar to use as an extraction liquid. Mix it well and set it aside. Step 2: Prepare DNA for Extraction Take 3 strawberries and place it in a plastic bag. Push out all excess air and seal tightly. Mash the strawberry into a pulp by squeezing the bag with fingers. Do this for 2 minutes. Pour 3 tablespoons of the extraction liquid into the plastic bag. Push out all excess air and seal tightly. Mix the strawberry and extraction liquid by squeezing the bag with fingers. Do this for 1 minute. Step 3: Separate Liquid from Solid Stretch the nylon over the funnel. Place the tube of the funnel into a glass. Pour the strawberry pulp and extraction liquid over the nylon-lined funnel. Let the liquid drip into the glass for 30 seconds, or until the nylon stops dripping. Throw away the nylon and pulp. Step 4: Extract the DNA Pour the liquid into the test tube, filling it 1/4th of the way. Retrieve the rubbing alcohol from the freezer. Carefully tilting the test tube, pour the rubbing alcohol so that it runs slowly down the side – instead of directly into the strawberry liquid – and forms a layer on top of the strawberry liquid. Make sure the alcohol and the strawberry liquid do not mix, as the DNA collects between the layers. Add one drop of blue dye to the mixture. Take a moment to marvel at the blue gel-like substance (DNA made visible) that forms between the layers. Step 5: Measure Extracted DNA Using the graduated milliliter lines on the test tube, measure and record the amount of blue gel-like substance. Step 6: Repeat Process Thoroughly clean the cups, jar, test tube and funnel using water and paper towels. Repeat all of the steps with other strawberries, making sure to record the amount of DNA so a comparison can be made. A2b. Reasoning This method of experimental design was chosen because it called for fewer and more readily accessible supplies, and also because it had fewer and uncomplicated steps. The reasoning behind the method of testing this question was that overly complicated steps allow a higher margin for error. A simpler method provides fewer chances for mistakes to be made. There were several other studies consulted that had methods of testing similar to what is used in this experiment, but there were no other studies that had methods of testing that were the same. The method of testing in this experiment was developed using bits and pieces of other studies. The way this question is being tested is a better way than others because it was developed from bits and pieces of other more complicated studies, making it simpler. A2c. Sequence of Events The first step in collecting the data is adding one drop of blue dye to the layers of strawberry mixture and alcohol. The dye will collect between the layers and highlight the extracted DNA sitting in the middle, forming a blue gel-like substance. This gel-like substance will be measured and recorded using the millimeter markings on the graduated test tube. A2d. Tools Measuring cups Measuring spoons Small jar Graduated test tube Funnel Nylon Drinking Glass 9 Unripe strawberries 9 Ripe strawberries 9 Overripe strawberries 1/2 teaspoon of salt 1/3 cup of water 1 tablespoon of detergent 9 Resealing plastic bags 1 drop of blue dye A3. Variables A dependant variable is what the scientist measures, and is the part of the experiment that relies on changes made by the independent variable. An independent variable is what the scientist varies, and is the part of the experiment that decides the outcome of the dependant variable. A controlled variable is what the scientist keeps the same, and the part of the experiment that must not change in order to ensure that the results are measurable. DEPENDENT VARIABLE: Extracted DNA INDEPENDENT VARIABLE: Strawberries in three stages of development: under-ripe, ripe, and overripe CONTROLLED VARIABLE: The amount of strawberries, the amount of extraction liquid, the amount of alcohol, the amount of blue dye, the test tube and all other equipment. A4. Threat Reduction to Internal Validity Threats to the internal validity of this study have been reduced by the simple testable question, the properly identified variables, the control for outside influences, and the solid experimental procedure. MATURATION The experiment will be started and completed in a single day, and will take a maximum of two hours. That will allow sufficient time for each trial to be conducted carefully and for the utensils to be cleansed – while assuring that there will be no time for the subjects to change before measurements. REPEATED MEASUREMENTS The experiment will be repeated three times for each type of strawberry, with a new set of materials each time, equating in exactly nine trial runs. Each sample will be disposed of after results are recorded, before the next trial was done – none of the samples will be reused, nor will they come into contact with each other. INCONSISTENCE IN INSTRUMENTATION In every trial run, the measurements will be taken using the same graduated test tube, glass, jar, and measuring spoons. Every measurement made will be taken in a way identical to the one before it, so that the outcome of the experiment is not compromised. EXPERIMENTAL MORTALITY The experiment is designed so that it cannot be completed without all of the subjects, meaning none of the subjects can drop out or be eliminated without completely derailing the study. This way, the trials will remain the same, and the results will not be compromised. EXPERIMENTER BIAS The experiment did not involve and could not come to any result that the experimenter would benefit directly from. The experimenter remained objective throughout the study. CONTROLLED VARIABLES There are several controlled variables that limit the factors that could skew the results. The tools for measurement remain the same throughout the trials so that there is no chance of new tools not providing the same results. The amount of strawberries stays the same – three per trial – so that the amount of extractable DNA is not distorted by one trial having more strawberries than the others. The amount of blue dye remains the same throughout the trials so that a larger amount of dye won’t make the results seem bigger than they are. A5. Hypothesis: I predict that the ripe strawberries will produce more extractable DNA than both the under-ripe strawberries and the overripe strawberries. This prediction is based on observation. The under-ripe strawberry is still underdeveloped and very firm, meaning that it will likely produce less juice when mashed up – less juice, less DNA. On the flipside, the overripe strawberry is overdeveloped and in a state of degradation, meaning that the DNA will likely be broken down and harder to extract. The ripe strawberry will produce more juice than the overripe, and will not be as susceptible to bruising and damage as the under-ripe, meaning it will likely produce more extractible DNA. B. Process of Data Collection The data was collected by first adding one drop of blue dye to the layers of strawberry mixture and alcohol in the graduated test tube. The dye gathered between the layers and around the extracted DNA that sat in the middle, so that it appeared to be a blue gel-like substance. This made the extracted DNA easier to see, which in turn made it easier to measure. The DNA was then measured and recorded using the millimeter markings on the graduated test tube. PROCESS OF RECORDING DATA: TOOLS USED FOR COLLECTION: 1 drop of blue dye Graduated test tube UNIT OF MEASUREMENT USED: Millimeter METHOD OF RECORDING: Unripe Ripe Over-Ripe Trial #1 3/4 ml 3 1/4 ml 1/2 ml Trial #2 1/2 ml 2 3/4 ml 1/4 ml Trial #3 1 ml 3 1/2 ml 1/2 ml B1. Appropriate Methods The methods described above were the best to conduct the experiment on this testable question because they relied less on scales. In many other studies, the ulterior way of measuring was to take a wooden rod, spool the DNA, and weigh it on a milligram scale. The wooden rod would be previously weighed and subtracted from the weight of the DNA spooled rod (science buddies). With the method used here, the rod is cut out of the picture – only the DNA itself is measured. By doing this, we ensure that differently-weighted rods cannot skew the weight of the DNA. The drop of blue dye made it easier to see the extracted DNA. It was important that the DNA be clear so that the measurements were at their utmost accuracy. The graduated test tube made it so the DNA did not have to be spooled or moved before measuring, which kept the specimens together and limited the chances of losing or damaging the specimens. Millimeters were the practical unit of measurement, as the amount of extracted DNA is very small. C. Results The unripe strawberries were very firm and still mostly green. They were harder to mash up. The first trial including the unripe strawberries yielded 3/4 ml of extractable DNA. The second trial yielded less with 1/2 ml of extractable DNA. The third trial was the most successful, yielding 1 ml of extractable DNA. The ripe strawberries were softer and bright red all over. They were easier to mash. The first trial including the ripe strawberries yielded 3 1/4 ml of extractable DNA. The second trial yielded less with 2 3/4 ml of extractable DNA. The third trial once again was the most fruitful, yielding 3 1/2 ml. The over-ripe strawberries were very soft, a darker red, and covered in bruises. They were the easiest to mash up. The first trial including the over-ripe strawberries yielded 1/2 ml of extractable DNA. The second trial yielded a mere 1/4 ml of extractable DNA. The third trial produced the same results as the first, with 1/2 ml of extractable DNA. As the graph above shows, the ripe strawberries yielded a much larger amount than unripe and over-ripe strawberries. A single parallel is drawn between the unripe and over-ripe strawberries as they both yielded 1/2 ml of extractable DNA in separate trials – unripe reaching 1/2 ml in Trial 2, over-ripe reaching 1/2 ml in trial 1. D. Conclusion The graph above displays how great the leap in extracted DNA was between the strawberry types. Although the unripe yielded higher results than the over-ripe strawberries in two of the trials (Trials #1 and #3), they both produced a minimal amount of extractable DNA when compared to the ripe strawberries. The unripe strawberries did not do as well because they are not yet mature. They provided less juice when mashed up for the extraction process, which provided fewer strands of DNA. The over-ripe strawberries did the worst because they are on the downgrade of maturation. While they provided plentiful juice for extraction, the DNA strands were destroyed in the process of decay. The ripe strawberries yielded the highest amounts of extractable DNA because they are at the hit the highest point of maturation. They provided the right amount of juice for the extraction process, and because they were at their peak, the DNA strands were intact. D1. Confirmation of Hypothesis I predicted that the ripe strawberries would produce more extractable DNA than both the under-ripe strawberries and the over-ripe strawberries. Based on my findings, with the ripe strawberries producing high amounts of extractable DNA where the unripe and over-ripe strawberries produced low amounts, it is evident that the ripe strawberries did yield the most extractable DNA. Therefore, I accept my initial hypothesis. D2. Experimental Design as Key Factor Experimental design is a key factor in science inquiry because it is the part in which groups are given their set treatments. In other words, experimental design is what decides if Group A will get Treatment B and Group C will get Treatment D, or if Group A will get Treatment D and Group C will get Treatment B. Without experimental design, the groups won’t be assigned their proper treatments, and a statistical analysis cannot be made. If an experimental design is poorly constructed, it might miss some key components that affect the outcome altogether. For instance, if an experimental design lacks a control, nothing remains constant and some variables may not be counted for. Results of the experiment can be inconclusive, and when that happens, the study is rendered invalid. D3. Replication Replication is the process of repeating the steps of a procedure, so that an experiment can be duplicated again and again with the same results. Replication is important because there is always the possibility that results in a study have been skewed, or an experiment has been conducted wrong. Repeating the process and including several trials provides a way to prove that results are correct and to procure an average when averages are called for. This study is replicable because the instructions are clear and precise so that replication of the experiment as a whole is made easy, and the supplies needed are easy to find and easy to use. D3a. Evaluation of Validity Validity is important in science experiments because it proves the experiment was done correctly and the results were recorded accurately. Having a strong sense of validity means that the variables were measured reliably and strong causal links between the variables were found. REPLICATION This study is replicable in that there were three trials to each study. To confirm which one yielded more DNA than the rest, each type of strawberry was tested in three separate trials – that way there were nine collective results each to consider instead of three. This study uses that replication to prove its analysis of the data. RELIABILITY This study is reliable thanks to that use of replication. Each type of strawberry was tested in three separate trials – three for unripe, three for ripe, three for over-ripe – to make sure the results were constant instead of a onetime occurrence. The results remained the in the same vicinity throughout the trials, proving that they are reliable. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN The experimental design remains valid thanks to its simplicity. There was very little margin for error, and so repeating each trial using the same methods and measurements was quite simple. FUTURE QUESTIONS AND STUDIES Future studies might be expanded to use more than just strawberries. For example, one such study could compare ripe bananas to ripe strawberries, or ripe strawberries to ripe kiwis. Other studies might not involve strawberries at all, but replicate this study with a different fruit. For instance, would the results be the same with other fruits? Would ripe bananas yield more extracted DNA than unripe or overripe bananas? Extracting DNA from Fruit in Various Stages of Ripeness
hum 111 week 5 discussion OPTION B.

“Christian Structures and Pilgrimage” Please respond to the following, using sources under the Explore heading as the basis of your response:Identify two (2) aspects of Romanesque cathedral architecture, and explain their significance. Discuss two (2) details one might encounter or experience on the pilgrimage to Santiago de Compostela (i.e., on the way and / or once there) that you think a medieval Christian pilgrim might find especially meaningful. In modern times, identify the place you would find most meaningful to visit, and explain why. Write a paragraph from a letter you might send home about this “pilgrimage”.ExploreChristian Structures and PilgrimageChapter 10 (pp. 338-345), Medieval Christian pilgrimage and Romanesque cathedrals; review Week 5 Music FolderVideo about Christian pilgrimage to Santiago de Compostela: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LCDUl04lfLsMartin Sheen and Emilio Estevez talk about a pilgrimage on film: http://www.npr.org/2011/10/05/141077667/father-and-son-take-a-spiritual-journey-in-the-wayPlease use 300 words or more.
hum 111 week 5 discussion OPTION B

Sociopathy Paper based on movie ‘Window of Opportunity’.

It has been argued that too many of our corporate and political leaders are sociopaths, and having such people in positions of power is deleterious to our society and the world. R. Preston McCafee’s website summarizes some of the common features in descriptions of the behavior of sociopaths: “Glibness and Superficial Charm, Manipulative and Conning, Grandiose Sense of Self (Feels entitled to certain things as “their right”), Pathological Lying, Lack of Remorse, Need for Stimulation (Living on the edge. Verbal outbursts and physical punishments are normal. Promiscuity and gambling are common.), Callousness/Lack of Empathy (Unable to empathize with the pain of their victims, having only contempt for others’ feelings of distress and readily taking advantage of them.), Poor Behavioral Controls/Impulsive Nature (Believe they are all-powerful, all-knowing, entitled to every wish, no sense of personal boundaries, no concern for their impact on others.), Promiscuous Sexual Behavior/Infidelity, Criminal or Entrepreneurial Versatility.” Based on the qualities and behavior mentioned above, the character of Roger in the film Window of Opportunity is clearly a sociopath. Using examples from the film, explain why this is true. Then examine two people from either the business or political world and argue why those people also are sociopaths, and where possible compare him or her to the character of Roger. Use MLA format and have at least four sources in addition to the film.Outline:Section 1 – OPENING PARAGRAPH Define sociopath and cite and mention how they’re common in business and politics.This paper will examine the character of Roger in the film Window of Opportunity written and directed by Samuel Warren Joseph and compare him to two other sociopaths…NAME THE SOCIOPATHS who are your subjects.Section 2 – SYNOPSIS OF THE FILM (should be a page or two and several paragraphs. Cite (Joseph 2015) at the end of each paragraph.Section 3 – Analyze Roger as a sociopath by giving examples from the film (and cite those examples) and also reference experts in the field like Dr. Robert Hare and cite him. For instance, Hare might say, “Sociopaths lack empathy.” Then you would give an example of Roger talking about the fire that killed children. This should be several paragraphs. Section 4 – Analyze your first subject in the way you analyzed Roger citing both information about the person and the experts you are referring to. This should be several paragraphs.Section 5 – Analyze your second subject in the way you analyzed Roger citing both information about the person and the experts you are referring to. This should be several paragraphs.Section 6 – Compare Roger to both your subjects. This should be a couple of paragraphs.Section 7 – Conclusion (Final paragraph)Use in-text citations using MLA format. This will be turned in on turnitin.com so please do not plagiarize.
Sociopathy Paper based on movie ‘Window of Opportunity’

Work related stress in healthcare

Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp Stress may be defined as the physical and emotional response to excessive levels of mental or emotional pressure, which may arise from issues in both the working and personal life. Stress may cause emotional symptoms such as anxiety, depression, irritability or low self-esteem, or even manifest as physical symptoms including insomnia, headaches, loss of appetite and difficulties concentrating. Individuals experiencing high levels of stress may experience difficulty in controlling emotions such as anger, and may be more likely to experience illness or consume increased quantities of alcohol (NHS Choices, 2015). In the UK a survey undertaken by the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) has estimated that in the year 2013-2014, 487,000 of work related illnesses (39%) could be attributed to work-related stress, anxiety or depression (HSE, 2014). Additionally the survey found that as many as 11.3 million working days were lost in the year 2013-2014 as the direct result of work-related stress (HSE, 2014). Studies have shown that healthcare professionals, particularly nurses and paramedics, are at an increased risk of work-related stress compared with other professionals (Sharma et al., 2014). This is likely to be due to the innate long hours and high pressure of maintaining quality care standards in the job, as well as pressures caused by staff shortages, high levels of patient demand, a lack of adequate managerial support as well as the risk of aggression or violence towards nurses from patients, relatives or even other staff (Royal College of Nursing (RCN), 2009). Indeed, a 2014 survey of nursing staff by the RCN showed that up to 71% of staff surveyed worked up to 4 hours more than their contracted hours a week, 80% felt that work-related stress lowered morale, and that 72% reported that understaffing occurred frequently in their workplace. As a result of these issues, 66% of respondents in the survey considered leaving the NHS or the nursing profession altogether (RCN, 2014b). A separate report by the RCN suggested that over 30% of absence due to illness was due to stress, which was estimated to cost the NHS up to £400 million every year (RCN, 2014a). In addition to the physical and emotional symptoms of stress previously discussed, studies in this area have shown that nurses experiencing high levels of work-related stress were more likely to be obese and have low levels of physical exercise, factors which increased the likelihood of non-communicable diseases and co-morbidities such as hypertension and type 2 diabetes (Phiri et al., 2014). Stress and staff absence Chronic stress has been linked to “burnout”(Khamisa et al., 2015; Dalmolin et al., 2014), or a state of emotional exhaustion under extreme stress related to reduced professional fulfilment (Dalmolin et al., 2014) and “compassion fatigue”, where staff have experienced so many upsetting situations that they find it difficult to continue empathising with their patients (Wilkinson, 2014). As previously discussed, reducing staffing levels contribute to stress in nursing staff, and in this way chronic stress within the workplace launches a self-perpetuating cycle of understaffing; increased stress leads to increased illness, more staff absence and increased understaffing. In turn, these negative emotions also reduce job satisfaction and prompt many staff to consider leaving the nursing profession, further reducing staffing availability for services (Fitzpatrick and Wallace, 2011). Reasons for work-related stress amongst healthcare professionals Studies amongst nursing staff have also reported stress occurring as the result of poor and unsupportive management, poor communication skills amongst team members, institutional and organisational issues (e.g. outdated or restrictive hospital policies) or bullying and harassment (RCN, 2009). Even seemingly minor issues have been reported as exacerbating stress amongst nursing staff, for example a lack of common areas to take breaks in, changing shift patterns, and even difficulty and expense of car parking (Happell et al., 2013). Work related stress can particularly affect student or newly qualified nurses, who often report higher expectations of job satisfaction from working in the profession, they have worked hard and aspired to join, and are therefore particularly prone to experiencing disappointment on discovering that they do not experience the job satisfaction that they presumed they would do whilst training. Student and newly qualified nurses may also have clear ideas from their recent training on how healthcare organisations should be run and how teams should be managed, and may then be disillusioned when they discover that the reality is that many departments could in fact benefit from improvements and further training for more experienced staff in these areas (Wojtowicz et al., 2014; Stanley and Matchett, 2014). Nursing staff are also likely to, on occasion, find themselves in a clinical situation that they feel unprepared for, or do not have the necessary knowledge to provide the best possible care for patients, and this may cause stress and anxiety (RCN, 2009). They may also be exposed to upsetting and traumatic situations, particularly in fields such as emergency or intensive care medicine (Wilkinson, 2014). Moral distress can also cause strong feelings of stress amongst healthcare professionals. This psychological state occurs when a discrepancy occurs between the action that an individual takes, and the action that an individual feels they should have taken (Fitzpatrick and Wallace, 2011). This may occur if a nurse feels that a patient should receive an intervention in order to experience best possible care, but is unable to deliver it, for example due to organisational policy constraints, or a lack of support from other members of staff (Wojtowicz et al., 2014). For example, a nurse may be providing end of life care to a patient who has recently had an unplanned admission onto a general ward but is expected to die shortly. The nurse may feel that this patient would benefit from having a member of staff sitting with them until they died. However, due to a lack of available staffing this does not happen as the nurse must attend to other patients in urgent need of care. If the patient dies without someone with them, the nurse may experiences stress, anger, guilt and unhappiness over the situation as they made the moral judgement that the dying patient “should” have had a member of staff with them, but were unable to provide this without risking compromising the safety of other patients on the ward (Stanley and Matchett, 2014). One large scale questionnaire based study in the USA on moral distress amongst healthcare professionals has shown that moral distress is more common amongst nurses than other staff such as physicians or healthcare assistants. The authors suggested that this may be due to a discrepancy between the level of autonomy that a nurse has in making care decisions, (especially following disagreement with a doctor, who has a high level of autonomy), while experiencing a higher sense of responsibility for patient wellbeing than healthcare assistants, who were more likely to consider themselves to be following the instructions of the nurses than personally responsible for patient outcomes (Whitehead et al., 2015). Recommendations for policies to address work related stress It is acknowledged that many individuals find that being asked to perform tasks that they have not been adequately trained or prepared for can be very stressful. As such management teams should also try to ensure as far as possible that individuals are only assigned roles for which they have adequate training and abilities, and support employees with training to improve skills where necessary (RCN, 2009). Surveys have frequently reported that organisational issues such as a lack of intuitive work patterns, overloading of workloads and an unpleasant working environment can all contribute to work related stress. Organisations can reduce the impact of these by developing programmes of working hours with working staff and adhering to them, making any necessary improvements to the environment (e.g. ensuring that malfunctioning air conditioning is fixed), and that incidents of understaffing are reduced as much as possible (RCN, 2009). Issues such as insomnia and difficulty in adapting to changing shift patterns can also be assisted by occupational health, for example by encouraging healthy eating and exercise (Blau, 2011; RCN, 2005). For example, in 2005 the RCN published an information booklet for nursing staff explaining the symptoms of stress, ways in which it can be managed e.g. relaxation through exercise or alternative therapies, and when help for dealing with stress should be sought (RCN, 2005). More recently, internet based resources are available from the NHS to help staff identify if they need assistance, and how and why it is important to access it (NHS Employers, 2015). Witnessing or experiencing traumatic or upsetting events is an unavoidable aspect of nursing, and can even result in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, there are ways in which staff can be encouraged by their management teams and organisations to deal with the emotions that these circumstances produce, limiting the negative and stressful consequences of these events. This may include measures such as counselling or even peer support programmes through the occupational health departments (Wilkinson, 2014). Staff should also be encouraged to use personal support networks e.g. family, as this can be an important and effective source of support, however studies have shown that support within the work place is most beneficial, particularly if this can be combined with a culture where healthcare professionals are encouraged to express their feelings (Lowery and Stokes, 2005). One commonly cited reason for work related stress amongst nurses is the incompetence or unethical behaviours of colleagues, and a lack of opportunity to report dangerous or unethical practice without fear of reprisal. Therefore it is important that institutions and management teams ensure that there is an adequate care quality monitoring programme in place, and a culture where concerns can be reported for further investigation without fear of reprisal, particularly with respect to senior staff or doctors (Stanley and Matchett, 2014). It has been reported that in the year 2012-2013, 1,458 assaults were reported against NHS staff (NHS Business Service Authority, 2013). Violence and abusive behaviour towards nursing staff is an acknowledged cause of stress and even PTSD, and staff have a right to provide care without fear (Nursing Standard News, 2015; Itzhaki et al., 2015). Institutions therefore have a responsibility towards their staff to provide security measures such as security staff, workplace design (e.g. locations of automatically locking doors) and policies for the treatment of potentially violent patients e.g. those with a history of violence or substance abuse issues (Gillespie et al., 2013). As previously discussed, nurses are more likely than other healthcare professionals to experience moral distress as the result of a discrepancy between the actions they believe are correct and the actions they are able to perform (Whitehead et al., 2015). However there are policies that can be introduced into healthcare organisations to reduce its occurrence, and the severity with which it can affect nursing staff. Studies have shown that nurses who were encouraged to acknowledge and explore feelings of moral distress were able to process and overcome these in a less damaging manner than those who did not (Matzo and Sherman, 2009; Deady and McCarthy, 2010). Additionally, it is thought that moral distress is less frequent in institutions and teams that encourage staff to discuss ethical issues with a positive attitude (Whitehead et al., 2015). For example, institutions could employ a designated contact person for staff to discuss stressful ethical issues with, or set up the facility for informal and anonymous group discussion, for example on a restricted access internet-based discussion board (Matzo and Sherman, 2009) Conclusion Work related stress is responsible for significant costs to the NHS in terms of staffing availability and financial loss from staff absence from stress itself or co-morbidities that can be exacerbated by stress (RCN, 2009), for example hypertension and diabetes (Phiri et al., 2014; RCN, 2009, 2014a). The loss of valuable and qualified staff from the profession is also a significant cost to health services, and of course exacerbates the situation by increasing understaffing further, which in turn increases stress for the remaining staff (Hyrkas and Morton, 2013). It can also exert a significant cost to healthcare professionals who experience it, in terms of their ability to work, their personal health, effects on personal relationships (Augusto Landa et al., 2008) and job satisfaction (Fitzpatrick and Wallace, 2011). However, organisations can implement recommendations to reduce work related stress, for example by encouraging a positive and supportive culture for staff by offering interventions such as counselling (Wilkinson, 2014; RCN, 2005). Furthermore, interventions such as encouraging the reporting of unsafe or unethical practice – a commonly cited source of stress amongst nurses (RCN, 2009; Stanley and Matchett, 2014) – may also contribute to improving the quality of patient care. References Augusto Landa, J. M., López-Zafra, E., Berrios Martos, M. P. and Aguilar-Luzón, M. D. C. (2008). The relationship between emotional intelligence, occupational stress and health in nurses: a questionnaire survey. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 45 (6), p.888–901. [Online]. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17509597 Blau, G. (2011). Exploring the impact of sleep‐related impairments on the perceived general health and retention intent of an Emergency Medical Services (EMS) sample. Career Development International, 16 (3), p.238–253. [Online]. Available at: http://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/abs/10.1108/13620431111140147 Dalmolin, G. de L., Lunardi, V. L., Lunardi, G. L., Barlem, E. L. D. and da Silveira, R. S. (2014). Moral distress and Burnout syndrome: are there relationships between these phenomena in nursing workers? Revista Latino-Americana de Enfermagem, 22 (1), p.35–42. [Online]. Available at: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext

MIS 543 CSUGC Predictive Statistics Annual Motor Sales Discussion

term paper help MIS 543 CSUGC Predictive Statistics Annual Motor Sales Discussion.

Option #1: Predictive Statistics: Annual Motor SalesYour organization has collected sales data on their small engine product sold and distributed from 6 different locations: Kansas City, Chicago, Houston, Oklahoma City, Omaha, and Little Rock. The organization wants to predict motor sales for the next three months for each location. Your task is to conduct predictive analytics statistical tests on a sample data set named motorsales mod4.csv (csv file is attached to this question). The variable names can be found in the first row of the file.You are expected to perform the appropriate predictive statistics tests and prepare the appropriate tables, charts, and graphs needed to predict future sales. You may choose to conduct descriptive statistics tests to better understand the data. You must provide 1-2 business questions that this data is capable of answering and alternate and null hypotheses for each business question. Tutor provide the following items for this assignment:Text file of SAS code to generate all code, tables, charts, and graphs3 page (Double spaced) explaining the code and predictive analytics statistical tests used and the business questions and how the data can answer those questions. Screenshots of the results for each statistical test including any charts, graphs, and tables.1-2 business questions including how this data can answer the questionsAlternate and null hypotheses for each business questionProjections for 3 months of future sales for each locationRecommendations for additional predictor variables the organization should obtain data for to better predict future sales.
MIS 543 CSUGC Predictive Statistics Annual Motor Sales Discussion

Miami Dade College MD&A Plain English Language Discussion

Miami Dade College MD&A Plain English Language Discussion.

Please complete the below problems, and submit your answers in a Word document.Go to the SEC’s website (Links to an external site.) and click on search for company filings under filings and forms.On the next page, click Company or fund name, ticker symbol, CIK (Central Index Key), file number, state, country, or SIC (Standard Industrial Classification) to search for a company.On the next page, search for Starbucks by using their ticker symbol SBUX.Scroll down on the next page until you see their 10-K filing and click on documents.Click on the first document’s link: d10k.htm.Retrieve item 7—Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (MD&A).In a two- to three-page paper (12-point, double spaced), summarize their MD&A and critique it based on the SEC’s plain English concepts.
Miami Dade College MD&A Plain English Language Discussion

CSU Foreigners Ethnic Study & Racism Experiment Children Session Discussion

CSU Foreigners Ethnic Study & Racism Experiment Children Session Discussion.

I am taking Ethnic Study class, and I am asked to provide Discussion posts for the stuff we watch, read, or taught in class. Students are expected to offer one-paragraph commentary (about 150 words or less) pertaining to the topics presented. Your message should be clear, precise, and reflectiveSo, here are the stuff I want to write on them: 1.Talk about the doll test video 150 word: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QRZPw-9sJtQ&ab_channel=Fanpage.it2.Talk about the Brown eyes and blue eyes Racism experiment Children Session – Jane Elliott 150 word: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oGvoXeXCoUY&ab_channel=MarkHeckroth3.Talk about the Irish in America Part 3 video. 150 word: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j3pazB5H920&ab_channel=Diol%C3%BAn%C3%93hUig%C3%ADnn4.Talk about the Foreigners in Their Native Land. 150 word- PowerPoint Provided below.5.Talk about Mexico and America war. 150 word. PowerPoint provided below.
CSU Foreigners Ethnic Study & Racism Experiment Children Session Discussion