OCC Ethnography Impact of The Covid 19 on The Social & Cultural Life Worksheet.
! please pay attentention to the overview tasks !Focus on social and cultural changes arising from the forces that can change the social and cultural life of society.Enumerate at least five (5)potential forces that can change the social and cultural ways of the life of people and society.(5.0 points). (Also, refer from Chapter 7 Power Point (slides 13,14,15,16), and Chapter 7 pages 135 and 136 of your textbook for concepts of the impact of nature to culture.For number ten you ca get pictures from google. For choosing the community you can choose the area you’re living in.This is he book that you can use if need be Peoples, J., & Bailey, G. (2018).Humanity: An Introduction to Cultural Anthropology (11thed.). Cengage Learning. ISBN 978-1-337-10969
NRS 493 GCU Infection Control on Dialysis Patient Root of Hospitalization Capstone.
OCC Ethnography Impact of The Covid 19 on The Social & Cultural Life Worksheet
While the implementation plan prepares students to apply their research to the problem or issue they have identified for their capstone project change proposal, the literature review enables students to map out and move into the active planning and development stages of the project.A literature review analyzes how current research supports the PICOT, as well as identifies what is known and what is not known in the evidence. Students will use the information from the earlier PICOT Question Paper and Literature Evaluation Table assignments to develop a 750-1,000 word review that includes the following sections:Title pageIntroduction sectionA comparison of research questionsA comparison of sample populationsA comparison of the limitations of the studyA conclusion section, incorporating recommendations for further researchPrepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.
Disease Diagnosis Using Non-NGS Techniques and Whole Genome Illumina Sequencing. Introduction Next generation sequencing (NGS), also known as high-throughput sequencing involves different types of modern sequencing technologies such as Illumina, Roche 545, Ion torrent and SOLiD sequencing. These techniques sequence DNA and RNA much more rapidly and efficiently than first generation sequencing (Sanger) and has therefore revolutionised the study of genomics and molecular biology. This essay focuses on three different diseases, Cystic Fibrosis (CF), Huntington’s disease (HD) and Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease (CMTD), and how they can be diagnosed using both non-NGS techniques and whole genome Illumina sequencing. Thereafter, the advantages and limitations of using RNA-sequencing in a patient with congenital muscular dystrophy will be discussed. Cystic Fibrosis molecular cause Cystic fibrosis is the most common autosomal recessive disease in Caucasians and affects around 1 in 2,500 individuals (1). It is caused by the mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene (CFTR), and the most common mutation is the deletion of three-nucleotides causing a loss of a phenylalanine residue at the amino acid position 508 (ΔF508) (1). The CFTR protein is a cyclic adenosine monophosphate (c-AMP) dependent channel that works as an electrostatic attractant by outlining intracellular and extracellular anions toward the positively charged transmembrane (TM) domains inside the channel (2). Two TMs form a chloride channel pore, allowing chloride and bicarbonate transportation (2). Normally, when CFTR is activated, the chloride ions are secreted out of the cell as epithelial sodium channels are inhibited. This leads to water leaving the cell through osmosis, providing fluid for epithelial tissue secretions (1). In CF patients, the combination of loss of chloride secretion and sodium hyper-absorption via the epithelia sodium channel results in loss of airway surface secretions. This effects the overlying mucous becoming adherent to the airway cells and preventing effective ciliary activity (2). Thus, the inhaled bacteria are no longer cleared but instead set up low grade persistent infection where the associated inflammatory and immune responses lead to airway damage and airways obstruction due to the increased concentration of salt in sweat (2). Huntington’s Disease molecular cause Huntington’s disease is an autosomal dominant and late-onset neurodegenerative disorder that affects 5-10 out of 100,000 individuals (3). It is caused by a CAG trinucleotide repeat expansion (>35 repeats) in the IT15 gene that results in a long stretch of polyglutamine protein close to the amino terminus of the huntingtin gene (HTT) (4). One of the hallmarks of HD is the formation of cytoplasmic aggregates and nuclear presences throughout the brain (4). Polyglutamine inclusions contain highly ordered amyloid fibres with high β-sheet content and low detergent solubility that sequester numerous other proteins, including factors that are important for transcription and protein quality control. This suggests that the presence of polyglutamine has an impact on the cellular function and contributes to a complex loss-of-function phenotype (4). This leads to an inherited neurological illness causing involuntary movements, severe emotional disturbance and cognitive decline (3). Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMTD) molecular cause The hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy, also known as CMTD is the most common inherited neuromuscular disorder affecting at least 1 in 2,500 (5). The inheritance of CMT can be autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, or X linked (5). Mutations leading to CMT are grouped into demyelinating, axonal and intermediate forms that are based on electrophysiological and pathological findings. The demyelinating types are characterised by severely reduced motor nerve conduction velocities (MNCVs) and mainly by myelin abnormalities (5). The majority of people with CMTD show a predominantly demyelinating peripheral neuropathy and are classified as CMT1. CMT1A is a subtype that is associated with an autosomal dominant duplication on the peripheral myelin protein 22 gene (PMP22) and is expressed in the compact myelin of Schwann cells of the peripheral nervous system (6). Thus, CMT is mainly characterised by distal muscle weakness and atrophy leading to motor handicap (5). Cystic Fibrosis diagnostic tests As CF is a complex genetic disease in which mutations in the CFTR gene alter the function of the anion channel that leads to an increased concentration of salt in sweat. The sweat secretions can be stimulated either through cholinergic or β-adrenergic pathways. The cholinergic pathway is important for normal thermoregulation and is not affected in CF patients. However, the β-adrenergic pathway is either absent or markedly reduced in CF patients that can be measured using a non-NGS technique called sweat chloride concentration. Other non-NGS techniques include abnormalities of an ion transport in respiratory epithelia of patients with CF that are associated with a different pattern of nasal epithelia compared with normal epithelia. This test has either very little or no response to chloride free solutions (8). The role of NGS in diagnosing CF is beneficial for detecting the bacterial pathogens (such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa) during an infection. This can be achieved by resequencing individual colonies and whole populations from single sputum samples from CF patients that is marked by acceleration in the decline of pulmonary function (9). Since CF has a high genetic heterogeneity (due to different types of mutations), it greatly affects the allele detection rate and overall frequency of mutant alleles of genetic tests such as whole genome Illumina sequencing. The algorithm of immunoreactive trypsinogen (IRT) analysis and next generation sequencing (NGS) contributes to an improved timeliness by having a high throughput. NGS also provides visibility into the CFTR gene for molecular diagnostic testing of CF and can be used to make informed family planning decisions and choose optimised treatments, leading to a better quality of life. However, as Illumina sequencing produces shorter reads, there is still a need for more adequate read lengths of genes to make it an effective test for CF patients (11). Additionally, to limit costs and time, a gene panel of CF mutations would be more beneficial to have a role in mutational searches that can be performed for both CF diagnostics and screening purposes. Huntington’s Disease diagnostic tests The clinical diagnosis of HD using a non-NGS technique is based on the neurological evaluation with the manifestation of an obvious extrapyramidal movement disorder, and a positive genetic test for the HD CAG expansion or a confirmed family history of HD (12). The neuropathology indicates loss of medium gamma-amino butyric acid (GABAergic) spiny neurons, sparing of large cholinergic interneurons, and specific neuronal loss of the cerebral cortex (12). The morphometric analyses from MRI scans suggest marked atrophy in the striatum, thinning of the cortical ribbon and evidence of white matter volume loss (12). A gold standard NGS technique for HD diagnosis is the DNA determination, showing at least 36 CAG-repeats on the huntingtin gene on chromosome 4 (13). This can be tested by using Southern blot for longer repeats that provides accurate size repeat expansions, but the detection rate is low. Completing a WGS is a more useful test for identifying repeat expansions as it is able to identify the genome coverage when detecting the disease compared to WES. The penetrance of HD is unpredicted as some patients may not manifest the phenotype until late in life and will therefore be included in the reference data (14). Thus, having the use of WGS of Illumina will avoid costly unnecessary tests such as MRIs, treatments (i.e. gamma globulin for inherited neuropathy) and additional referrals are strong reasons to increase the appropriate genetic testing used for HD patients (15). Currently, the main technical limitation of NGS is the inadequate for disorders caused by expansion of oligonucleotide repeats and alterations in highly repetitive DNA regions such as in HD (16). Meaning that additional tests such as Southern blot are required to confirm the diagnosis. Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease diagnostic tests A family history of CMT-like symptoms combined with signs of nerve damage from an individual’s physical exam (leg weakness, deep tendon reflexes), suggest CMT or another hereditary neuropathy (17). If the diagnosis is consistent with CMT, a neurologist will arrange a genetic testing (DNA blood test) to detect the most common genetic defects known to cause CMT and perform a nerve conduction velocity (NCV) that measures the strength and speed of electrical signals transmitted through the peripheral nerves (17). Delayed responses are a sign of demyelination and small responses are signs of axonopathy and is often used to distinguish between CMT types; CMT1 and CMT2 (17). Other non-NGS procedures may include electromyography (EMG) that measures the electrical signs in muscles (17). Whole genome Illumina sequencing has shown to identify both known and novel genes associated with CMTD that has sometimes been missed using the Sanger sequencing in a diagnostic laboratory caused by small indels of the DNA (17). Thus, a gene panel of all known genes associated with CMT will thereafter be able to link with the patient’s phenotyping shown in the clinic and will increase the throughput, meaning more novel genes will be introduced to the panel (17). Using whole genome Illumina sequencing to detect CMT as a diagnosis has been beneficial to some extent as their degree of exome coverage is of insufficient leading to more genes needing to be covered. For example, having the CTMX, where the X chromosome and many GC rich regions are poorly covered by the WGS, a better option would be to have a disease-targeted sequencing. This will allow the analysis of multiple or more genes known to be related to a given phenotype (16). The main disadvantage however is the interpretation of all the genes that have been screened, as most of them might not be related to CMT. This makes it more difficult to understand the novel gene and identify the potentially relevant mutation as there are no reliable functional tests to prove the pathogenic nature of a given mutation (17). Next Generation Sequencing ethical, economical and technical factors One of the most common reasons for referrals to a specialist clinic is the genetic evaluation of patients that wish to start a family (17). Some of these patients will undergo antenatal testing such as amniocentesis to determine the genotype of the embryo (17). While the requests are a minority, it highlights the importance of ensuring that a mutation is indeed pathogenic in an individual patient, but such a process is becoming increasingly complex with the advent of NGS technologies and the subsequent identification of novel genes (as some could be discovered as very rare) (17). It can also have an impact on the patient’s life (work, future living). These may include HD, where the penetrance is not obvious at the start, but drastically changes with time. This highlights some of the ethical dilemmas that both patients and healthcare professionals may face, considering such tests may determine what future the parents may decide for their child. Clinicians are often faced with the question whether they should start a diagnostic workup with a disease-targeted test or directly with a genomic analysis (WES or WGS), for the sake of time, cost and efficiency (16). For instance, excellent results have been obtained with WES/WGS for investigation of seemingly genetic disorders that present atypical manifestations that are difficult to confirm using simple clinical or laboratory criteria or otherwise require extensive or costly evaluation. These are usually disorders with high clinical and genetic heterogeneity, such as intellectual disability and congenital malformations (16). The cost of implementation including equipment set up, routine sequencing costs for reagents and consumables as well as post-processing bioinformatics costs is an obvious, but significant factor (18). However, the significant requirements in computation resources and time would render such analyses unusable in a clinical environment (18). RNA-sequencing and Congenital Muscular Dystrophy Congenital Muscular Dystrophy (CMD) is a genetic condition that is caused by muscle weakness and wasting starting very early in life. This affects the skeletal muscles that are responsible for the body movements. A patient has completed a whole genome sequencing alongside some of its family members to identify a novel mutation. However, as there was a 10Mb interval identified with the disease but with no obvious single nucleotide observed in the exome region, an RNA-sequencing test can be useful to uncover multiple features of transcriptome and to facilitate the biological applications. The main applications of RNA-seq analysis are novel gene identification, expression, and splicing analysis (19). This is because it has the ability to reveal unannotated protein- and microRNA-coding genes expressed in the cells without prior knowledge of the reference or sequence of interest (20). It also has the ability to quantify the expression of isoforms and unknown transcripts, and splice analyse exons to identify the functional gene and protein diversification in a disease as CMD (20). Thus, a combination of long-read RNA sequencing and short-read RNA seq of the patient and the family members will enable characterisation of the splicing landscape of CMD by identifying the allele-specific expressions and disease-associated SNPs (19). In this case, single-cell RNA-seq analysis will be more advantageous as it will provide the expression profile of individual cells. Through gene clustering analyses, rare cell types within the cell population can be identified, thereby applying the study of the cellular heterogeneity and diversity in neuroscience. This will make it easier to identify uncommon RNA but also reveal copy number distribution of the whole mRNA population in individual cells that will be more helpful to understand the causal variant that affects the patient (19). RNA-seq is more sensitive in detecting genes with very low expression and more accurate in detecting expression of extremely abundant genes. The challenges of RNA require comprehensive solutions including differential gene expression analysis and detection of fusion genes (19). RNA-seq is complicated by having multiple-step processes to identify and quantify all RNA species from the reads sequenced (19). Thus, quality assessment is the first step of the bioinformatics pipeline of RNA-seq and a step before analysis (19). It is also necessary to filter data, removing (trimming) low quality sequences or bases adaptors, contaminations or overrepresented sequences to ensure a coherent final result (19). Another problem in reads mapping is that the polymorphisms are especially common for the large and complex transcriptomes. This leads to sequence reads aligning to multiple locations of the genome resulting in unidentified region of interest that is causing the disease (19). After getting the read counts, data normalisation is one of the most crucial steps of data processing that is essential to ensure accurate inference of gene expression and subsequent analyses thereof (19). However, there are multiple features of the RNA-seq data that can be taken into account including transcript size, GC content, sequencing depth sequencing error rate and insert size (19). RNA-seq has the benefit of delivering low background signal due to the fact that the DNA sequences are unambiguously mapped to unique regions of the genome and as a result the noise in the experiment is easily eliminated during the analysis (20). These limitations include solving big output files that require high level of volume storage memory, huge obtained data needing required powerful and strong tools and equipment like computation units to process and analyse data (20). Conclusion In conclusion, the aim of completing whole genome Illumina sequencing in patients in diagnostic laboratories is to have a higher throughput, more efficient, timely and cost-effective method for genetic diagnosis. This is to detect known and novel genes in an entire human genome for various diseases. Currently, the major limiting factor for genetic testing is the pace of discovery of genes potentially relevant to a phenotype and its interpretations. Furthermore, RNA-seq is another high-throughput, quantitative method allowing us to explore the transcriptome of an organism of interest. This has enabled us to potentially identify a variant call causing a patient in a family. 1. Handyside, A., Lesko, J., Tarín, J., Winston, R. and Hughes, M. (1992). ‘Birth of a Normal Girl after in Vitro Fertilization and Preimplantation Diagnostic Testing for Cystic Fibrosis’. New England Journal of Medicine, 327(13), p.905-909. 2. Brennan, M. and Schrijver, I. (2016). ‘Cystic Fibrosis’. The Journal of Molecular Diagnostics, 18(1), p.3-14.3. Labbadia, J. and Morimoto, R. (2013). ‘Huntington’s disease: underlying molecular mechanisms and emerging concepts’. Trends in Biochemical Sciences, 38(8), p.378-385. 4. Landles, C. and Bates, G. (2004). ‘Huntingtin and the molecular pathogenesis of Huntington’s disease’. EMBO reports, 5(10), p.958-963. 5. Nicolaou, P. and Christodoulou, K. (2013). ‘Advances in the molecular diagnosis of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease’. World Journal of Neurology, 3(3), p.42. 6. Juárez, P. and Palau, F. (2012). ‘Neural and Molecular Features on Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease Plasticity and Therapy’. Neural Plasticity, 2012, p.1-11. 7. Quinton, P., Molyneux, L., Ip, W., Dupuis, A., Avolio, J., Tullis, E., Conrad, D., Shamsuddin, A., Durie, P. and Gonska, T. (2012). ‘β-Adrenergic Sweat Secretion as a Diagnostic Test for Cystic Fibrosis’. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 186(8), p.732-739. 8. Rosenstein, B. and Cutting, G. (1998). ‘The diagnosis of cystic fibrosis: A consensus statement’. The Journal of Pediatrics, 132(4), p.589-595. 9. Lieberman, T., Flett, K., Yelin, I., Martin, T., McAdam, A., Priebe, G. and Kishony, R. (2013). ‘Genetic variation of a bacterial pathogen within individuals with cystic fibrosis provides a record of selective pressures’. Nature Genetics, 46(1), p.82-87. 10. Baker, M., Atkins, A., Cordovado, S., Hendrix, M., Earley, M. and Farrell, P. (2015). ‘Improving newborn screening for cystic fibrosis using next-generation sequencing technology: a technical feasibility study’. Genetics in Medicine, 18(3), p.231-238. 11. Maughan, H., Wang, P., Diaz Caballero, J., Fung, P., Gong, Y., Donaldson, S., Yuan, L., Keshavjee, S., Zhang, Y., Yau, Y., Waters, V., Tullis, D., Hwang, D. and Guttman, D. (2012). ‘Analysis of the Cystic Fibrosis Lung Microbiota via Serial Illumina Sequencing of Bacterial 16S rRNA Hypervariable Regions’. PLoS ONE, 7(10), p.e45791. 12. Paulsen, J. (2011). ‘Cognitive Impairment in Huntington Disease: Diagnosis and Treatment’. Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports, 11(5), p.474-483. 13. Roos, R. (2010). ‘Huntington’s disease: a clinical review’. Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases, 5(1), p.40. 14. Keogh, M. and Chinnery, P. (2013). ‘Next generation sequencing for neurological diseases: New hope or new hype?’. Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery, 115(7), p.948-953. 15. Bardakjian, T., Helbig, I., Quinn, C., Elman, L., McCluskey, L., Scherer, S. and Gonzalez-Alegre, P. (2018). ‘Genetic test utilization and diagnostic yield in adult patients with neurological disorders’. Neurogenetics, 19(2), p.105-110. 16. Ashton-Prolla, P., Goldim, J.R., Vairo, F.P.E., Matte, U.D.S. and Sequeiros, J. (2015). ‘Genomic analysis in the clinic: benefits and challenges for health care professionals and patients in Brazil’. Journal of Community Genetics. 6(3), p. 275. 17. Rossor, A.M., Polke, J.M., Houlden, H., Reilly, M.M. (2013). ‘Clinical implications of genetic advances in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease’. Nature Reviews Neurology. 9 (1) p.562-571 18. Kwong, J.C., McCallum, N., Sintchenko, V. and Howden, B.P. (2015). ‘Whole genome sequencing in clinical and public health microbiology’. Pathology. 47(3), p. 199. 19. Han, Y., Gao, S., Mueggel, K., Zhang, W., Zhou, B. (2015). ‘Advanced Applications of RNA Sequencing and Challenges’. Bioinformatics and Biology Insights. 9 (S1) 29-46. 20. Costa-Silva, J., Domingues, D., Lopes, F.M. (2017) ‘RNA-Seq differential expression analysis: An extended review and a software tool’. PLoS ONE 12(12): e0190152. Disease Diagnosis Using Non-NGS Techniques and Whole Genome Illumina Sequencing
NRS 493 GCU Infection Control on Dialysis Patient Root of Hospitalization Capstone
Effect of Temperature on Plant Physiology | Experiment
Effect of Temperature on Plant Physiology | Experiment. Abstract The physiological processes of many organisms are sensitive to temperature. In order to see this effect of temperature, we examined the heart rate of a Daphnia magna over a range of different temperatures. Being an ectothermic animal, the Daphnia’s body temperature is dependent on water temperature. It was hypothesized that since most physiological processes are faster at higher temperatures, the Daphnia’s heart rate will be faster at higher temperatures and slower at low temperatures. This was, in fact, true and a pattern was evident which showed that heart rate increased as temperature increased. The Q10 was high at higher temperatures which show elevated sensitivity at higher temperatures. Clearly, Daphnia have an optimal temperature range outside which they do not function to their full potential. A Daphnia’s heart rate, then, was proved to be dependent on temperature. Introduction Daphnia magna is a widespread freshwater zooplankton. Since Daphnia are ectothermic animals, their body temperature fluctuates with environmental temperature. Hence, these animals are ideal to study the effects of temperature. Most such animals function well at certain specific temperatures. They have an optimal temperature range, outside which they are unable to perform physiological processes effectively (Lamkemeyer et al. 2003). It is believed that most physiological processes take place more rapidly at higher temperatures and that changes in temperature can influence physiological rates (Ziarek et al. 2010). In order to investigate this, we questioned whether the heart rate of a Daphnia is different at different temperatures. Q10, which is the temperature sensitivity of a reaction, was a useful tool. We hypothesized that the Daphnia will have different heart rates at different temperatures and hence that temperature will affect heart rate. It was also hypothesized that Q10 will differ at different temperatures. This hypothesis was tested by exposing the Daphnia to different water temperatures, letting it equilibrate to the water temperature and counting its heart beat in a systematic way. Since most physiological processes increase at higher temperatures, we predicted that if the temperature is higher (close to 35°C) then the heart rate of the Daphnia will be faster and if the temperature is low (close to 5°C) then it would be slower. In addition, we predicted that Q10 will be higher at low temperatures and lower at high temperatures. In view of the fact that Daphnia had an optimal temperature range, it would be understandable if the Daphnia was more sensitive to temperatures outside this range and consequently reacted by altering its heart rate. Methods A Daphnia was placed on a small smear of Vaseline on the bottom of a culture dish (Olaveson and Rush 2011). Aged water at room temperature was added to the dish. Five minutes were allowed for the Daphnia to adjust to the water temperature and the temperature of the water was measured and recorded. Under a dissecting microscope, the Daphnia was placed and the 4X lens were used to locate the heart and count the heartbeats. The number of beats was counted over a 10 second period which was followed by a 10 second pause in counting and then 10 seconds of counting again. In order to get 9 measurements of the heart rate, this pattern was repeated for 3 minutes. Then, ice and water were mixed in a beaker to make a water mixture between 5°C to 10°C. To replace the tap water in the culture dish with chilled water, a Pasteur pipette was used. Five minutes were allowed for the Daphnia to reach equilibrium and then the heart beat was counted to obtain 9 measures of heart rate (heartbeats/ 10 seconds). The values were recorded. The temperature was then increased in 5°C increments till 35°C and heart rate was measured at each point. Small amounts of the colder water were replaced with the warmer water (obtained from a water bath) till the desired temperature had been reached. Five minutes were always allowed for equilibration and using the same method, 9 measures of heart rate were recorded. The 9 estimates of heart rate taken at each temperature were used to find the average heart rate at each temperature. These values were entered into an excel document by all students and later used for analysis. Results Statistical analysis and data processing shed light upon the effect of temperature on the heart rate of a Daphnia. The Statistical t test analysis proved that the Ho could be rejected for all the three tests proving that temperature does have a significant effect on the heart rate of a Daphnia. The Q10 as well as the average heart rates at different temperatures provided evidence that supported the hypothesis that temperature would affect Daphnia heart rate too. At the temperature interval of 4°C to 14°C, the Q10 was found to be 1.31 (Table 1). Although this was not the highest Q10 value and hence not the most sensitive temperature interval, a decrease in heart rate was evident at the lower temperature of 4°C compared to other higher temperatures (figure 1). The heart rate at 4°C was found to be 106.74 beats per minute where as the heart rate at 14°C was 140.10 beats per minute. The significant decrease in heart rate at 4°C compared to heart rate at the ambient temperature (24°C) was supported by the t test analysis (sample t statistic: 14.3938; critical t statistic:1.978; df:136; p = 0.05). The temperature interval from 14°C to 24°C showed increased sensitivity (Q10:1.40). This indicated the increase in heart rate at 24°C compared to lower temperatures (figure 1) and was supported by the t test analysis as the Ho (hypothesis that no change in heart rate would be evident) was rejected (t statistic: 8.6519; critical t statistic:1.978; df:136; p = 0.05). During the temperature interval from 24°C to 34°C, the highest Q10 was noted (table 1). This sensitivity to high temperatures was obvious when heart rates at the two temperatures were compared (heart rate at 24°C: 196.32 beats/min; at 34°C: 277.92 beats/ min). The H0 was hence rejected (t statistic: 9.7792; critical t statistic: 1.978; df: 136; p = 0.05). All the three tests provided evidence that suggested that temperature had an effect on the Daphnia’s heart rate. At higher temperatures, the heart rate was faster and at lower temperatures, it was slower. Generally, as temperature increased so did the Daphnia’s heart rate (figure 1). Discussion All organisms have an optimum temperature range over which they function best. Consequently, at certain temperatures, the physiological processes of a Daphnia magna are at its utmost potential. Some hypothesized that Daphnia optimize their fitness by allocating the time spent in the different habitats depending on the temperature gradient (KesslerEffect of Temperature on Plant Physiology | Experiment
UM Strategic Leadership & the Effectiveness of Teams Annotated Bibliography
assignment writer UM Strategic Leadership & the Effectiveness of Teams Annotated Bibliography.
The overall structure of the Annotated Bibliography should be as follows:Title PageTable of Contents of sections with each article alphabetizedThe summarized articles in alphabetical orderAn analysis of the articles relating them to one anotherConclusion stating what you have learned from the articlesThe format of each article analyzed in the annotated bibliography should be as follows:Citation of the Journal ArticleThe stated Problem addressed by the articleThe Purpose of the articleThe Methods used to gather the data in the Article (this may not be applicable in all cases since most of the articles are theoretical arguments)The Findings and Conclusions of the ArticleYour Opinion of the validity of the Article in helping us understand public organizations and why you tend to believe this wayBibliographyCitation StyleAPAMinimum Requirements for the Annotated BibliographyAt least 10 pages in length, not counting the title page but no more than 15 pages. Standard margins, 1.5 line, 12 point Ariel Font.No less than 10 sources from referred journal articles and textbooks, excluding the textbook for this course.
UM Strategic Leadership & the Effectiveness of Teams Annotated Bibliography
Two pages with word document
Two pages with word document.
Instructions:Part 1: (40 points) – work with class TA to complete this part.Register with Microsoft Azure environment for ALY6110.90463 Microsoft Azure environment for ALY6110.90463 – Alternative Formats using your NEU credentials.Follow ALL steps to claim you Virtual Machine in Azure Labs.Connect to one of the available Virtual Machines (VMs) hosted by Azure using Microsoft Remote Desktop.You will find the Hyper-V Manager Application on your Desktop, which has already installed Cloudera VM. You just need to open Hyper-V Manager application and click on ‘Start’ Cloudera VM from that application and once its started, click on ‘Connect’ in order to access that virtual machine.Start Cloudera VM in your Virtual EnvironmentUse Cloudera Express to startup Cloudera Manager. Be patent – it takes some time.Provide detailed step by step instructions on how you did tasks above and explain each and every screen shot that you provided! Part 2: (40 points)Use the Setup section only of the following page as a guide: Getting Started with Hadoop Tutorial Getting Started with Hadoop Tutorial – Alternative Formats to make sure all required services are running.Complete the “The Getting Started with Hadoop” tutorial at http://quickstart.cloudera/#/tutorial/home and record and explain each step of this tutorial using screen shots, text, comments, etc. Make sure that you are using your Cloudera VM environment. The link will only work when running from your Cloudera VM.Provide detailed step by step instructions on how you did EACH STEP of the “Getting Started with Hadoop” tutorial mentioned above. Add screen shot for EACH STEP and explain each and every screen shot that you provided!Part 3: (20 points)Answer these questions:What is the 3rd most popular product category? How much revenue does the Nike Men’s Free 5.0+ running shoe earns?Modify the query script and provide the product name with the least revenue and how much the revenue amount is.Provide detailed step by step instructions on how you did EACH task above and explain each and every screen shot that you provided!Provide complete script/code and results in the submission file.Attach EACH script/code in text format to the submission. EACH line of the script must be commented or explained.Submit WORD document containing the following sections:Title Page: Title page must have the following information:Your name (as registered for this class)Class Number and NameCRN NumberAssignment name: (Week 2 Assignment 1)Your contact information (email)Summary: provide a short summary of the assignment. The summary is a short statement of the most relevant steps of the assignment.Part 1 materials: all materials, findings and your comments during the execution of Part 1 steps.Part 2 materials: all materials, findings and your comments during the execution of Part 2 steps.Part 3 materials: all materials, findings and your comments during the execution of Part 3 steps.Analysis: describe the cons and pros of the performed tasks, difficulties, issues, how easy (or not) was it to resolve them.Conclusions summary (1/2 – 1 page): Summarize your experience, findings, thoughts, comments, ideas for the future, etc.Save your WORD file using the following name: Week2-Assignment1-[your name].docx. Replace [your name] with your name as it is registered with this class.
Two pages with word document
HUM 121 CTU Visualize Decisive Action in The Accidental Statesman Case Study
HUM 121 CTU Visualize Decisive Action in The Accidental Statesman Case Study.
Analyze the major points of your base article for research. Use your time to develop a deep understanding of your topic to fully explain your part of the themed outline and support the group effort. I have included the outline and thesis statement for the paper. My part is to explain and support the VISUALIZE part of the project. (Visualize) The mental process of developing situational understanding, determining a desired end state, and envisioning the broad sequence of events by which the force will achieve that end state. I have attached documents to elaborate on that. You are required to give an in depth introduction of your topic which is an follow up from the transition of the outline and Thesis. Then develop the body of the paper fully using not less than three full pages and no more than five pages. Explain and provide the pertinent elements of Decisive Action to the article. Fully develop the situational understanding, end state, and the events necessary to achieve that end state. I have attached the document named the accidental statesman you must use as one reference. You must gather two additional references for the reference page. so a total of 4. Ensure you use Times New Roman 12 point font and APA 7th ED.
HUM 121 CTU Visualize Decisive Action in The Accidental Statesman Case Study