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Oakland University R and Python Programming Languages Discussion

Oakland University R and Python Programming Languages Discussion.

R and Python are both open-source programming languages. Both languages are widely used in many different fields. Compare and contrast both languages by providing at least 3 advantages and 3 disadvantages for each language. In addition, give an example of how you might use one of these languages in your organization or an organization you are familiar with.this discussion must be at least 300 words.2.Custom Functions in R – HistogramsIn this assignment, we will build custom functions in R. As an example, the following function called addPercent converts a value into a percentage with one decimal place.addPercent – function(x){ percent – round(x*100, digits = 1) result – paste(percent, “%”, sep = “”) return(result)}Below are a few output results from this function. addPercent(.1)[1] “10%”addPercent(10)[1] “1000%”addPercent(10.1)[1] “1010%”addPercent(0.1443)[1] “14.4%”Write a custom R function that inputs a temperature in Fahrenheit Fo and converts to Celsius Co. The relationship is Co = 5(Fo – 32)/9.Write a custom R function that computes the sum of squares of two numbers.Write a custom R function that takes any univariate dataset and calculates the mean, minimum, maximum, and standard deviation.In statistics, a dataset needs to be transformed in order to meet certain assumptions. Write a custom R function that takes any univariate dataset and creates a histogram of the raw dataset and a histogram of the log-transformed dataset. Write a custom R function of your own. Describe what your function does and produce the output.Using a Word document, include your functions along with least four different output results from each of the functions 1 through 5. Provide screenshots of the output results in a Word document that shows the current date.
Oakland University R and Python Programming Languages Discussion

Health information management system.

1. Evaluating Using the various Websites listed in the chapter (,, http://www,,…),Create a personal health record (PHR) for a family member or child. If they do not have access to actual health information about the family member or child, you can create answers from your imagination. As part of the exercise, you should reach a decision about whether to keep a paper-based or online record. This illustrates the difficulty of obtaining information from disparate sources to create the PHR and introduces the need to maintain a PHR once created. Discuss your findings in one paragraph not less than 150 words.2. Most students can understand, in principle, the need to keep a PHR for themselves. What is more difficult is trying to persuade others, particularly those not connected to the health care field by training or employment, of the importance of creating and maintaining a PHR. Identify different groups that, because of their circumstances, would be more inclined to understand the need for a PHR (e.g., newly diagnosed cancer victims, support group members of a particular disease, new mothers, caregiver groups, parent–teacher groups, etc.). Brainstorm and share your findings as to how you would go about persuading members of a group to create and maintain a PHR. Also, discuss the unique needs of the particular group (e.g., the parent–teacher group’s need for immunization records for school-aged children).
Health information management system

PSY 6101 Walden University History of Forensic Psychology Essay.

I’m working on a psychology question and need an explanation to help me learn.

How did forensic psychology evolve into a psychology specialty? Most agree that forensic psychology’s history dates back to 1893 when the first psychology experiment was conducted on the psychological aspects of a witness’s testimony. However, other important events have contributed to the development of the field. The formal recognition of contemporary forensic psychology in the United States is usually dated to 2001 with the American Psychological Association’s recognition of forensic psychology as a specialty. It is an exciting field of study and practice that is evolving from year to year.To prepare for this assignment:Review Chapter 1 in the course text, Introduction to Forensic Psychology, paying attention to the influence of psychology on the legal system throughout the historical benchmarks.Consider how the intermingling of psychology and law has evolved over the years.Consider how the history of forensic psychology has laid a foundation for the discipline today.Think about the evolution of the field of forensic psychology (where it started, the current state, and where it might be heading).The assignment (1–2 pages):Describe two events or aspects of forensic psychology history.Explain how each has contributed to the evolving field of forensic psychology. Be specific and provide examples.Support your Application Assignment with specific references to all resources used in its preparation. You are asked to provide a reference list only for those resources not included in the Learning Resources for this course.
PSY 6101 Walden University History of Forensic Psychology Essay

5 questions. Question number 10 needs to be on a separate page from the other questions so it should be two separate flies. Please leave the numbers the way I numbered it. Show your work for 1,3,6,7

10. Obtain a free credit report and determine what you can do to improve your scores. 1. Interest Charged. You just borrowed $5,500 and are charged a simple interest rate of 9%. How much interest do you pay each year? 3. Credit Card Payment Terms. Paul’s credit card closes on the 3rd of the month, and his payment is due on the 30th. If Paul purchases a stereo for $300 on June 12th, how many interest-free days will he have? When will he have to pay for the stereo in full in order to avoid finance charges? 6. Credit Card Finance Charges. Troy has a credit card that charges 18% on outstanding balances and on cash advances. The closing date on the credit card is the first of each month. Last month Troy left a balance on his credit card of $200. This month Troy took out a cash advance of $150 and made $325 in purchases. Troy made a payment of $220. What will the total of Troy’s new balance be on his next credit card statement, taking into account finance charges? 7. Credit Card Balance. Eileen is a college student who consistently uses her credit card as a source of funds. She has maxed out her credit card at the $6,000 limit. Eileen does not plan on increasing her credit card balance any further, but she has already been declined for a car loan on a badly needed vehicle due to her existing credit card debt. Her credit card charges her 20% annually on outstanding balances. If Eileen does not reduce her credit card debt, how much will she pay annually to her credit card company?

General Motors Company’s Organizational Structure Essay

essay help online free Table of Contents Organizational structure comparison Evaluation of organizational functions about the structure Organizational designs References Organizational structure comparison The organizational structure of an entity is a critical aspect of management. The structure contributes significantly to the efficiency, service delivery, and success of a firm. There are varieties of organizational structures, which an organization may assume. Such structures have many implications on factors such as cost, human resources, and chain of command in an organization. The structure adopted should ensure that communication among its departments or employees is effective, proper allocation of resources, reduced cost, and bureaucracy. Companies adopt varying structures depending on their philosophy, industry, size commodity, and profitability. General Motors (GM) is a leading entity in the automobile sector. Consequently, the entity has massive revenues. The entity has various assembly plants in different parts of the globe. These plants are located to serve certain regions. The location of production plants ought to be strategic as the entity targets potential customers in certain regions. GM has a hybrid structure, which blends in central and regional forms of organizational structures. In Michigan, the entity has its headquarters, which houses its financial department. Among other core departments in GM’s structure include GM North America, GM South America, GM International, and GM Europe. A divisional structure differs significantly from the current structure adopted by GM. A divisional structure entails separating the organization as per the products. However, the hybrid structure embraced by GM is different since it blends in centralized and regional structures. A centralized structure entails having most branches of an entity in a single location. GM has most of its departments at its headquarters in Michigan. The European and South American subsidiary has offices in the headquarters that liaise with the top management personnel of the entire corporation. In a divisional structure, there is interdepartmental competition. It may also occur in the hybrid structure since GM has various brands, which may compete amongst themselves. In the two structures, the unprofitable division in the divisional structure or brand in GM’s structure would be dropped in case of restructuring. The divisional structure would favor an entity that only manufactures products without undertaking any other responsibilities besides manufacturing. However, the hybrid structure is a compromised structure, which integrates other functionalities such as marketing and brand creation. A functional structure has been employed by many entities globally. The entity departments are divided based on functionality. Subsequently, the entity will have departments such as finance, marketing, and production. This organizational structure encourages specialization. However, it results in duplication of responsibilities. Duplication of responsibilities results in inefficiency since an entity expends its resources on a single object in various departments. Coordination of these departments is difficult. It affects the efficiency of the organization in its entirety. This structure would be unfit for GM owing to its scale of operations. The functional design is integrated into GM’s regional structure subsidiary. In Europe, the GM subsidiary now adopts this structure to complement the overall structure of the organization. The integration of such structures creates a hybrid organizational structure, which suits GM. There is not a specific organizational structure, which would suit an organization adequately. Nonetheless, managers make adjustments to guarantee the structure suits their organizations. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Evaluation of organizational functions about the structure The financial aspects of GM have impacted massively on the structure of this organization. Between 2002 and 2009, the entity performed extremely poorly. The entity’s brands were no longer attractive and practical to most consumers amid the economic crises. Consequently, its sales dwindled resulting in massive losses. The government had to support the corporation with a massive bailout. Accordingly, the entity had to show financial prudence to prevent similar events. The entity consequently closed many unprofitable plants that contributed massively to the level of its expenses. Furthermore, the entity had to lay off some of its workforces. The financial aspects of this organization have engineered massive changes in the organization. The organization is now more efficient. GM had to drop some of the brands that were no longer sustainable. Hence, GM now concentrates on a few brands, which can market adequately, resulting in relatively higher returns. GM has a structure, which combines both central and regional managerial structures. Under this structure, each regional subsidiary has its marketing strategy. GM North America has its marketing strategy suited for its clientele. It is replicated in its European and South American subsidiaries. This kind of marketing allows each regional subsidiary or branch some autonomy. This kind of autonomy is essential since regional branches encounter varying challenges owing to differences in consumers’ preferences. The human resource is the most important in any entity. However, in this entity, it has minimal influence on the organizational structure. The structure of this entity is driven largely by its brands and other factors such as trends in the industry. Some notable trends in the automobile industry include environmental initiatives that seek to create a hybrid, electric, and fuel-efficient automobiles. Operations is a key cost driver in this entity. The entity has closed operations in some of its plants that are less profitable to curtail costs. Similarly, it has also dropped some of its brands that were infeasible (Baligh, 2006). Organizational designs GM has established subsidiaries in various nations to tap into lucrative markets. Brazil is the largest buyer of GM products on that continent. Accordingly, the entity has a good network on the continent, which captures Brazil and other countries such as Peru and Argentina. This kind of structure has assisted the entity to meet some of its organizational needs. These needs include the promotion of products and tapping into new markets. Europe is another vital market segment for this entity. In Europe, it operates under various brands, which are under distinct subsidiaries. In England, it operates as Vauxhall, while in the rest of the European nations it operates as Opel. The regional structure has enabled the entity to access the global market. In some nations, where the entity has no subsidiaries, it has entered into joint ventures. Joint ventures have enabled the entity to curtail possible losses that may emanate from entry into another market. A joint venture also provides an entity with time to assess the potential of a market. Consequently, it can decide whether to establish a subsidiary. Departmentalization is crucial since it enables the entity to meet some of its needs. The most pronounced department in the entire corporation is the financial department. All managerial work in GM is undertaken in this department. The decisions made in this department impact other sections of the corporation in various ways. Marketing is crucial in GM. The entity faces massive competition from Japanese carmakers that have dominated the American market. Marketing channels helps the organization meet its needs by promoting its brand, which increases revenues (Daft, 2006). We will write a custom Essay on General Motors Company’s Organizational Structure specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More References Baligh, H. (2006). Organization structures: Theory and design, analysis and prescription. New York: Springer. Daft, R. (2006). Organization theory and deasign. Princeton, N.J: Recording for the Blind

How Dunnings OLI paradigm explains where organisations investment

Critically analyse how Dunning’s OLI paradigm seeks to explain the why, how and where organisations such as Burger King invest? According to Dunning (1979:p.274), the eclectic paradigm resulted from his dissatisfaction with existing theory of international production: the Hymer-Kindleberger approach, the product-cycle theory, and the internalisation theory. The three were considered to be partial explanations of international production. Henceforth, he proposed an alternative line of development which “tried to integrate the existing theories in a general and ‘eclectic’ model in which “the subject to be explained is the extent and pattern of international production” (Dunning, 1991: p.124). The paradigm is a blend of three different theories of foreign direct investment = O L I, each piece focusing on a different question. Theory states that the extent, form and pattern of multinational activity are determined by the existence of three sets of advantages. Firm Specific Advantages (The O Factor) A MNE such as BURGER KING a multinational restaurant company if operating a plant in a foreign country would definitely face with additional costs as compared to a local competitor. The additional costs could be due to cultural, legal, institutional and language differences also due to a lack of knowledge about local market conditions and/or the increased expense of communicating and operating at a distance. Therefore, if a foreign firm as said like Burger King is to be successful in another country, it must have some kind of an advantage that overcomes the costs of operating in a foreign market. Either the firm must be able to earn higher revenues, for the same costs, or have lower costs, for the same revenues, than comparable domestic firms. PROFIT = TOTAL REVENUES – TOTAL COSTS – COST OF OPERATING AT A DISTANCE Since only foreign firms have to pay “costs of foreignness”, they must have other ways to earn either higher revenues or have lower costs in order to able to stay in business. So if the Fast Food Business or any MNE is to be profitable abroad it must have some advantages not shared by its competitors. These advantages must be (at least partly) specific to the firm and readily transferable within the firm and between countries. These advantages are called ownership or firm specific advantages (FSAs) or core competencies. The firm owns this advantage: the firm has a monopoly over its FSAs and can exploit them abroad, resulting in a higher marginal return or lower marginal cost than its competitors, and thus in more profit. These advantages are internal to a specific firm. They may be location bound advantages (i.e. related to the home country, such as monopoly control over a local resource) or non-location bound (e.g. technology, economies of scale and scope from simply being of large size). Country Specific Advantages (The L Factor) The firm must use some foreign factors in connection with its domestic FSAs in order to earn full rents on these FSAs. Therefore the location advantages of various countries are key in determining which will become host countries for the MNE. Clearly the relative attractiveness of different locations can change over time so that a host country can to some extent engineer its competitive advantage as a location for FDI. The country specific advantages (CSAs) that influence where an MNE will invest can be broken into three categories: E, S and P (economic, social and political). Economic advantages include the quantities and qualities of the factors of production, size and scope of the market, transport and telecommunications costs, and so on. Social/cultural advantages include psychic distance between the home and host country, general attitude towards foreigners, language and cultural differences, and the overall stance towards free enterprise. Political CSAs include the general and specific government policies that affect inward FDI flows, international production, and intrafirm trade. An attractive CSA package for a multinational enterprise would include a large, growing, high income market, low production costs, a large endowment of factors scarce in the home country, and an economy that is politically stable, welcomes FDI and is culturally and geographically close to the home country. Outside of Burger King’s Americas group (United States and Canada), 37.0 percent of the countries and 24.6 percent of the restaurants are in the Latin American and Caribbean group, yet these countries accounted for only 13.5 percent of the non-Americas group revenue in fiscal 2009. This is largely because many of these countries have very small populations, such as the Cayman Islands, Aruba, and Saint Lucia. So why did Burger King develop a presence in these markets, even though at this writing it is not in countries with much bigger populations, such as India, Pakistan, Nigeria, Russia etc. The answer is largely due to a location factor. Internalisation Advantages (The I Factor) How they go abroad is another issue. The OLI model argues that external, arm’s length markets are either imperfect or in some cases non-existent. As a result, the MNE can substitute its own internal market and reap some efficiency savings. For example, a firm can go abroad by simply exporting its products to foreign markets; however, uncertainty, search costs and tariff barriers are additional costs that will deter such trade. Similarly, the firm could license a foreigner to distribute the product but the firm must worry about opportunistic behaviour by the licensee. The OLI model predicts that the hierarchy (the vertically or horizontally integrated firm based on internal markets) is a superior method of organising transactions than the market (trade between unrelated firms) whenever external markets are non-existent or imperfect. The theory predicts that internalisation advantages will lead the MNE to prefer wholly owned subsidiaries over minority ownership or arm’s length transactions. It is therefore the internalisation advantages part of the OLI paradigm that explains why MNEs are integrated businesses, producing in several countries, and using intrafirm trade to ship goods, services and intangibles among their affiliates. Internalisation within the MNE is designed to reduce market failures by replacing missing or imperfect external markets with the hierarchy of the multinational organisation. One source of natural market failure is the transactions costs which are incurred in overcoming market imperfections or obstacles to trade in all external markets. The higher the costs, the smaller the volume of trade. All markets are faced with the costs of search, communication, specification of details, negotiation, monitoring of quality, transport, payment of taxes and enforcement of contracts. Secondly market failure arises because external markets fail to deal adequately with risk and uncertainty. Thirdly, when governments levy taxes, tariffs and other forms of trade barriers, these regulations create additional costs for firms that reduce profits. Although the regulations generally have a legitimate economic purpose (e.g. raising government revenue), from the firm’s point of view these are exogenous factors distorting international markets. Unrelated firms trading across international borders must pay these taxes. This means that the choice between the market and the hierarchy is not so simple. There are many different modes of engaging in international production, ranging from simple exporting on the one hand, through subcontracting, licenses and joint ventures, to the polar extreme of a wholly owned subsidiary or branch. Each has its own benefits and costs to the MNE and these vary depending on the home and host countries, potential partners, the market for the product, government and non-governmental barriers to trade, and so on. In Summary, OLI or eclectic paradigm explaining the existence of multinationals. The O factor answers the “why?” question; that is, why the firm goes abroad. The reason is to exploit its firm specific advantages in other markets and countries; these FSAs allow the firm to overcome the costs of transacting and producing in a foreign location. The L factor answers the “where?” question of location. Since international production requires the use of foreign factors in conjunction with the firm’s FSAs, the MNE chooses its where to locate its foreign operations by comparing each country’s locational attractiveness in terms of country specific economic, social/cultural, and political factors. The I factor answers the “how?” question as to what mode of entry the firm uses to penetrate the foreign location. The MNE has a variety of alternative contractual arrangements, ranging from arm’s length international trade through the wholly owned foreign subsidiary, and weighs their relative benefits and costs to determine how the enterprise enters the foreign market and expands its operations over time. The successful MNE simultaneously combines these ownership, location, and internalisation advantages to design its network of activities and affiliates in ways that maximise its market shares and growth. Finally, as Dunning suggested (1979:p.275) if Burger King or any other MNE engages in FDI it must satisfied above three conditions. By mid-2009, Burger King was not in any of the following countries: France, India, Nigeria, Pakistan, and South Africa. Critically assess using appropriate economic indicators and criteria the suitability of ONE of these countries as a possible future locations for Burger King. Pakistan, an impoverished and underdeveloped country, has suffered from decades of internal political disputes and low levels of foreign investment from 2001-07, however, poverty levels decreased by 10%, as Islamabad steadily rose development spending. In 2004-07, GDP growth in the 5-8% range was spurred by gains in the industrial and service sectors – despite severe electricity shortfalls – but growth slowed in 2008-09 (GDP 4.3%) and unemployment rose to 14%. Inflation remains the top concern among the public, jumping from 7.7% in 2007 to 20.8% in 2008, and 14.2% in 2009. In addition, the Pakistani rupee has depreciated since 2007 as a result of political and economic instability. The government agreed to an International Monetary Fund Standby Arrangement in November 2008 in response to a balance of payments crisis, but during 2009 its current account strengthened and foreign exchange reserves stabilized – largely because of lower oil prices and record remittances from workers abroad. Textiles account for most of Pakistan’s export earnings, but Pakistan’s failure to expand a viable export base for other manufactures have left the country vulnerable to shifts in world demand. Other long term challenges include expanding investment in education, healthcare, and electricity production, and reducing dependence on foreign donors. Political instability, terrorist attacks, power, gas and water shortage and weak law order control has led to falling trend in FDI. These are the major reasons due to which the foreign investors are not interested in investing their capital in Pakistan. No investment exists in isolation from the overall economy. Economic indicators are data on key economic variables recorded at regular periods of time that are used to predict, identify and confirm fundamental movements in economic activity. Used judiciously, the information conveyed by economic indicators can help investors to predict the likely movements of the market. The key economic indicators are: Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Inflation

“Banksy’s Exit through the Gift Shop” Documentary Essay

Introduction Banksy’s Exit through the Gift Shop film underscores a story of a French immigrant, Thierry, with an obsession for photography. He meets his cousin, a street artist, who introduces him to other street artists. Thierry’s fascination with filming makes him to document their activities. Later on, Thierry pairs up with Fairey, a street artist. He keeps on filming Fairey’s and other street artists’ activities with the aim of making a documentary. Despite Thierry claiming to compile a documentary, he has never made a movie in his life. Later on, Thierry meets Banksy a renowned street artist. It is through this meeting that the film takes an interesting twist and focuses on Thierry who others described as crazy and retarded. At the end of the film, Thierry appears to have played a role of experienced street artist expected of Banksy himself. The interesting twist of events at the end of the film makes one to believe that the whole documentary is not real but a mockery. Street Art Thierry’s undertakings to make a street art documentary while he has never made a movie in his life makes the whole film a mockery rather than truthful. The unfolding story after he meets the street artist Banksy is so unreal that it makes the whole story about a documentary a mockery. Thierry is presented as the Mr. Brain Wash (MBW) as he is not seen to create much artwork himself despite claiming to assemble a documentary concerning street art. The film documentary illustrates that the story about MBW is a hoax. In street art MBW, character exists and is associated with comical actions that are entertaining to the audience. However, in the documentary MBW is all hoax as Thierry is not said to be working when splattering paint to create color images. This raises the possibility that Thierry himself and his actions including the artworks are all but false. Thierry is portrayed as having inferior artistic skills in the documentary but later on towards the end of the film, he comes out as an experienced and MBW overnight. This suggests that the whole artworks and characters in the film are not real. There are a whole set of clues to point out that the whole documentary is not real but a joke. Scenes of Thierry acting funny come out clearly when he is said to not to be working whilst he is seen splattering paint randomly to create color images thus trying to create a poster therein. These scenes appear to be very short raising the issue of whether the whole documentary is a hoax or not. Other aspects of Mr. Brain Wash character in Thierry such as when he is seen to be pushed in a wheelbarrow after injuring his foot and the never removed hat makes him appear comical. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the documentary, street art is apparent in the artworks and huge stickers placed in the streets. The street artists use free hand aerosol paints to create the artworks and stickers in the streets. In the film, MBW is portrayed as a comical character in the name of Thierry but at the end of the film, he comes out the wiser character. The street art movement includes personalities with a passion for creating street artworks. Despite the many speculations that the film is a hoax, it accomplishes the idea of the rise in street art in a very creative way. It also illustrates the differences between pop-culture and the gullibility of people. Conclusion In the film, Thierry depicted as a retarded character, later comes out as a brilliant MBW while Banksy, a renowned street artist appears disgraced. Despite most of the scenes in the documentary seeming hoax and unreal, the film documents the activities of street art in cities. The film also shows how great passion can make one achieve his desires as seen by the MBW character in the film.

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