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Northern Virginia Community College Object Oriented Programming Paper

Northern Virginia Community College Object Oriented Programming Paper.

Create the Fruit Class and object. Create your own fruit. Disregard any reference to Task 5 in the video. It should be Lesson 5 and I am in the process of updating that.Video link: https://online.stratford.edu/pluginfile.php/186145…Watch The Linked-in training section 4 Beyond the basic (Only watch the first four sections):What is object-oriented programming?What is encapsulation?Working with inheritanceInterfaces1. Explain what is a class and an object in OOP?2. Summarize what encapsulation, inheritance, and interfaces are in Java. Feel free to use the examples she used in the video to help explain. There is no coding required for this part of the task.
Northern Virginia Community College Object Oriented Programming Paper

Essential of Nursing Research Nursing Problems Quantitative Research Paper.

Assignment:Quantitative ResearchWrite a fully developed and detailed APA essay addressing each of the following points/questions. There is no required word count; be sure to completely answer all the questions for each question in detail. Separate each section in your paper with a clear heading that allows your professor to know which bullet you are addressing in that section of your paper. Support your ideas with at least one (1) source using citations in your essay. Make sure to cite using the APA writing style for the essay. The cover page and reference page are required. Review the rubric criteria for this assignment.Conduct a literature search to select a quantitative research study related to the problem identified in Module 1 and conduct an initial critical appraisal. Respond to the overview questions for the critical appraisal of quantitative studies, including:Is this quantitative research report a case study, case control study, cohort study, randomized control trial or systematic review?Where does the study fall in the hierarchy of evidence in terms of reliability and risk of bias?Why was the study done? (Define the problem and purpose.)Were the steps of the study clearly identified?What was the sample size?Are the measurements of major variables reliable and valid? Explain.How were the data analyzed?Were there any untoward events during the conduct of the study?How do the results fit with previous research in the area? (This may be reflected in the literature review.)What does this research mean to clinical practice?Additionally, be sure to include the rapid appraisal questions for the specific research design of the quantitative study that you have chosen. These can be found in Chapter 5 of the textbook (Melnyk and Fineout-Overholt, 2015).This critical appraisal should be written in complete sentences (not just a numbered list) using APA format.Provide a reference for the article according to APA format and a copy of the article.Assignment Expectations:Length: Clearly and fully answer all questions; attach a copy of the articleStructure: Include a title page and reference page in APA format. Your essay must include an introduction and a conclusion.References: Use appropriate APA style in-text citations and references for all resources utilized to answer the questions. A minimum of one (1) scholarly source for the article is required for this assignment.Rubric: This assignment uses a rubric for scoring. Please review it as part of your assignment preparation and again prior to submission to ensure you have addressed its criteria at the highest level.Format: Save your assignment as a Microsoft Word document (.doc or .docx) or a PDF document (.pdf)File name: Name your saved file according to your first initial, last name, and the assignment number (for example, “RHall Assignment 1.docx”)
Essential of Nursing Research Nursing Problems Quantitative Research Paper

Religious Studies homework help. The primary function of HRM is to increase the effectiveness and contribution of employees attaining organizational goals and objectives. Consider all the areas of HRM that have been discussed in this course:,Primary function of HRM is to increase the effectiveness,The primary function of HRM is to increase the effectiveness and contribution of employees attaining organizational goals and objectives. Consider all the areas of HRM that have been discussed in this course:,Performance management, Human resources planning, recruitment, and selection, Human resources development, Compensation and benefits, Employment and labor laws and regulations,In your final paper,,Firstly, provide a high-level overview of each HRM area listed above.,Secondly, discuss HR functions within a performance management system that contribute to effective training and development.,Thirdly, explain how an effective performance management system along with compensation and benefits can attract, develop, and retain talented employees.,Further, analyze employment and labor laws and regulations that impact these areas of HRM listed above and the relationships between employees and employers.,Finally, explain how the functions of HRM work together in order to optimize organizational and employee behavior.,More details;,Performance Management – Definition,Performance management is an ongoing process of communication between a supervisor and an employee that occurs throughout the year, in support of accomplishing the strategic objectives of the organization. The communication process includes clarifying expectations, setting objectives, identifying goals, providing feedback, and also reviewing results.,Managing Employee Performance – The Cycle,Overseeing performance and providing feedback is not an isolated event, focused in an annual performance review. It is an ongoing process that takes place throughout the year. The Performance Management process is a ,cycle,, with discussions varying year-to-year based on changing objectives.,Firstly, must be seven pages in length (not including title and references pages) and be in APA style,Secondly, must include an introduction and conclusion paragraph.,Further, must use at least five scholarly, peer-reviewed, or credible sources in addition to the course text.,Finally, include a separate references page that is formatted according to APA style,Attachments,Click Here To Download,Religious Studies homework help

HCA 410 Pima Medical Institute Tucson Paragon Home Care Discussion

HCA 410 Pima Medical Institute Tucson Paragon Home Care Discussion.

I’m working on a health & medical discussion question and need support to help me understand better.

Prior to your first post, explore a long-term care organization in your community via their website. Assess the website for the organization’s mission and vision. Gather data from the website which speaks to product, price, place and the types of promotion used by the organization (advertising, community involvement, public relations, etc).1. In your initial post, describe the organization that you have researched, defining their marketing mix and strategy as gathered from their website. Please close your initial post with your opinion on current marketing in long-term care as well as your thoughts on what percent of the operating budget should be spent on marketing and how as a manager, you would message its effectiveness. (~300+ Words)2. Respond to at least two of your classmates’ initial posts providing feedback on their marketing assessments and resulting opinions. (~100+ words each)Please use this website for this discussion. https://optimumpersonalcare.com/Student 1: Hello Class,The facility I have selected to discuss is the Long Term Care Ombudsman located in Northern Virginia outside Washington, DC. It is located in high-end neighborhoods in Northern Virginia (Fairfax, Arlington, Loudon, and Alexandria) and the most reputable long-term care facility in the area. This facility is one of the best LTCs in the country and it cares for former high-ranking government or corporate officials from Washington, DC, Northern Virginia, and Maryland.Mission: As premier providers, we provide exceptional care for those who cared for us.Vision: Innovatively changing long term care delivery across the country.Core Values: Professionalism, excellence, teamwork, and dedication.Financial Assistance. It is the policy of the facility to provide financial assessment to unfunded or uninsured patients seeking financial assistance. Unfunded patients are interviewed for a potential funding source including federal, state, county and/or charity care. The facility follows the Federal Poverty Guidelines to qualify patients for charity. Patients who are potentially eligible for charity care and reside in Northern Virginia are required to complete an interview and sign the facility charity care and grant programs application.A patient’s financial benefits and classification is determined by:Evidence that patient lived in county and citizenship status.Provide documentation on the size of family.Provide proof of family gross income to determine eligibility of Federal Poverty Guidelines.Determination is made using a sliding fee scale based on income and current Federal Poverty Guidelines up to 300 percent.Marketing. As the facility endeavors to stay atop of competition and remain the vanguard in providing long term care to residents of Northern Virginia, Washington, D.C. and Maryland, marketing is the methodology to create the possibility. It is an organizational function and a set of processes for creating, communicating, and delivering value to customers and for managing customer relationships in ways that benefit the organization and its stakeholders. Market process is facilitated through the product, pricing, place, and promotion commonly referred to as 4-Ps.Product. The facility offers short and long term services that are designed to go above the basic needs of residents, including but not limited to nursing care with different units, rehabilitation, nutritional service, clinical support services comprising laboratory, x-rays, physical therapy, and pharmacy.Pricing. The cost of care at long-term care at this facility is priced according to several factors. The room and board services desired by the resident, level of assistance required by the patient, and the kind of amenities desired. The average room at this facility is priced around $10K monthly with an average yearly cost about $100K.Promotion. Advertising and public relations activities targets retirement-eligible government and corporate officials who are residents of Northern Virginia and Washington, D.C. via flyers, newspapers ads, local radio, and television commercials.Place. The facility is located four Northern Virginia cities of Fairfax, Alexandria, Loudon, and Arlington. According to the website, over 75% of residents of these facilities were residents of the DMV (Washington, D.C., Maryland, and Virginia).Social: The patients enjoy many activities, including bingo, field trips, on-site entertainment and group outings.https://www.fairfaxcounty.gov/familyservices/older-adults/long-term-care-ombudsman-programStudent 2:Hi Class,The long-term care facility that I chose is Good Samaritan Health Care Center, A Regency Pacific Community and is located in central Washington State in the town of Yakima. Good Samaritan Health Care Center offers skilled nursing and long-term care services. They provide care to each individuals distinctive needs. Their culture and values are that they strive to exceed are relationships, empower, service, passion, embrace, community, and trust. They believe that building strong relationships with residents, their family members, and healthcare providers delivers the highest level of care. They are empowered and encouraged to continually look for new and innovative ways to improve their services and care for their residents. They strive towards service excellence by creating an environment that enhances the lives of their residents, families, and employees. They are passionate about delivering the hugest level of patient-centered care and services to the residents they serve. They embrace every opportunity to impact life moments while recognizing the importance of partnering and building ties with the community. They ensure that trust is a fundamental component to building strong, successful relationships with residents, families, employees, and communities.Their product is their services that include nursing, dietary, social services, therapy, and therapeutic recreation, memory care, retirement/independent living, assisted living, respite care as well as short-term recovery units that offer private or semi-private rooms. Residents have access to lots of amenities to help make their stay as comfortable as possible.They are Medicare/Medicaid certified and also accept private pay as well as contracting with some insurance companies and Managed Care Organizations (MCO’s). There are no listed prices for this facility but upon more research, an article by Writer (2020) says, there are a lot of factors that affect the cost of nursing home care. Some of these factors include the provider you select for you loved one and any special considerations you select. Some facilities charge extra for services that fall beyond the basic housekeeping, food and housing expenses. These expenses could include fees for memory care, speech therapy, physical therapy and so on. Other facilities are all-inclusive. When researching the average nursing home prices, families should also look for reviews on nursing homes, and any complaints that former residents have made. In doing so, they’ll be able to find good nursing homes at fair rates.Good Samaritan is located in the beautiful Yakima Valley in Washington State. It is minutes away from local hospitals and medical clinics.Types of promotion used by this organization include advertisement using many pictures of the facility and happy elderly people being helped and greeted by healthcare providers.On average, anywhere between 5%-20% of the budget should go towards marketing although committing to more can be critical in creating a successful marketing plan. Social media would be a great way message effectiveness while also saving money. Commercials and web sites are extremely helpful for people doing research and needing detailed information about a specific facility.https://www.regency-pacific.com/senior-living/wa/yakima/good-samaritan-health-care-center/longterm-careReference: How Much Does Nursing Home Care Cost? (questionsanswered.net)
HCA 410 Pima Medical Institute Tucson Paragon Home Care Discussion

Foreign Aid

java assignment help Which theoretical approach best explains why states give foreign aid? The most important question surrounding aid in the study of International Relations is why states give aid. Theoretical approaches have since been vital to understanding this activity. So, to address the question, I have mainly focused on bilateral aid-aid given by states to other states. Just to clarify the structure of my essay, I will first provide some definition and background on aid to build a platform for thinking about the existence of aid. I will then turn to explain the theoretical approaches that may, or may even not, explain why states give foreign aid. Lastly, I will conclude by summing up the arguments on the features of those theories, and if it has at all, if not in the best possible manner, described the action of states providing foreign aid. First off, the term ‘aid’ or ‘overseas development assistance’ (ODA), as used interchangeably, can be defined as “gifts and concessional loans of economic resources, such as finance and technology, employed for economic purposes provided to less developed countries by governments of developed world”, excluding military aid however.[1] According to Guy Arnold, the definition of the term aid can be often misunderstood and also open to more than one interpretation. So he defines aid as “the flow of resources (both of capital and technical assistance in the form of people with their skills) from the more advanced or developed economies to the less advanced or developed ones”. (Arnold G, 199…pg-1)* So, as also stated by D Williams, in practice, aid is given by the developed world, which means the members of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC) of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Thus there is an element of the exertion of power by the developed states to influence the poorer and less economically significant countries. If we look back in the history, we will find examples of aid and understand why it was introduced in the first place. The launch of the Marshall Plan to bring about “financial and economic recovery of the post-World War Europe”, which resulted in the initiation of the US Foreign Aid Act on 3 April 1948, was the platform for introducing an idea of aid as providing swift assistance, mainly American assistance, to the war-torn European states to reorganize economically.[2] This, however, is different in kind to the aid as we know it today. The real beginning of modern aid was actually set by the Colombo Plan, which was aimed to stimulate economic development in South and South-East Asia. As stated by Arnold, the end of the European empires left many newly independent states in the requirement of economic assistance in terms of development, as most of the states then, especially those if Asia, were underdeveloped. So from the years between the 1950s and 1980s, a total of 65.1 billion dollars were donated in aid.[3] This is significant in our understanding of why aid is given because, before the 1940s, aid was more or less non-existent. (Williams D, 2009) Hence it gives us a sense of how the period of post-war and decolonisation, has been different when talking about flows of aid, especially bilateral aid, which emphasises the desire by the developed countries to exercise influence over the newly independent states. Bilateral aid as such, can also be translated as the US inclination to set up a more accentuating hegemonic world order in the post-World War II era. Besides the obvious and humanitarian reasons for donating aid, which is ‘growth’, the urge to maintain the domestic politics and foreign policies of the developed states, such as the US, has caused a reasonable increase in the percentage of aid given. As aid statistics show, almost 73 percent more aid is given by the US than before.[4] Thus foreign aid has grown steadily over the years, and international aid has become widespread as a ‘common norm’ in international politics. Throughout the ‘aid age’, there is also abundant evidence that a lot of assistance were given for Cold War or ideological reasons. For example, as also noted by Arnold, big amounts of Soviet aid go to Cuba and Vietnam, who are both considered to be in the Soviet-Communist sphere of influence.[5] So we can see that ‘ideological’ structural factors are at work here, which clearly highlights the attempt by such states to maintain close relations and allies. Having said that, if we assume that a lot of aid is given as Cold War manoeuvres, we begin to see the paradox of the extent to which Cold War has helped development, or if it has at all? To quote Arnold, in the light of Cold War confrontations to provide development assistance, “such aid, moreover, may have helped development even though the only concern of the donors was to keep the recipient government friendly to their cause”. (Arnold G, 19..pg-17). Contrary to the expectations though, the universal networks of foreign aid have survived the end of the Cold War, most considerably because of its requisite in international development. As also Alesina and Dollar notes, aid is dictated by political and strategical considerations, as much as it is decreed by “economic needs and policy performance of the recipients”.[6]Given the above political and strategical reasons for aid, it is, however, important to stress the underlying factor of development. Be the reasons as they are, the establishment of ‘development as a norm’ has also influenced states to increasingly continue giving aid. As stated in Truman’s Speech, development assistance is “necessary to restore internal order and security so essential for economic and political recovery”.[7] Hence it can be noted that international development has apparently become a common concern between states besides the political strategies. In the light of that context, I want to now introduce the theoretical frameworks for why states give foreign aid. There is good diversity among the body of thoughts when it comes to development theory, out of which the dependency theory and the neoclassical theory (neo-liberalism) rival the orthodox development economics. ***Before I go into arguing which theoretical approach can best explain foreign aid, I want to briefly mention the assumptions under development theory so as to provide a canvas for comparison, while keeping the concept of expertise, the emergence of developing countries and Keynesian economics in mind, where the role of the state was important as an intervener in the market to make it work, which otherwise might not produce beneficial outcomes in all circumstances.[8] According to Hans Morgenthau, no type of foreign aid, whether it is prestige aid or humanitarian, pose any major expense of theoretical questions. But foreign aid for ‘economic development’ has been a key area for theoretical analysis and so has mainly been economic in nature. Based on true economic traditions, foreign is thus looked at as if “it were a self-sufficient technical enterprise to be achieved with the instruments and judged by the standards of pure economics”, to quote Morgenthau.[9] Since the Western developed world has been “due to the formulation of capital and the accumulation of technical knowledge”, there has been a sense of these very same factors to propel economic development in underdeveloped nations of Asia, Africa and Latin America (Morgenthau,1962,pg-304). Thus development theory, in terms of aid, assumed that development was possible and inevitable in the existing international economy but was not guaranteed, as stated by David Williams. I think this theory explains, only to an extent, why foreign aid is given by states in terms of a transition from the pre-modern to a more industrialised development, such as the ‘developed West’. Bearing this assumption in mind, that development just couldn’t leave to market mechanisms alone and had to be devised through assistance, it can be noted that aid in the form of state intervention or development assistance were driven by Western policy makers for the developing countries. According to this theory, the element of development was understood through industrialisation or ‘modernization’, where productivity in traditional agriculture had to be increased. Since rural agriculture was linked to a large pool of unproductive labour, industrialisation was expected to lead to a higher level of productivity for the underdeveloped economy because this surplus pool of labour could be then put to work in industries from their rural subsistent farming. Also because of the newly independent states from colonial influence, as mentioned before, were heavily reliant on the export of these agricultural products, the limited demand of such good by the developed countries made these sites very vulnerable. Hence, the demand for primary products rises very slowly and may imply an unbalanced growth for the developing countries and market mechanisms only cannot be relied upon to bring about a balanced growth. Thus state intervention is needed to allocate capital and manage this process of industrialisation, as stated by David Williams. Hence foreign aid in the form of capital from outside is to be injected in order to promote this sort of development. As underdevelopment, according to Morgenthau, was seen as a “deficiency disease at its worst kind, and could only be taken care of “through subcutaneous injections of the missing ingredient”, (Morgenthau 1962) Development theory in this context provides an inefficient insight in terms of aid provided as development assistance by states as a part of Western rationalization for industrialization. This is because, as Morgenthau explicates, some nations, such as Jordan and Somalia, may suffer from social, natural and insuperable deficiencies which no amount of capital or technical assistance from the outside can cure. Thus such recipient nations can be incapable of economic development in spite of subsistent inflows of foreign aid. [10]In my opinion, the economic development of such underdeveloped economies cannot be thought to impel by Western states providing capital as foreign aid or foreign investment alone, as state capacity may act as a hindrance. So a restructuring of the domestic economic environment and authoritarian political planning within the nation itself may be necessary. It can also be noted, however, that the machinery of foreign aid, under this theory of economic development, has become a universal proposition that the “highly developed industrial nations have an obligation to transfer money and services to underdeveloped nations for the purpose of economic development” (Morgenthau 1962). So economic development can be seen as an ideology where this transaction by the West is rationalised and justified. But the question then is why provide this aid to such economically insignificant nations, unless there was an element of a political bargain. So it can be explained that foreign aid given by states is merely the price paid for political services to be performed. Hence it is actually staging the pretence of ‘giving aid’ for economic development. So bribery disguised as foreign aid under developmental theories captures the role of the giver and the receiver in a play, which is difficult to distinguish from reality. In practice, such economies get considered as being ‘rent-seeking societies’,[11] where government restrictions, such as tariffs on import or trade barriers, give rise to rise to ‘rent-seeking’ in many forms, such as corruption, bribery and so on. For instance, when quantitative restrictions are imposed which manipulates constrained imports, import license becomes a valuable commodity in countries such as India. So Government interventions in the forms of aid have effective costs and political implications of competitive rent seekers related to such policies. So the existence of rent-seeking then portrays an unequal distribution of income and market mechanism becomes a suspect due to the wealthier individuals becoming successful rent-seekers while the poorer ones are precluded. [12]This, in turn, results to an “inevitable temptation to resort to greater and greater intervention”, as stated by Kreuger, to ‘influence’ political activity for economic development. As a result, a political “vicious circle of poverty” may develop. If we relate this to the Keynesian idea of equilibrium, it can be implied that fewer savings in developing nations mean a lack of capital, i.e. less money to invest on productive facilities such as infrastructure or agriculture, which in turn leads to low productivity culminating low income. Therefore, countries characterised by this circle have an environment of low development. Having said that, in the light of development theory, a breakout from this vicious circle can be achieved by providing capital assistance from outside in the form of foreign aid, the result of which influx will lead to economic development. But this may not always be successful in explaining the infusion of foreign aid, as referring back to Morgenthau (1964), the characteristics of some nations make them handicapped when taking advantage of this economic opportunity, because the short of transformation of their collective intelligence and character cause them to not fully use what they receive from outside for economic development, such as governments which are corrupt, or whose bureaucracy’ is relatively small to carry out the functions effectively. So it could be questioned if this economic development theory of the industrially advanced countries applicable to underdeveloped countries, as asked by Hly Myint. It cannot fully imagine that in practice, the implementation of policies under this theory will be will be applicable to underdeveloped nations with traditional values and attitudes. This is because, as institutional economists have argued, the generalisation of economic theory are based on circumstances of the developed countries and therefore, not “universally valid”. (Myint 1965) Also, to quote Myint, “the social and institutional settings and stages of development between the advanced and the underdeveloped countries” have differences. Such attack of the ‘realism’ of the economic theory, as described by Myint, thus makes the policies under this theory fairly incompetent for underdeveloped states.[13] Another problem being, that this “Western” economic theory seems to be more preoccupied with western economic environments that have already achieved sustained growth, and therefore is out of focus on the central issues, such as optimum allocation of resources, the maintenance of full employment and so on, that shapes underdeveloped economies.[14] Hence the substance of such a theory becomes, almost impertinent to address the central problem of the underdeveloped countries, notably India, which is to “initiate and accelerate the “take-off” into sustained growth” (Myint 1965). Unlike, orthodox development theory, insists that “it is not the internal characteristics of particular of particular countries so much as the structure of the international system, particularly in terms of economic aspects, that is the key variable to explain the form of development that has taken place in non-communist industrializing countries”, as quoted by Tony Smith (1979). As it seems, it tends to emphasise the political and economic interfaces than “the developmental rival”, and in doing so is unambiguously supportive of the change in the South to strengthen the poorest and the most oppressed members of society. This idea can only be grasped, if put in a historical canvas, so as to comprehend the logic of development process, because according to Smith, “contemporary political and economic change in the South must be understood as aspects of imperialism today and yesterday” (Smith T, pg-248, 1979) What the idea of dependency or ‘neocolonial’ theory portrays is the perspective that sovereign states of the South have been preliminarily dependent on technology, financial assistance, market and basic imports on the international economic system ascended by the Northern capitalist powers, including Japan. As Smith interprets, Third -World countries, because of their form of incorporation into the international system, cannot do without the dependence on from aid, but also cannot do with it, as their assimilation in the international system restrains industrialization making their economies inferior with the dynamic forms of growth associated with agriculture or the extractive industries.[15] Hence the logic of states providing aid in this context, is merely an element of imperialism, because of the Northern corporations, however much they bring in form of managerial or technical assistance, take more than they give, and thus prevents self-sustaining industrialisation from occurring in underdeveloped economies. (Smith 1979). However, it is important to stress that the Third-world countries cannot also do without this dependency on foreign aid because the North or the ‘political elites’ have created a structure of dominant rule favourable to an international connection. Thus, to quote Smith, “it is not the sheer economic might of the outside that dictates the dependent status o the South, but the sociological consequences of this power”. (Smith pg-251 1979) So this international order, according to dependency theorists, is to be respected by the South if it wants the system to continue providing the services needed. In many underdeveloped nations thus, foreign aid provided by states can be regarded primarily as a financial exploitation and ‘underdevelopement’ can be labelled as a product of “capitalist, imperialist, and colonialist exploitation”. For instance, the case of India under British imperialism can be take in point to note the Indian economic development; which although misses out the probability of the price to be paid, such as constant warfare under the Mogul rule of the pre-British system, accomplish any transformation of industrial development, according to Smith. Bearing the state structures in the South, we can make sense of their experiences under the light of this theory. However again, the power of state capacity of local interests and structures, restrain this theory to reductionist in explaining why foreign aid is provided by states in practice. States which turn into bureaucracies in the government, only act on behalf of the foreigners’ interests if it coincides with theirs. So, the term neocolonial and dependency which suggests that states which are subjected to neocolonialism are in theory “dependent and has the trappings of international sovereignty”, leaves out the reality, in practice, of state apparatus that depends on the combination of local interests and also any initiatives taken in regard to domestic and international issues. As a result, it provides a rather simplistic explanation of the dependent status amidst the social structure of the states that engendered authoritarian regimes, such as in Latin America.[16] As justified by Smith, “the major historiographic shortcoming common to most of the dependency theory”, doesn’t merely measure the relative autonomy of the various Third-World countries derived from local traditions and institutions. As I have mainly focused on foreign aid is given bi-laterally, I will not go into much details of analysing the neoclassical approach to explain why states give foreign aid. However, for argument’s sake, I want to mention that the understandings of development have shifted during the period of the 1980s, which was partly a reaction to the various crises that emerged at that time, notably in Latin America and in Sub-Saharan Africa. This is important to note in the context of foreign aid, because the triumph of neo-liberal values and the dispense of orthodox development economics, according to David Williams, portray a rationalization of multi-lateral lending through institutions such as the IMF and the World Bank, who have embraced the neo-liberal values to pursue inspired policy changes in developing countries. So the innovations in development theory during the 1990s are all framed, in one way or another, within the broad neo-liberal paradigm.[17] As Frances Stewart notes, countries that have adopted such neoclassical policies, relying on price system and an open trade regime, were relatively enhanced compared to the countries that adopted policies of detailed political planning and other forms of government interventions.[18] But criticism applied, this theory makes a rhetorical emphasis on the capabilities of the poor, and also provides a conflicting view of politics against the rest of the society.[19] So to conclude, foreign aid policy and the assumptions that lie with it, are highly controversial. As I see it, there is no one-way of pinning down any approach that would explain why states give foreign aid. The theories I have explained above all have, one way or another, shortcomings in their nature when explaining the concept of foreign aid. Orthodox development economics for one, explains foreign aid as foreign policy and political bargain for economic development, but by being very politically and strategically driven, becomes inapplicable for explaining the element of capital and technical aid in underdeveloped countries where ‘Western’ ideology of industrial development may not be sustained in practice due to the internal structure and bureaucracies of the newly independent states. Dependency theory also somewhat omits the interests of colonial states when explaining aid as intervention from outside, i.e. from the imperialist countries. It leaves out the question of state capacity to actually carry out the functions under imperialism, which highlights the inability of the poorer nations to fulfil the conditions of “development” in the international structure, predominantly created by the North. Hence the theoretical approaches expunge the rhetoric and the reality that has been applied with the giving of aid. Most importantly, the theoretical frameworks for foreign aid, by stressing on economic development for states and a transition from pre-modern society to an industrialised one, whether it be for the self-interests of Western states, to begin with, fades out the humanitarian element of basic development from epidemics, or natural disasters and so on. But even if it did highlight foreign aid under such category, the non-political function of foreign aid as the humanitarian aid then becomes political when operated in that context. Hence humanitarian aid extended by governments may end up having political effects,[20] if put under the microscope of such theoretical approaches. Nevertheless, it cannot be dismissed that aid-giving has become increasingly widespread as an international norm in politics, whatever the underlying theoretical implications may be, and thus promotes foreign aid as a contribution toward international development. Footnotes [1] Global Politics of Development (lecture on foreign aid), pg-2 by David Williams, 2009. [2] Guy Arnold, ‘Aid and the Third World’: introduction, pg-1. [3] Guy Arnold, ‘Aid and the Third World’: pg-4, [4] Global Politics of Development: handout, Aid Statistics 2008 [5] Arnold, G ‘Aid and the Third World’, Pg-17 [6] Alesiana A and Dollar D, Who gives Foreign Aid to Whom and Why: Journal of Economic Growth, (March 2000) [7] The Truman Doctrine Speech, by Harry S Truman, March 12th, 1947. [8] Global Politics of Development, David Williams, lecture: Development Theory 2009 [9] Hans Morgenthau, A Political Theory of Foreign Aid (pg-304): The American Political Science Review (Jun 1962). [10] Hans Morgenthau, A political Theory of Foreign Aid: The American political science review (Jun 1962). [11] Anne O. Krueger, The Political Economy of the Rent-seeking Society: American Economic Association (Jun 1974) [12] Anne O Kreuger, The Political Economy of the Rent-seeking Society: American Economic Association (jun 1974). [13] Hly Myint, Economic Theory and the Underdeveloped countries: The journal of Political Economy (Oct 1965) [14] Hly Myint, Economic Theory and the Underdeveloped countries: The journal of Political Economy (Oct 1965) [15] Tony smith, The Underdevelopment of Development Literature-the case for dependency theory: World Politics (1979) [16] Tony Smith, The Underdevelopment of Development Literature: the case for dependency theory, World Politics (1979) [17] David Williams, lecture Global Politics of Development: Neoliberalism and Development Theory (2009) [18] Frances Stewart, The Fragile Foundations of the Neoclassical Approach to Development (1983) [19] David Williams, lecture Global Politics of Development: Neoliberalism and Development Theory (2009) [20] Hans Morgenthau, A political Theory of Foreign Aid: The American political science review (Jun 1962).

Education in the third world Research Paper

One of the most notable forums for education funding in third world countries is the World Education Forum, which was held in Dakar. The meeting led to development of a framework for the achievement of education for all. It outlined the roles that civil society, international donors and national donors would play in the achievements of this objective (DFID, 2008). Additionally, a call to action for the Millennium Development Goals in 2007 reinforced education funding from multilateral partners. Therefore, education funding in poor countries occurs through a myriad of donor avenues. One of these routes is the UN fund as administered through UNESCO. Furthermore, several non governmental organizations also participate in the provision of these resources and they may have divergent objectives. Prior to allocation of resources to third world nations, donors often analyze the political will of the concerned government and its ability to commit to the funds. Additionally, they assess them on the basis of their level of transparency or the education policies that exist. These recipient governments need to cooperate with members of civil society in education matters, as well. However, not all donor organizations follow such rigorous procedures. Some of them may choose to donate funds to a country that lacks these qualities, but may invest in capacity-building among those nations (UNESCO, 2006). Non governmental support for education in third world countries may come in the form of debt relief schemes, budget support (general or sector), pooled funds, or through specific projects. These projects may be carried out through recipient governments or through parallel systems. Sector wide support aims to create a budgetary framework for education. General budget support systems mostly focus on development and implementation pro-poor reforms, of which education is part. Sector budget support caters to progressive sectors in governments, while pooled funds deal with programs or budget lines intended on tackling such problems. In addition, specific projects cater to the civil society and private sector education programs. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More These projects may take the form of bursary support or grants given to specific students in target countries. Additionally, some private schools may have difficulties in running their programs, so these NGOs can either subsidize their activities or assist in development of subsidies. Others may offer grants for schools in general. In certain circumstances, non governmental or UN support for education has led to an increase in the level of funds dedicated to education in the recipient countries. It has also increased the number of children that access education. Therefore, education quality and accessibility have improved out of these efforts. Some poor countries have become more accountable because of UN requirements for transparency. They have heightened their capacities for management of finances for education. These governments have also started dialoging with members of the private sector. On the flipside, analysts argue that financial aid from non governmental organizations or the UN leads to unsustainable development, as most receiving governments rarely think about scaling up their education strategies. Underdeveloped nations may gain from aid for education in one year and loose it in the next year. Consequently, beneficiaries of educational policies may suffer. Since most funding organizations tend to focus on basic issues in education, a number of them may forget about other important sectors of education. For instance many NGOs dwell on funding primary-education stakeholders in third world countries, yet a number of these beneficiaries will not have finances to go through secondary education. Therefore, inequality persists in certain levels of education. Poor judgment on the part of NGOs leads to inefficient use of the aid and a dependency syndrome. In certain situations, little or no positive outcomes are reported after continual engagement with NGOs or the UN thus causing wastage of funds (GPE, 2012). Countries and NGOs may fail to reach tangible outcomes when implementing donor programs for education because of a number of reasons. Sometimes the receiving country may allocate resources inefficiently. As mentioned earlier, many governments focus on primary education and leave out secondary education. We will write a custom Research Paper on Education in the third world specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In addition to the above, some of the partnering institutions do not manage their recurrent expenditure efficiently. When NGOs fail to analyze an institution’s ability to do this, then they set themselves up for failure. Alternatively, they may find that budget management is a problem but may opt not to do anything about it. One solution is teaching and monitoring those institutions’ cost containment efforts. Inefficient management of the flow of children in these programs may also be a problem. Sometimes repetition rates may be too high or examination policies unfavorable. Certain learning institutions may not deploy teachers effectively, and this may lead to underperformance. Donor programs may sometimes fail to cost share or even recover costs during implementation of the scheme. The ineffectiveness of donor funding for education in third world countries may also stem from failures on the part of the donors. For instance, if funding agencies do not align their objectives with priorities among national governments, then failure is bound to occur. Issues of harmonization of donor efforts may also undermine outcomes. For example, a country may be receiving aid from over 30 NGOs, but those groups may not belong to any global organization. Furthermore, they may not share information between one another, and this could lead to overlaps, and piecemeal outcomes. Donor organizations may sometimes fail to consider the number of parties that are already working in a certain country. As a result, some nations may be overfunded while others might be underfunded. It is necessary to review the multiplicity of donor missions and commitment before plunging into such a program (Lewin, 2008). Occasionally, failure of NGOs to achieve sustainable outcomes in education may stem from challenges on both sides of the divide; that is, the third world country as well as the donor nation. In certain circumstances, an NGO’s support may do more harm than good for a country’s education system. Not sure if you can write a paper on Education in the third world by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More When aid leads to high transaction costs, then it is not worthwhile to pursue it. Third world countries need to have the audacity to reject assistance from certain aid agencies if this effect will arise. When a country possesses several donating organizations, then it may need to coordinate its donor procedures. If multiple languages are involved and the receiving country has to deal with many projects, then the transaction costs may offset the benefits of the initiatives. It is recommended that the UN, along with other NGOs, harmonize their efforts through donor-to-donor and donor-to-receiving country alignment. Governments should take ownership of development programs by planning and designing them. These third world countries should create plans for tracking success. Additionally, both NGOs and aid recipients should create principles for mutual accountability, which will lead to better outcomes. References DFID (2008). Core script one education for all: Cross-whitehall narrative. London: Department for International Development. GPE (2012). Aid effectiveness. Web. Lewin, K. (2008, February). Strategies for sustainable financing of secondary education in sub-Saharan Africa. African Human Development series, 136. UNESCO (2006). Aid flows to education. Web.

Rasmussen College Increased Complexity of Care Among Older Adults Reflection

Rasmussen College Increased Complexity of Care Among Older Adults Reflection.

Purpose of Assignment:It is important for nurses to reflect on experiences and new knowledge gained in order to promote professional growth.Course Competencies:Analyze the increased complexity of care among older adults.Compare care models for nursing practice specific to the older adult.Design plans for care specific to the older adult.Identify local, state, and national resources which facilitate safe and effective transitions of care for older adults.Incorporate professional values, attitudes, and expectations regarding ageism when caring for the older adult.Outline the importance of advocating for older adults in management of their care.Transferable Skill:Information Literacy: Discovering information reflectively, understanding how information is produced and valued, and using information to create new knowledge and participate ethically in communities of learning.Instructions:Reflect on your development as a nursing professional and address the following in a 1-2 page paper:Describe how you achieved each of the course competencies and the transferable skill.Provide at least one example of new knowledge gained related to each competency and explain how this new knowledge will impact your nursing practice.Resources:For assistance on creating a newsletter, please read the Library Answer for: What is reflective writing and why is it important in nursing?Submit your completed assignment to the drop box below. Please check the Course Calendar for specific due dates.Save your assignment as a Microsoft Word document.
Rasmussen College Increased Complexity of Care Among Older Adults Reflection

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