Sound is essential to our daily lives, but noise is not What is Noise Pollution? The traditional definition of noise is “unwanted or disturbing sound”. Sound becomes unwanted when it either interferes with normal activities such as sleeping, conversation, or disrupts or diminishes one’s quality of life. It is a source of irritation and stress for many people and can even damage our hearing if it is loud enough. Many of us are exposed to stressful levels of noise at home and at work. Noise is on the increase in our society.
The fact that you can’t see, taste or smell it may help explain why it has not received as much attention as other types of pollution, such as air pollution, or water pollution. The air around us is constantly filled with sounds, yet most of us would probably not say we are surrounded by noise. Though for some, the persistent and escalating sources of sound can often be considered an annoyance. This “annoyance” can have major consequences, primarily to one’s overall health. Noise is an inescapable part of modern life.
Traffic on the road, low-flying aircraft, dogs barking, lawn mowers, and music blaring from ghetto blasters are some of the noises polluting our cities. People are noisier now than they were a generation ago. Most homes now boast at least one television, one radio, a thumping stereo system and a range of noisy household appliances. Judging by the number of complaints made to authorities, Australians are becoming increasingly irritated by urban noise. In Sydney there are over 100,000 noise complaints a year, most of which relate to noisy neighbours. But it is not just the number of complaints that is on the rise.
There has also been a sharp increase in noise litigation, with people prepared to take legal action to protect their peace and quiet. Of even greater concern is the effect excessive noise can have on the physical and psychological well-being of people. In large cities like Hyderabad, Visakhapatnam, Tirupati, and Vijayawada where the traffic is heavy, the noise levels are above 90 decibels, which is far higher than the tolerable limit. Noise pollution some limits and facts * Humans can hear only up to 60-65 decibels without damage to the ears. * Noise- induced hearing impairment is called noise induced sensorial hearing loss (NIHC). When one is subjected to sound of 80 or more decibels for an extended period of time, hearing problems are sure to occur. * Only dogs and cats can bear more noise. Cinema Theaters And Noise Pollution When one is subjected to sound of 80 or more decibels for an extended period of time, hearing problems are sure to occur. Cinema theaters are for our entertainment but they should not threaten our hearing abilities. The noise limit in theatres is 85 decibels. If the noise is more than tolerable, we may suffer partial bearing impairment. Theaters should not be permitted to function at places like crossroads where the noise is already high.
Nor should they be allowed near educational institutions, hospitals and other places where silences should be maintained. That is why legally they are prohibited to function at such zones, and we must build up public opinion to implement the prohibition. Health Effects Noise pollution adversely affects the lives of millions of people. Studies have shown that there are direct links between noise and health. Problems related to noise include stress related illnesses, high blood pressure, speech interference, hearing loss, sleep disruption, and lost productivity.
Noise Induced Hearing Loss (NIHL) is the most common and often discussed health effect, but research has shown that exposure to constant or high levels of noise can cause countless adverse health affects. Reducing noise at home Although the amount of noise made by any one person or household may seem negligible, it can make a real difference to the comfort of neighbours and even other members of the household. The following simple measures can be taken: * Site noisy household equipment (e. g. washing machines) away from partition walls. * When buying a new household appliance, ask how noisy it is.
If people opt for quiet appliances, manufacturers will make them! * Apologise to neighbours in advance for disturbance caused by loud noise. * If people must be around loud sounds, they can protect their ears with hearing protection (e. g. , ear plugs or ear muffs). * Keep the volume of TV, radio and music as low as possible, especially late at night. If you want to turn the volume up, use headphones (but be careful not to deafen yourself! ). * If your dog barks when left alone, arrange to leave it with a friend. * If you have a party, tell your neighbours in advance, and keep the noise to a minimum. If using fireworks for a celebration, tell neighbours especially if they have pets, and don’t let fireworks off after 11. 00 pm (or 1. 00am at New Year, Diwali, Chinese New Year and Bonfire Night). Road Traffic This is one of the most widespread sources of noise, and unfortunately, the most difficult to control. Research shows that over 40% of the population is bothered by noise from road traffic. The noise made by individual vehicles is limited by the Road Vehicles Reducing Vehicle Noise * Avoid slamming car doors * Use the horn only in an emergency * Keep the silencer in good order Service the vehicle regularly for quietness and economy * Check the brakes are properly adjusted and do not squeal * Keep the volume of in car entertainment reasonable – if it is too loud you could harm your hearing and reduce safety as well as disturb and annoy others noise pollution noise pollution, human-created noise harmful to health or welfare. Transportation vehicles are the worst offenders, with aircraft, railroad stock, trucks, buses, automobiles, and motorcycles all producing excessive noise. Construction equipment, e. g. , jackhammers and bulldozers, also produce substantial noise pollution.
Noise intensity is measured in decibel units. The decibel scale is logarithmic; each 10-decibel increase represents a tenfold increase in noise intensity. Human perception of loudness also conforms to a logarithmic scale; a 10-decibel increase is perceived as roughly a doubling of loudness. Thus, 30 decibels is 10 times more intense than 20 decibels and sounds twice as loud; 40 decibels is 100 times more intense than 20 and sounds 4 times as loud; 80 decibels is 1 million times more intense than 20 and sounds 64 times as loud. Distance diminishes the effective decibel level reaching the ear.
Thus, moderate auto traffic at a distance of 100 ft (30 m) rates about 50 decibels. To a driver with a car window open or a pedestrian on the sidewalk, the same traffic rates about 70 decibels; that is, it sounds 4 times louder. At a distance of 2,000 ft (600 m), the noise of a jet takeoff reaches about 110 decibels—approximately the same as an automobile horn only 3 ft (1 m) away. Subjected to 45 decibels of noise, the average person cannot sleep. At 120 decibels the ear registers pain, but hearing damage begins at a much lower level, about 85 decibels.
The duration of the exposure is also important. There is evidence that among young Americans hearing sensitivity is decreasing year by year because of exposure to noise, including excessively amplified music. Apart from hearing loss, such noise can cause lack of sleep, irritability, heartburn, indigestion, ulcers, high blood pressure, and possibly heart disease. One burst of noise, as from a passing truck, is known to alter endocrine, neurological, and cardiovascular functions in many individuals; prolonged or frequent exposure to such noise tends to make the physiological disturbances chronic.
In addition, noise-induced stress creates severe tension in daily living and contributes to mental illness. Noise is recognized as a controllable pollutant that can yield to abatement technology. In the United States the Noise Control Act of 1972 empowered the Environmental Protection Agency to determine the limits of noise required to protect public health and welfare; to set noise emission standards for major sources of noise in the environment, including transportation equipment and facilities, construction equipment, and electrical machinery; and to recommend regulations for controlling aircraft noise and sonic booms.
Also in the 1970s, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration began to try to reduce workplace noise. Funding for these efforts and similar local efforts was severely cut in the early 1980s, and enforcement became negligible. Noise Pollution Print this page ; Sound is essential to our daily lives, but noise is not – noise can be defined as unwanted sound. and below we explain what steps you can take if disturbed by noise, and to reduce the noise you make. Find out more about the different sources of noise and how to deal with them: * Noise nuisance Noise in the street * Night time noise * Fireworks * Bye laws * How to complain about noise * Reducing noise at home * Noise abatement zones * Construction site noise * Noise at work * Transport noise Noise nuisance A nuisance is often difficult to establish but, generally speaking, if something is unreasonable to the average person, a court might decide it is a statutory nuisance. Noise nuisance is covered by Part III of the Environmental Protection Act 1990 (EPA).
This law empowers local authorities to deal with noise from fixed premises (including land) if they consider that the noise amounts to a statutory nuisance. Proceedings may be taken against noise from factories, shops, pubs, dwellings and stationary vehicles. Noise in the street The Noise and Statutory Nuisance Act 1993 makes noise in the street a statutory nuisance. Traffic noise, noise made by military forces, or from campaigning demonstrations is excluded. The following are included: Vehicles
Noise emitted from a vehicle, caused by it or by car repairs, car radios, car alarms and parked refrigerator vehicles. Loudspeakers The use of loudspeakers in the streets is banned between 9. 00 pm and 8. 00 am (the police, ambulance and fire brigade are exempt). Local authorities can license use outside these hours – e. g. for entertainment but not for advertising purposes or electioneering. Vehicles selling perishable foods may use loudspeakers between 12. 00 noon and 7. 00 pm and these times can be varied with local authority consent.
Complaints about loudspeakers or chimes should be made to the environmental health department. Burglar Alarms Under the Clean Neighbourhoods and Environment Act 2005, local authorities in England and Wales can designate all or part of their area as an “alarm notification area”. If an alarm notification area is designated, a notice will be published in a local newspaper and all affected addresses notified. Anyone responsible for premises in a designated area where an intruder alarm is installed must nominate a key holder and notify the local authority.
The key holder should live nearby, be able to gain access and know how to silence the alarm if it goes off accidentally. Failure to register a key holder may result in a fine. If an alarm (whether in a designated area or not) has been sounding continuously for 20 minutes or intermittently for more than an hour, and is judged to be giving reasonable cause for annoyance, (and, in a designated area, reasonable steps have been taken to contact the nominated key holder) an authorised officer of the local authority can enter the premises to silence the alarm.
If entry can only be gained by force, a warrant will be required. Night time noise The Anti-social Behaviour Act 2003 amended the Noise Act 1996 and enables local authorities in England and Wales to tackle night time noise emitted from dwellings and gardens between the hours of 11. 00 pm and 7. 00 am. To enforce these powers local authorities must ensure that an environmental health officer takes reasonable steps to investigate complaints about noise emitted from dwellings. If the officer is satisfied that noise exceeds the permitted level, a warning notice may be served on the person responsible.
If the warning is ignored, the officer may issue a fixed penalty notice of ? 100, enter the dwelling and confiscate the noise making equipment (obstructing confiscation carries a fine of up to ? 1000), or prosecute (fine up to ? 1000). In Scotland similar action can be taken under the Anti-Social Behaviour (Noise Control) (Scotland) Regulations 2005. An extension of the Noise Act came into force in February 2008, enabling local authorities in England and Wales to tackle night time noise from licensed premises. Fireworks Recently fireworks have become an increasing noise problem for people and pets.
They are let off not only for traditional celebrations such as Bonfire Night, New Year and Diwali, but year round to mark public and private celebrations. The Fireworks Regulations 2004 prohibit anyone under 18 from possessing a firework, and anyone except professionals from possessing display fireworks. They also prohibit the use of fireworks between 11. 00 pm and 7. 00 am except for Chinese New Year, Diwali, New Year’s Eve and Bonfire Night. Since January 2005 only licensed traders can supply fireworks year round (find out more about fireworks legislation).
Unlicensed traders can only sell them for short periods around the festivals mentioned above. Bye Laws Some sources of noise nuisance are restricted by bye-laws enforced by the local authority, but an individual may also prosecute. Sources covered include noisy animals, loud music, model aircraft, and seaside pleasure boats. How do I complain about noise nuisance? 1. Tackle the Source First, approach whoever is responsible for the noise. They will often not realise they are disturbing you. The majority of noise complaints are resolved informally, and you may well get a quicker result than if you wait for an official to arrive.
In cases where you might feel threatened, or where previous personal approaches have not worked, go to your local authority. 2. Complain to the Local Authority Contact the environmental health department of your local authority. They must investigate your complaint. If they agree that the noise is a nuisance they will contact the offender – informally at first, but with an abatement notice if necessary. If the offender fails to comply with the notice, proceedings can be taken in the Magistrates Court (Sheriff Court in Scotland) or an injunction sought in the High Court. . Mediation Many areas have mediation services who can help you resolve noise disputes. Again, this may often prove quicker than the legislative route, and is useful where there is a problem, but a statutory nuisance cannot be proved. Your local authority should be able to put you in touch with a mediation service if there is one available in your area. If these fail… 1. Complain Direct to Magistrates As an occupier of premises affected by noise nuisance you can complain directly to the Magistrates Court under section 82 of the Environmental Protection Act 1990.
You may do this because you do not wish to involve the local authority or because you have not obtained satisfaction from them. 2. Take Civil Action Civil action can be taken if you demonstrate that the noise nuisance substantially affects your health, comfort or convenience. It can be expensive and it is wise to seek legal advice. If you win the case you will obtain an injunction to stop the nuisance and can sometimes claim damages. Civil action differs from Magistrate/Sheriff Court proceedings in that judgment is based on how the nuisance affects others.
Proving that the ‘best practicable means” have been used to abate the noise is no defence, except in cases involving noise from trade or business premises. In extreme cases… Neighbour noise can be part of a more serious neighbour problem. Under the Housing Act 1996 social landlords can take action against tenants for anti-social behaviour. The Crime and Disorder Act 1998 gives councils the power to issue an anti-social behaviour order to anyone causing “harassment, alarm or distress” – this can include noise. Disobeying an order carries a prison sentence of up to five years.
Our Neighbour Noise Leaflet explains the complaints system in more detail. Noise abatement zones Under the Control of Pollution Act 1974 a local authority may designate all or part of its area as a noise abatement zone (NAZ). This is intended to control noise from premises in the long term by preventing an increase in noise levels and reducing levels wherever possible. When a NAZ is in operation the local authority records the levels of noise from specified premises – these may be factories, commercial or domestic premises.
The register is open to public inspection and once a noise has been registered it can only be exceeded with the local authority’s consent. Noise reductions can be sought later if it is in the public interest and can be achieved at reasonable cost. Construction site noise This covers inherently noisy operations – building works, roadworks, demolition, dredging etc. They often take place in areas which were quiet beforehand and are expected to be quiet again when the work is complete.
Under the Control of Pollution Act 1974 local authorities can serve a notice imposing requirements as to how the construction works should be carried out to minimise noise. The environmental health department sets noise limits, taking into account the character of the local area. Anyone intending to carry out construction works may apply in advance for a consent. Compliance with the terms of a notice or consent does not rule out proceedings by an individual on the grounds of noise nuisance under s. 82 of the Environmental Protection Act. 4 Aircraft Many people regularly hear aircraft noise.
Those living near civil and military airports are severely affected by take off and landing noise. The impact is greatest near the perimeter of the airport and below flight paths. Currently the Government only has direct responsibility for aircraft noise management at Heathrow, Gatwick and Stansted. Measures introduced to reduce noise include Noise Preferential Routes and restrictions on night flying. Maximum noise limits for departing aircraft are set and monitored and noise insulation schemes operate. Noise from aircraft on the ground is the responsibility of the airport management company.
To comply with the EU Environmental Noise Directive, operators of airports with over 50,000 movements a year are responsible for drawing up Noise Action Plans by 18th July 2008 (Under criteria set for this 15 airports are designated in England, 3 in Scotland and one in N Ireland). http://www. fitnesshigh. com/readarticles. php? id=235&title=NoisePollutionFacts&AssociatedComplications http://www. legalserviceindia. com/articles/noip. htm http://www2. mcdaniel. edu/Biology/Eh2003/EH03PPpresentations/2ndaytalks/noise_pollution. htm
SNOW WHITE AND THE SEVEN DWARFS 5 Running Head: SNOW WHITE AND
SNOW WHITE AND THE SEVEN DWARFS 5
Running Head: SNOW WHITE AND THE SEVEN DWARFS 1
Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs
Genre theory has been used in the study of films, for the purpose of categorization. Genre is always dependent on other factors such as the work story line, the expectations of the audience and who the director is. Knowing who the intended audience is is important taking in to account the time the film was made and the audience or rather the generation which exists during that period. The time is important as it determines the technology which was used like in today’s high speed films, where different lighting is applied differently from those which were short like two decades ago. Genre theory facilitates creation of a short cut of how to describe a film and through how it is used; it is a short cut of shortening academic works.
The outer beauty fades and the inner beauty is what counts, Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs are among the most famous fairy tales in the world. There was a child born to a queen and a king. Her name was Snow White. The queen died and the king remarried a new queen who was cruel and never liked the girl. Based on famous fairy tale by Grimm Brothers, the wicked queen opens the story by asking her magic mirror who was the fairest one of all. The fateful answer from the mirror: Snow White, who was the queen’s young step daughter. She orders the woodsman to kill her. The sympathetic woodsman instead of killing her, he urges the girl to hide in the forest and this is where the whole story starts to unfold (White, 2013).
The film involves s beautiful girl, Snow White, who takes sanctuary in the home of the seven dwarfs named Grumpy, Doc, Sleepy, Happy, Sneezy, Bashful and Dopey in the forest after she ran away to hide from her stepmother, the evil Queen. Her stepmother is jealous as she wants to be recognized as “fairest in the land” and also her beauty surpasses her own. The dwarfs continue loving their unexpected visitor as she cooks their meals and cleans their house. One day as the dwarfs are at work in their diamond mine, the queen arrives at their cottage concealed like an old peddler woman and convinces Snow White to bite an apple which was poisoned. The dwarfs rush home to chase the witch away after being warned by forest animals. They are too late to save the girl from the poisoned apple. They mourn her death and place her in a glass coffin in the woods. The prince who is in love with her happens by and awakens her from the deathlike spell with his first love first kiss.
The story is only one version of this oft-told tale more than a century before he Disney film was released. The Grimm Brothers having published the Little Snow White, original story, 1812 in a collection of German fairy tales. The plot of the original fairy tale is more gruesome compared to the animated movie although the basic story of the evil queen trying to kill the girl out of her jealousy is just the same.
In the film, Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs (1937), the initial full length animated feature, colored and with sound. It is one of the Disney’s greatest work and one of the fist tales in the film industry. It was first commercially successful films of a kind, innovative and technically brilliant example of Disney’s animated work. It is the first film with an official sound track and also the first film to release a sound track album from the motion picture. The story is adapted from original Brothers Grimm’s Fairy Tales, without overt sexual references, in a sanitized version and with no violent content.
Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs is an animated film showing different stereotypical characters: the prince, the princess, the friends and the evil enemy. In the film, the prince only appears twice, that is at the beginning and at the end. The viewer is left with many questions like; where was he during the movie and why did he appear only after he knew about the tragedy if it was true that Snow White was his love?
The film is all about friendship and love and dreams coming true, a notion too appealing to the young generation. The Snow White character starts off in a condition which is not only making her sad but also one which threatens her life by living under the rules of her step mother. Selfish desires of the queen are dangerous. She almost succeeds killing the most beautiful woman in the world as her magic mirror addresses. Offering dangerous poisonous gifts, she do not succeed in killing Snow White, but in the end of the film, the girl is saved and the queen faces justice for her murder attempts (Batchelder, 2016).
Batchelder, D. (2016). Walt Disney’s Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs: Master Score. Notes, 73(1), 157.
White, J. (2013). Snow White and the seven dwarfs: a fairy tale play based on the story of the Brothers Grimm. Read Books Ltd.