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Newspaper Response on Buddhism Essay (Article)

Buddhism is one of the largest religions in the world. It is quite different from other world religions. For example, almost all religions have a God who is a sacred spirit. Buddhism has Buddha, who was a man reached nirvana. There are several “types” of Buddhism that are now considered different religions: Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism. However, all these religions are based on one teaching and have common principles. In the article by Tenzin Gyatso “Many Faiths, One Truth”, author discusses this question comparing the basic principles of Buddhism with basic principles of other religions. The author claims that there is not the best religion, all world religions teach people the same basic virtues but interpret them in different ways. Thus, it can be summarized that Buddhism is related to other religions of the world in spite of all its peculiarities, consequently, all “faiths” share “one truth” that is universal for all people. The article by Tenzin Guatso is devoted to the exploration of different religions and comparing them to Buddhism and its basic principles. The author writes about situation in the Middle East and Europe. He says that there are still fights between representatives of different religions. However, apart from these conflicts, there is also a tendency for globalization and tolerance, “peoples and religions become ever more entwined” (Gyatso). The author finds common things in Buddhist’s and Christian’s religious ideas, myths and rituals, thought, these religions were considered to be absolutely different. Finally, the author estimates that harmony is the “essential ingredient” of all religions and it is a guarantee of the welfare of all nations. Giving a response on this article it should be mentioned that the author discusses one of the most urgent questions of the modern society concerning questions of religion. According to Bailey and Fisher, “traditional cultures and religions naturally assumed their own points of view…Every culture saw itself as the center of the universe.” (2). However, the truth is that the world’s nations seek to uniting. And the same thing can be said about religion. Moreover, a proper analysis of different religions proves that the standpoints of all these religions are common. For example, Buddha teaches to lead a pious life and live in piece with nature and people around. In addition, one of the core ideas of Buddhism is the theory of emptiness, which means that all things around are out of importance and the aim of everyone is to reach “nirvana”. The same assumption (but in different words) can be said about a core idea of Christianity: one should lead a right life in order to go to Heavens after the death. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Gyasto supports this idea in his article when suggesting the example with “compassion”. He says that the theme of compassion can be found in Talmud and Bible. He also found “centrality of selfless compassion in Hinduism and Islam” (Gyasto). Thus, in his article, the author provides a very important idea that “Finding common ground among faiths can help us bridge needless divides at a time when unified action is more crucial than ever” (Gyasto). The article “Many Faiths, One Truth” by Tenzin Gyasto is devotet to the exploration of the similarities of the Buddhism with other religions of the world. The author assumes that there are very many common things, for example, a theory of compassion. Thus, having analyzed this article, we can assume that harmony between different religions is possible and very important for the welfare of our world. Works Cited Gyatso, Tenzin. “Many Faiths, One Truth”. The New York Times. (2010): n. pag. Web. Fisher, Mary P. and Bailey Lee W. An Anthology of Living Religions, 2nd. Ed. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2008.
CEE 400 Arizona State University Business Sustainable Development Essay.

Choose one ESEM principle and write a one-page essay applying it to one of the following topics:Emerging TechnologySustainable DevelopmentAdaptive ManagementAs a reminder the ESEM principles are: targeted intervention, evaluate technological fix, real-world boundaries, multi-dimensional dialogue, techno-social differentiation, transparent governance, multicultural dialogue, part of the system, systems and artifacts, continuous learning, long-term investment, quantitative metrics, no explicit control, expect emergence, incremental and reversible, and resilient not redundant. Please see this Summary of Allenby’s ESEM Principles or Chapter 14 of The Theory and Practice of Sustainable Engineering for further elaboration.Chapter 13 of The Theory and Practice of Sustainable Engineering may also provide guidance in exploring your chosen topic
CEE 400 Arizona State University Business Sustainable Development Essay

Vivienne Westwood has been an innovative and provocative fashion designer. She has been influenced primarily by the Punk movement and that is one of the reasons I chose to research her fashion collections. This essay is going to investigate the importance of the relationship between Vivienne Westwood and the Punk movement to the fashion society. Westwood established the background for the punk movement in the United Kingdom which affected a lot the fashion styles and until today many clothes are designed according to the Punk fashion style, for example the skinny jeans. I believe that this investigation will provide an insight on sociocultural facts and events that are memorable for the world of fashion. What attracted me to it was that Westwood who hadn’t done any studies on fashion, met Malcolm McLaren and together with their clothes, they were influenced by the British culture so much and they started working at the time when Punk movement was established. This made me think that when one has a gift and wants to become a successful person, eventually he will achieve his goals. Vivienne Westwood has had a successful career for more than 40 years. The essay will focus on the first eight years of her career from 1970 to 1978. During this period the punk movement appeared all over the world. Punk was actually a music genre that developed during this period in the United States, Australia and the United Kingdom. In the United Kingdom, which is the homeland of Westwood, Punk appeared as an alternative political movement, which expressed rebellion, but also appeared as a music scene which brought to the spotlight many punk music groups like the Sex Pistols etc. It also appeared as a fashion style. British adolescents have long created stylish subcultures in order to express all manner of rebellions [1] . The punk style is the connection between Vivienne Westwood and Punk. Therefore, the research question formed is; How Vivienne Westwood’s collections were affected by the punk movement? The essay will start the biography of Vivienne Westwood and Malcolm McLaren and I will refer to the definition and the characteristics of the punk movement in the United Kingdom. I will followins also write about the Sex Pistols and the New York Dolls which are both Punk music groups and wore clothes of Vivienne Westwood. Following I will move into comparing in chronological order collections of Vivienne Westwood with particular punk music groups. The collections I will look into are; Let it Rock 1970, Too fast to live Too young to die, 1972, Sex, 1974 and Seditionaries, 1976. This procedure will lead into the conclusion and my findings on Vivienne Westwood’s influences from the Punk movement MAIN BODY Biography The punk movement appeared as a rock music genre which developed in the decade of the 70s in the United States, Australia and the United Kingdom. They created hard-edged music, characterized by short songs, stripped-down instrumentation and often political, anti-establishment lyrics. In Britain, the Punk movement was politically active and their main concern was the economy of the country. Many people were unemployed because the economy in the United Kingdom in the 1970s was in a recession. Early Punks played a role in politics and protest, and they wanted to express themselves as anticapitalists, antihippies, anarchists and fascists. They portrayed themselves as political radicals by drawing on themes of Marxism, fascism etc. Beyond the fact that punk started out as a music-based subculture, there is a debate about its geographic origins, its ideologies, its membership etc. Most published accounts of punk focus on the origins and flourishing of punk subculture from late 1960s to late 1970s. [2] Punk may have originated in the United States, but punk as a subculture gelled in mid-1970s Britain. [3] . Punk appeared also as a fashion style. The basic male uniform consisted of combat boots, leather jacket, torn jeans, shaved head and most girls tried to adopt this male uniform completely. The ways in which the punk girls combined their punkness and their gender is very unique. They combined female items with punk elements. The influence of the Punk style on music groups is remarkable. The Sex Pistols and New York Dolls are English bands which formed in 1975 in London and their manager was McLaren who was born in 1946 and is a performer and former manager of the two groups. Music, fashion, the Punk Movement was something that attracted him when he was in a Fine Arts college. Malcolm was a friend of Vivienne Westwood’s brother and that’s how they met. Vivienne Westwood was born in Glossop, Derbyshire on 8 April 1941. She is as much of a symbol of England as the Queen and the black cab. [4] She always liked fashion and a quote of her is that Fashion became her baby, she picked it up and never put it down. [5] In 1965 she met Malcolm McLaren and a relationship began. Together they established the foundation of the punk movement by opening shops and creating clothes related to rebellion and punk. Westwood’s career in fashion was galvanized by her partner, Malcolm. [6] Their working relationship lasted from 1970 until 1983, and as is referred to above launched Punk. In 1971 Vivienne thought they should set up a clothes shop, because Malcolm was certainly fascinated by clothes. Thereby, Malcolm found a place at King’s Road which was named Paradise Garage and the couple made an agreement to own part of the shop. Let It Rock was the name of Vivienne’s first collection and the name of the shop too. Her first collection included pieces of drape jackets, leather ties with plastic sleeves, drainpipe trousers, ruffled shirt, day-glo socks, bootlace tie etc. Her favorite fabric was leather, she used a lot of zippers and slogans in order to decorate her clothes. They were interested in that era and they wanted to approach the Teddy boys who were into rebellion and could things stir up. Vivienne sourced authentic buttons, cloth and linings and informed by research in Teddy Boy clubs, copied and recoloured the look. [7] Vivienne began making trousers and more and more people were coming to the shop to try on their day-glo jackets, the special blue and silver trousers etc. At that period of time Vivienne and Malcolm went to a big music concert and were inspired in order to make their own T-shirt, Viva la Rock ‘n’ Roll. Malcolm described rock ‘n’ roll as the jungle beat that threatened white civilization. [8] It is a fact that in the collection Let It Rock of Vivienne Westwood we don’t see a big influence of the punk movement. This can be explained by the fact that at the period of time that Let It Rock was launched, it only the foundations of the punk movement had been established. Despite this fact we can find characteristics of the punk style in specific clothes of Let It Rock. Let It Rock Collection Figure 2. Sid Vicious, Let It Rock, 1970-1972 Figure 1. Vivienne Westwood, Let It Rock, 1970-1972Punks and members of music groups wore clothes that were ripped because in this way they were expressing rebellion through their style. In Figure 1 we see a T-shirt of Let It Rock which shows the influence of punk. Punk style was characterized by clothes with zippers, with holes, slogans, pins, pockets etc. The T-shirt in Figure 1 is ripped like all the clothes of Punks and it has many zippers and pockets and slogans that Vivienne used a lot. A characteristic example is Sid Vicious (Figure 2) who is wearing a ripped T-shirt of the Westwood Let It Rock collection and skinny jeans.. Moreover the slogans for her T-shirts were often lyrics of Sex Pistols songs. A characteristic example we see in Figure 3, in which Westwood is wearing her T-shirt with a photo of the Queen and the title of the Sex Pistols song God save the Queen on top. Figure 3. Malcolm McLaren and Vivienne Westwood, Let It Rock 1970-1972 Figure 4. Destroy T-shirt, Let It Rock 1970-1972Another example of a T-shirt with a slogan is shown in Figure 4, in which Vivienne wants to get the message across that Nazis should not exist. She was against all this racism against the Jewish people etc and she wanted to make something in order to express her disappointment about the Nazis and maybe she thought that she could change something. That’s why she thought to make a T-shirt with the swastika and the work Destroy on top. An example for leather gear is Sid Vicious again (figure 5) who is wearing a leather jacket at a Sex Pistol concert in Notre Dame Hall. Also, Vivienne, who is promoting her style and her clothes by wearing a leather outfit herself. Figure 5. Sid Vicious and Vivienne Westwood, Let It Rock 1970-1972 Although the Let It Rock collection and shop were very successful, Vivienne and Malcolm were searching for something new because the trend of the Teddy Boys had started to elapse. The Teddy Boys weren’t such rebels after all and because the couple wanted to express rebellion they needed something new. They started experimenting with rockers’ and a bike boys’ look and a tougher leather look which was accompanied with punk style. So, in the spring of 1973, they renamed the shop into Too Fast To Live, Too Young To Die and Vivienne started a new collection. Malcolm started buying fabrics such as velvet and Lurex and he thought that they should sell second-hand jeans, customized leather, pegged trousers, double-breast Zoot suits with padded shoulders etc. Because some striped and plain black T-shirts were left over from Let It Rock collection, Vivienne decided against throwing these clothing items away and chose to alter them by ripping them, knotting, cutting holes, rolling and stitching sleeves together. Thereby, Westwood made a series of extraordinary clothes and especially T-shirts collaged with feathers, nipple-revealing zippers, studs, chains, potato prints, hand-stencilled garments and odd objects. She also put glitter on clothes and the whole work turned into something more creative and fun for her. Together with the punk style they also wanted to search for motorbike wear because the couple was interested in rubber, leather and fetishism. This collection of Westwood had the characteristic that, it was a point at which elements of sex imagery, cult fashion and politics met. This characteristic was sometimes a disadvantage because they were sometimes prosecuted under the obscenity of law for exposing to public view an independent exhibition . One characteristic example is that one of their T-shirts showed two naked cowboys which was thought to be unethical, unacceptable and inappropriate by society at large. Vivienne explained, … my job is to confront the Establishment to try to find out where the freedom lies and what you can do: the most obvious way I did that was through the porn T-shirts [9] . Actually she always wanted to express sex somehow. Even when she put zippers on her clothes above all there were all sort of other sexy associations with the zippers [10] . All these characteristics like for example the zippers, leather, chains etc made her clothes surreal and somehow controversial. Also some of the clothes were characterized as rough and deliberately confrontational. To Fast To Live To Young To Die Collection In comparison with Let It Rock collection, here in the TFTLTYTD collection the influence of punk plays a bigger role and we can find characteristics of the punk movement in many clothes of Westwood. Figure 6. Venus T-shirt, TFTLTYTD 1972-1974In Figure 6 we can see Simon Barker wearing the famous hand-made Venus T-shirt which had armholes edged with sections of bike tyres and trimmed with horse hair. For this T-shirt Vivienne was inspired from motorbike wear and the punk movement. Generally, she used also many clues in order to express sexuality. Regarding to the punk style as I have referred to above, the clothes have chains, slogans, pins, leather etc.. So, here in this T-shirt we have as elements taken from punk such as lots of pins, chains and of course the slogan Venus. Also we see that Simon Barker is wearing leather trousers and army boots that Punks quite often wore. Figure 7. Vivienne Westwood, TFTLTYTD 1972-1974Moreover, as I referred to above, Vivienne wanted to express sex through her clothes, so most of the times she made and wore clothes with which she wanted to show that she was against all taboos. A characteristic example is in Figure 7, in which we see Vivienne wearing a shirt, a jacket and underwear from the TFTLTYTD collection without wearing jeans, or trousers above etc. By appearing in public like this she wanted to get the message across that she hated Puritanism and that people should not had taboos and prejudices regarding sex and the expression of the human body. The above opinion is also supported by Figure 8 in which we see Malcolm wearing the T-shirt Two Naked Cowboys of the TFTLTYTD collection. This is one of the T-shirts that had the couple prosecuted under the obscenity of law for exposing to public view an independent exhibition [11] . Vivienne didn’t want to be limited in her designs regarding to ethical implications but sometimes she was obligated to be limited because of the authorities. Figure 8. Two naked cowboys, TFTLTYTD 1972-1974 Figure 9. McLaren and Westwood, TFTLTYTD 1972-1974 In addition, Vivienne herself wore the clothes she designed and by doing so she aimed at promoting the clothes and the punk style also. A characteristic example is Figure 9 in which we see Vivienne with Malcolm in a Photo shout. Vivienne is wearing leather jeans and a blouse with a zipper that could be characterized as conservative. In this photo shooting she wanted to wear something conservative but still in leather so we continue to see the effect of punk on her. She wanted to provoke and show that she is different, that she can be conservative through Punk too. As time passed McLaren set the scene for Punk via the next venture into a field that he knew would provoke still more outrage. He said characteristically in an interview of Elle magazine in November of 1985; It started with an interest in any form of youth revolt, so that it involved Teddy Boys and Rockers. Then we brought the sex element into it. [12] So, in 1974 they renamed their shop to SEX written with pink letters again. At that time they started selling bondage gear such as rubber body suits, rubber masks, leather mini skirts, leather underwear, shirts with chains, padlocks, fishnets, fetishistic lace-up boots and they also sold stilettos. At that time their slogan was Rubber wear for the office. The couple wanted to prove that they didn’t care about taboos and prejudices and that’s why in this collection they marketed clothes related to sadomasochism, fascism, pornography etc. Her clothes continued to shock society if we consider that this collection was selling sex more than the previous ones. Vivienne explains, all the clothes that I wore that people would regard as shocking, I wore them because I just thought I looked like a princess from another planet, I just thought I looked incredible in these clothes. [13] . The influence of Punk in SEX is more than in the previous collections because SEX clothes were mostly made of leather, chains etc which are basic elements of punk style. Punk was a cross-fertilization of SEX clothes [14] . Some people believe that punk was an eruption in the streets. But what it was infact was a fashion event from the start, like the creation of a historical painting based on a revolution; because that is what it actually was, a revolution. Sex Collection A characteristic example of this sexual revolution that Vivienne wanted to express through fashion is the T-shirt Tits in figure 10. It is a T-shirt from SEX and it was worn by both men and women but it was preferred by men because they wanted to shock by expressing the idea of homosexuality; Figure 10. Tits T-shirt, SEX 1974-1976 Figure 10. Tits T-shirt, SEX 1974-1976 Moreover as it was referred to above, punk influenced SEX in such a way Vivienne used their elements and their main fabric, leather in making her clothes. In Figure 11 we observe how punk influenced SEX. In this picture we see Jordan, shop girl of 1974, wearing a leather outfit of SEX. In the foreground it is shown a body suit made of leather belts and in the background we can find rubber clothes hanging on racks. Figure 11. Jordan, SEX 1974-1976 We can find another example of Punk influence on SEX in Figure 12, in which we see Johnny Rotten wearing a black leather bondage suit. This piece of clothing shows the combination of punk and sexuality because leather is the fabric of punks and when we talk about bondage suits we relate them to sadomasochism and generally sex. Figure 12. John Rotten, SEX 1974-1976 Furthermore in Figure 13 it can be detected Vivienne wearing a total black outfit made of rubber and leather. It has some pins on top and Vivienne is also holding some leather straps attached to other leather objects. Malcolm and Vivienne had gone all the way by making a public display of the leather and rubber stuff that fetishists succumbed to in private. Figure 13. Vivienne Westwood, SEX 1974-1976 What SEX was and generally what all Westwood collections were was a complex amalgam of various stylish influences, in which Punk had its roots in the streets of London and the music scenes of New York. As time went by the New York Dolls made their own decadent outfits to which Westwood added elements from the torn clothes of the pin-ups in Let it Rock, chains, zips, rubber wear and bondage garments of SEX. Consequently, in 1977 the shop and the collection changed its name yet again into Seditionaries under the slogan Clothes for heroes. The word Seditionaries was Vivienne’s concoction and was based on the fact that someone needed to seduce people in order to revolt. This moment was the peak of all this punk madness. In this collection the zips and straps of obscure sexual fetishism were transformed into fashion. Malcolm and Vivienne continued selling SEX T-shirts and fetish gear but everything was much smarter, less underground and less provincially British [15] . They made some T-shirts with photos, slogans on top and again they borrowed elements from the Punk movement. Savage wrote that Seditionaries brought the modern look in the 1970s but also Seditionaries clothes unleashed a more violent reaction combined with punk elements than SEX clothes. If the first Punks had thrown up every youth style since the war and then stuck it together with safety pins and panache, Seditionaries avoided retro yet caught the confusion: the look – both in the original and the imitations – spread thoughout the world [16] . This collection included again bondage trousers and clothes with straps and zips. Westwood in this collection used wool, mohair and leather for fabric which were elements of Punk movement. Westwood also made trousers based on military wear but even then she added her own elements based on sado-masochistic and fetishist gear. The Punks at that time had their own army uniform. The clothes were accessorized with pins, razor blades and silver phalluses. They tended to throw together sado-masochistic bondage paraphernalia and clothing associated with the hospital or the mental asylums so that they produced a surreal commentary on the anarchic tendencies of the sartorial display. Again with this collection Vivienne wanted to reveal taboos and mess with the normative class coding. One of the most significant factors of Punk at that moment was that it gave license for women to dress assertively. Vivienne said characteristically that Punk was what made her think of herself as a designer. Actually what Punk was both for her and society was a fashionable expression of a revolution. In fact, fashion itself became a revolution. Seditionaries Collection In Figure 14 we can identify that Vivienne made such shirts like in this Figure which has an image of Karl Marx in the top left hand in order to express revolution. Punks wanted to mess with everything and break the rules and norms. Marx symbolized revolution and was against the system as were the Punks. And this is the reason why her clothes appealed to Punks. Figure 14. Punk shirt, Seditionaries 1977 Figure 15. Blue cotton shirt, Seditionaries 1976-1980In Figure 15 we observe a Seditionaries blue cotton parachute shirt with strap harness, printed with situationist slogans such as ‘Only Anarchists are Pretty’. Regarding the Seditionaries clothes, they had borrowed elements from the Punk movement and also elements from the SEX collection. All these straps and slogans were characteristic of the Punk style and the whole parachute thing reminds us of the SEX bondage gear. In the 16th and last Figure we detect a few clothes of the Seditionaries worn by a number of Punks. The woolen sweaters that are shown in the figure and all these parachute jackets have been borrowed from the Punk style. In addition the jackets also have elements from SEX bondage and sado-masochistic gear which exists also in Seditionaries collection. Figure 16. Punk clothes, Seditionaries 1977 Conclusion Manifests are always written after an event. In retrospect, the manifest of the Punk movement allowed a person to express himself, to succeed or even fail in extravagant way. The music, fashion and of course the Punk movement were a huge art festival which was born from the life and the experiences that Malcolm McLaren gained in the school of Arts. He inspired Vivienne to create this vast business in the world of fashion based on the Punk movement. This was the new fashion, the new way of thinking. The couple started from a small shop in King’s Road and step by step they created their own rules for life, their own norms, their own identity. In other words they set the foundation for an alternative society. Of course all these things were based on the Punk movement and primarily on their ideology. Vivienne not only used the elements of the Punk movement but also their ideology. Through her fashion, she wanted to make rebellion and go against mainstream society, just like the Punks. That’s why she used symbols related to Punks and rebellion in her clothes like for example Karl Marx, or the swastika with the word Destroy on top etc. Combining irony and the ideology of Punks she wanted to break taboos like the issue of homosexuality or nudity etc. Actually McLaren and Westwood’s aim was to create something new, totally fashionable while they were using symbolism to convey their ideas. And that was the point where they needed Punk, as inspiration and influence. Vivienne characteristically says about Punk I’m proud to have been part of it. It was heroic at the time [17] . But as it is known, fashion is like a circle and the trends change every now and then, so the whole issue with the influence of the Punk movement in Vivienne’s career stopped at the beginning of the 80s. From the 80s there on, she introduced a startling and highly influential new vocabulary about fashion which was characterized as nostalgia for the future. In spite of this she never forgot her origins. Vivienne never created something conservative despite the fact that their future collections don’t have elements from the Punk movement. Vivienne’s career was built on punk. Whenever she gives an interview she refers to the influence that Punk had on her work and life, saying characteristically that Punk and McLaren were the two factors that encouraged her to make fashion and to be who she is now. The punk period helped her develop creatively. Having created the Sex Pistols look he gained more self-confidence and realized her vast creative abilities. Fortunately, Punk helped Westwood expand her abilities, and identify her talent. Westwood was determined to leave her mark on international fashion which she certainly did.

How to Answer Questions on a Guest Speaker

How to Answer Questions on a Guest Speaker.

This assignment has two parts, Discuss your answers in fully developed sentences.On Thursday, November 16, Kelli Carr, Tourism Director at Cleveland/Bolivar County Chamber of Commerce, will be the guest speaker in class. She has been with the Chamber since 2013 and is a graduate of Delta State. Conduct background research on the tourism industry. Use at least one source for your research and cite it.Part 1 include your source on it)Explain with examples what service characteristics (chapter 2) discussed in class apply to this industry?Explain with examples what type of internal and external influences from the Consumer Behavior Model (chapter 3) influence the customers of this industry?Explain with examples what some of the current trends in this industry are? This should not be your opinion but facts found in your research.Explain with examples what some of the current challenges in this industry are? This should not be your opinion but facts found in your research. Explain with examples what opportunities for growth are in this industry?Part 2 Find at least one news article pertaining to this industry and provide a URL to it in the text entry box. Discuss anything interesting you read about the article. Develop at least two questions to ask the speaker based on your research
How to Answer Questions on a Guest Speaker

Low Level Programming Language Computer Science Essay

order essay cheap Low-level programming language is a programming language that provides little or no abstraction from a computers instruction set architecture. The word low refers to the small or nonexistent amount of abstraction between the language and machine language; because of this, low-level languages are sometimes described as being “close to the hardware.” A low-level language does not need a compiler or interpreter to run. The processor for which the language was written is able to run the code without using either of these. By comparison, a high-level programming language isolates the execution semantics of computer architecture from the specification of the program, making the process of developing a program simpler and more understandable. Low-level programming languages are sometimes divided into two categories: first generation, and second generation. First generation The first-generation programming language, or 1GL, is a machine code. It is the only language a microprocessor can process directly without a previous transformation. Currently, programmers almost never write programs directly in machine code, because it requires attention to numerous details which a high-level language would handle automatically, and also requires memorizing or looking up numerical codes for every instruction that is used. For this reason, second generation programming languages provide one abstraction level on top of the machine code. Example: A function in 32-bit x86 machine code to calculate the nth Fibonacci number: 8B542408 83FA0077 06B80000 0000C383 FA027706 B8010000 00C353BB 01000000 B9010000 008D0419 83FA0376 078BD98B C84AEBF1 5BC3 Second generation Second-generation programming language, or 2GL, is an assembly language. It is considered a second-generation language because while it is not a microprocessor’s native language, an assembly language programmer must still understand the microprocessor’s unique registers and instructions. These simple instructions are then assembled directly into machine code. The assembly code can also be abstracted to another layer in a similar manner as machine code is abstracted into assembly code. Example: The same Fibonacci number calculator as on page one, but in x86 assembly language using MASM syntax: fib: mov edx, [esp 8] cmp edx, 0 ja @f mov eax, 0 ret @@: cmp edx, 2 ja @f mov eax, 1 ret @@: push ebx mov ebx, 1 mov ecx, 1 @@: lea eax, [ebx ecx] cmp edx, 3 jbe @f mov ebx, ecx mov ecx, eax dec edx jmp @b @@: pop ebx ret High level programming language High-level programming language is a programming language with strong abstraction from the details of the computer. In comparison to low-level programming languages, it may use natural language elements, it is easier to use and more portable across platforms. Such languages hide the details of CPU operations such as memory access models and management of scope. This greater abstraction and hiding of details is generally intended to make the language user-friendly, as it includes concepts from the problem domain instead of those of the machine used. A high-level language isolates the execution semantics of computer architecture from the specification of the program, making the process of developing a program simpler and more understandable with respect to a low-level language. The amount of abstraction provided defines how “high-level” a programming language is. The term “high-level language” does not imply that the language is superior to low-level programming languages – in fact, in terms of the depth of knowledge of how computers work required to productively program in a given language, the inverse may be true. Rather, “high-level language” refers to the higher level of abstraction from machine language. Rather than dealing with registers, memory addresses and call stacks, high-level languages deal with usability, threads, locks, objects, variables, arrays and complex arithmetic or Boolean expressions. In addition, they have no opcodes that can directly compile the language into machine code, unlike low-level assembly language. Other features such as string handling routines, object-oriented language features and file input/output may also be present. High-level languages make complex programming simpler, while low-level languages tend to produce more efficient code. High-level programming features like more generic data structures, run-time interpretation and intermediate code files often result in slower execution speed, higher memory consumption and larger binary size. For this reason, code which needs to run particularly quickly and efficiently may be written in a lower-level language, even if a higher-level language would make the coding easier. With the growing complexity of modern microprocessor architectures, well-designed compilers for high-level languages frequently produce code comparable in efficiency to what most low-level programmers can produce by hand, and the higher abstraction may allow for more powerful techniques providing better overall results than their low-level counterparts in particular settings. There are three models of execution for modern high-level languages: Interpreted – Interpreted languages are read and then executed directly, with no compilation stage. Compiled – Compiled languages are transformed into an executable form before running. There are two types of compilation: Intermediate representations – When a language is compiled to an intermediate representation, that representation can be optimized or saved for later execution without the need to re-read the source file. When the intermediate representation is saved it is often represented as bytecode. Machine code generation – Some compilers compile source code directly into machine code. Virtual machines that execute bytecode directly or transform it further into machine code have blurred the once clear distinction between intermediate representations and truly compiled languages. Translated – A language may be translated into a low-level programming language for which native code compilers are already widely available. The C programming language is a common target for such translators. Examples of high level programming language include: Java, C, Python, Scheme, Prolog, C , C#, VB, Java Script, Ruby and Lisp. Comparison of high and low programming languages – below are similar programs in both languages to find greatest and smallest data value in a data set. Validating raw data Input validation is an important part of any computer application that requires user interaction. It applies to anything that the application does to ensure that data entered by the user is acceptable for the purposes of the application. Input validation can take place at various times in the data entry cycle. For example, the programmer can: Constrain the user’s entry of data before it begins by providing very restricted data input fields that permit only valid choices. The most common way to do this is to provide standard controls that do not permit free keyboard entry, such as drop-down lists, option buttons, and check boxes. Constrain the user’s entry of data at the moment that it occurs by monitoring every keystroke for validity and rejecting unwanted input as it’s typed. For instance, a particular entry field might seem to the user to ignore anything but numeric characters. React to the user’s entry of data after the user is finished, accepting or rejecting the contents of a data field when the user attempts to leave the field or close the screen. Input validation can also have varying degrees of user participation. For instance, the program can Automatically correct a user’s mistakes without asking the user’s opinion. Warn the user of incorrect input and prompt the user to correct the input before allowing the user to continue with other activities. Benifets of Data Validation: Reduces the time that is spent completing forms and eliminates costs associated with errors by validating data, improving efficiency and minimizing the high cost of exception handling resulting from data input errors. Validation happens immediately in a visual basic form and can catch common errors such as not entering a required field, incorrect data type or entering incorrect data based on other data previously entered into the form. Example – validation of checking if the date entered is after today’s date: Private Sub Date_Entered_AfterUpdate() If Me.Date_Entered>date() then ‘ Date_Entered is form field name msgbox “Please enter a date less than or equal to today’s date.” Me.Date_Entered.setfocus ‘ set cursor back in the date field end if End Sub Using strings with passwords in visual basic The use of strings benefits data entry in a password application in visual basic because the program would not reset itself and crash on error input. This could affect the safety of the password which could be compromised. It compares the 4 digit numbers inputted in order and will only allow access when all 4 characters are correct and in the right sequence. If this doesn’t happen it will reset and wipe the numbers clear. This is so the imputer cannot see which one’s he/she has got right and try different ones for the others remaining. In visual basic for the above program you could limit the user to a certain amount of attempts before the user is locked out. When the code is incorrect you could have a warning flash up on the computer, or if the wrong sort of data is inputted you can have a warning asking for the correct data. Likewise if you have not inputted 4 digits it would crash so this can be modified in the code strings with ” “. Data Types Boolean Data Type This data type holds values that can be only true or false. The keywords True and False correspond to the two states of Boolean variables. Use the Boolean data type to contain two-state values such as true/false, yes/no, or on/off. The default value of Boolean is False. Type Conversions When Visual Basic converts numeric data type values to Boolean, 0 becomes False and all other values become true. When Visual Basic converts Boolean values to numeric types, False becomes 0 and True becomes -1. When you convert between Boolean values and numeric data types, the .NET Framework conversion methods do not always produce the same results as the Visual Basic conversion keywords. This is because the Visual Basic conversion retains behaviour compatible with previous versions. Programming guide Negative Numbers. Boolean is not a numeric type and cannot represent a negative value. In any case, you should not use Boolean to hold numeric values. Type Characters. Boolean has no literal type character or identifier type character. Framework Type. The corresponding type in the .NET Framework is the system Boolean structure. In the following example, runningVB is a Boolean variable, which stores a simple yes/no setting. Dim runningVB As Boolean ‘ Check to see if program is running on Visual Basic engine. If scriptEngine = “VB” Then runningVB = True End If Integer Data Type Integer data holds signed 32-bit (4-byte) integers ranging in value from -2,147,483,648 through 2,147,483,647. The Integer data type provides optimal performance on a 32-bit processor. The other integral types are slower to load and store from and to memory. The default value of Integer is 0. Programming guide Interop Considerations. If you are interfacing with components not written for the .NET Framework, for example Automation or COM objects, keep in mind that Integer has a different data width (16 bits) in other environments. Widening. The Integer data type widens to Long, Decimal, Single, or Double. This means you can convert Integer to any of these types without encountering a System.OverflowException error. Type Characters. Appending the literal type character I to a literal forces it to the Integer data type. Appending the identifier type character % to any identifier forces it to Integer. Framework Type. The corresponding type in the .NET Framework is the System.Int32 structure. If you try to set a variable of an integral type to a number outside the range for that type, an error occurs. If you try to set it to a fraction, the number is rounded. The following example shows this. ‘ The valid range of an Integer variable is -2147483648 through 2147483647. Dim k As Integer ‘ The following statement causes an error because the value is too large. k = 2147483648 ‘ The following statement sets k to 6. k = CInt(5.9) Char Data Type Holds unsigned 16-bit (2-byte) code points ranging in value from 0 through 65535. Each code point, or character code, represents a single Unicode character. You use the Char data type when you need to hold only a single character and do not need the overhead of String. In some cases you can use Char(), an array of Char elements, to hold multiple characters. The default value of Char is the character with a code point of 0. Unicode Characters The first 128 code points (0-127) of Unicode correspond to the letters and symbols on a standard U.S. keyboard. These first 128 code points are the same as those the ASCII character set defines. The second 128 code points (128-255) represent special characters, such as Latin-based alphabet letters, accents, currency symbols, and fractions. Unicode uses the remaining code points (256-65535) for a wide variety of symbols, including worldwide textual characters, diacritics, and mathematical and technical symbols. You can use methods like IsDigit and IsPunctuation on a Char variable to determine its Unicode classification. Type Conversions Visual Basic does not convert directly between Char and the numeric types. You can use the Asc, AscW Functions to convert a Char value to an Integer representing its code point. You can use the Chr, ChrW Functions to convert an Integer value to a Char having that code point. If the type checking switch (Option Strict Statement) is on, you must append the literal type character to a single-character string literal to identify it as the Char data type. The following example on page 8 illustrates this. Option Strict On Dim charVar As Char ‘ The following statement attempts to convert a String literal to Char. ‘ Because Option Strict is On, it generates a compiler error. charVar = “Z” ‘ The following statement succeeds because it specifies a Char literal. charVar = “Z”C Programming guide Negative Numbers. Char is an unsigned type and cannot represent a negative value. In any case, you should not use Char to hold numeric values. Interop Considerations. If you are interfacing with components not written for the .NET Framework, for example Automation or COM objects. Widening. The Char data type widens to String. This means you can convert Char to String without encountering a System.OverflowException error. Type Characters. Appending the literal type character C to a single-character string literal forces it to the Char data type. Char has no identifier type character. Framework Type. The corresponding type in the .NET Framework is the System.Char structure Comparison table between Ladder Logic and Visual Basic Language Ladder Logic Visual Basic Suitability for engineering applications High Medium Availability Medium High User friendliness Low High Cost of software High Low Size of code Low (high compact) High Difficulty of use Medium to High Easy Ease of programming Medium User has knowledge then low User has no knowledge then High Ideal use Machine control Simulation Resources:,,, visual basic help,,

Impact of Social Injustice on Nigeria

The question of social justice is a question of what is a proper social order, which can guarantee human equitable and equally distribution of benefits and burdens in a society, which will lead to a flourishing state where individuals are treated equally by the state regardless of society status or creed. A just social order cannot allow for a society of slaves, where for some people, resources external to them are been subjected entirely to communal control, such that they having no control or very little control of means of life, thus leading to their autonomy been undermined. With regards to the Nigerian situation, the Nigeria’s socio-political conundrums stem from numerous complicated tides. Egharevba (2007) states that the “nation-state of Nigeria emerged out of political amalgamations of extremely diverse ethnic groups and class configurations brought together as a colonial necessity in 1914.” In other words, Nigeria’s problems are predicated on the partitioning of Africa by European at the Berlin conference. This conference left the continent with an illogical pattern of geographical distribution which also reflected on the amalgamation of Nigerian by the then colonial masters (Mentiki, 2002). Ammo (1997) sees the make-up of the Nigerian state as an embodying the merging of different people with different worldview that lacks a coherent and functional unity and is consequently fragile. As will be shown in the following analysis, this research seeks to analyse how the impact of social injustice in the Nigeria state has led to the bigger problem of ethnic cleavages which has further prevented the country from attaining any meaningful development. Balewa a former Prime Minister of Nigeria, states that some problems facing the nation include the problems of indiscipline, tribalism, lack of patriotism and declining productivity. But one of the most obvious is the tribal prejudice inherent in the nation’s polity as a result of the inequitable distribution of the ethnic groups across her landscape and the persistent attempt of the giant ethnic groups to monopolize control over state resources thereby usurping and undermining the far lesser groups in the nation’s polity. This assertion has been arrived at having keenly analysed the views, lamentations, opinions and findings of some Nigerian socio-political thinkers on the problem of social injustice in the Nigerian state (Oyeshile, 2005). According to these authors, it is the repressing of the interests of some groups (disadvantaged in size, status, ethnicity, etc.) that has characterized the bane of attaining social justice and by extension, social development in the country (ibid). Anikpo identified the appropriation of available resources in Nigeria as characterized by the fundamental concept of Marx’s theory which defines the instability arising particularly from distorted production and rewarded system; as societal goods are distributed to individuals based on their social class or productivity ability. Hence, this situation of polarization of various ethnic groups, social groups and class lines, etc. has led to the formation of ethnic militias raising several questions about social justice in the society. According to Oyeshile (2005), social injustice in terms of unfair and inequitable distribution of social goods satisfactorily among the multi ethnic groups in Nigeria over the years has resulted in the sharpening of the individual’s allegiance to ethnic inclinations rather than to state authority.1 This reality, according to him, has led to the weakening of the federal government and state authorities in propagating agendas of national interest and development, “since it has become the case that issues of national interest can no longer be considered in their own merits but on how they affect the ethnic groups”2. In other words, the diversities in a contest complicated differences in language, religion and level of economic attainment has further disintegrate the various ethnic tribes in the Nigerian state. In buttressing the above claim, Oguejiofor (2005) refers to the attitude of Nigerians towards the annulment of the June 12, 1993 election, an election which could have consolidated democratic rule in the country years ago. According to him, the North did not want a revisit of the June 12 election simply because its annulment ensured that it (the North) remain in control of power. He states further that “the other sections of Nigeria did not see their interest attacked by the cancellation of the election (and as such did not protest), while for most Yoruba who mounted serious protest, it was doubtful whether they would have done so if the candidate who won the election were not of Yoruba extraction” (ibid). In a further analysis of the Nigerian socio-political situation, Oladipo observed another deepening effect of social injustice in the Nigeria polity. He observed that at the receiving end of the ethic pervasiveness, structural imbalance and poor distribution of social wealth, is the common man. The common man in Nigeria has, for reasons quoted above, found life extremely burdensome and unbearable because of the inability to access the essential things of life. Oladipo further made a call for the restructuring of the body polity of the country from an ethical and ideological perspective4. Furthermore, Ograh (2014) avers that structural imbalance and social injustice in Nigeria is represented in two main forms. Firstly, in the exertion of control and appropriation of state resources by more advantaged ethnic groups over the disadvantaged ones even when the later seem to be the main producers of such resources. Secondly, structural imbalance and social injustice in the Nigeria polity consists in the overwhelming gulp between the living standards of the few elite citizens and the majority commoners. Having considered the above analysis, it is clear therefore that measures must be taken towards restructuring the social order in Nigeria in order for meaningful progress and development can be achieved. Sadly, only few attempts have been made by the government towards achieving the aforementioned objective. Even those few attempts have ended in futility because as Oladipo () acknowledges that where the ideological underpinning is strong and resilient the society survives and thrive but where it is weak, the society’s capacity for social progress becomes impaired5. What this means is that there is need for strong ideological foundation for the rectification of the social disorder and injustice which is on display in Nigeria. This is where I find the theoretical postulations of John Rawls on social justice very useful because Rawls’ conception of justice contains ideological guides for rectifying social injustices in multi-ethnic societies like the Nigerian federation. Rawls believes that the major function of the basic structure of any society is to distribute the benefits and burdens of that society equitably. The benefits of social cooperation, are wealth and income, food and shelter, authority and power, right and benefits among others while the business of the social cooperation included, duties, obligations and liabilities. However, the most important value of this research is to reemphasize the critical role of the concept of social justice in the formation and sustenance of a stable, viable, humane and progressive society.

Plz help me with this question! Image transcriptions Show all 13. Wind is Incident

Plz help me with this question! Image transcriptions Show all 13. Wind is Incident. Question Plz help me with this question! Image transcriptions Show all 13. Wind is Incident en the blades of a wind turbine. The radius of the blades is 12m. The following data are available for the air [3 marks} Densityofair 1.32kgm”3 mm m immediately before and after Impact with the blades. Determine the maximum power that can be extracted from the wind by this turbine. Plz help me with this question! Image transcriptions Show all 13. Wind is Incident