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SECTION I: PROFILE OF COUNTRY MARKETThis section involves an overview of your country market (i.e., the country you will study for entry): Brazil(Latin America)chosen company: Costco (The project aiming for choosing an existing company and develop a plan to launch this company’s products in a country where they are not yet available. Will need to show that the product can be launched successfully and will be at least minimally profitable.)Describe the country market you are analyzing.Characterize this country market in terms of size, historical trends, growth forecasts, etc.What are the different customer segments in this market? A thorough analysis of all the existing, emerging, and potential customer segments in this market is essential to a sensible and creative market space entry.Describe the competitive structure within this market. What is the total number of competitors? Describe the competitive positions of the major players. Who are the leaders/challengers/followers/niche players? Why? What are their positions (including advantages and disadvantages)? What recent trends (e.g. economic, demographic, psychographic, others) have affected this market?What marketing opportunities do such market shifts suggest?What are the cultural and legal differences? What are the important ethical and civic awareness considerations? Note that ethical issues can often be very complex leaving firms to wonder what is the “right” thing to do. Also remember that firm actions overseas affect its reputation worldwide, not only in specific country markets. Issues raised in this section need to be further addressed when you develop the strategy below.For this assignment, you only need to make PowerPoint slides based on the last four bullet points(the first three already done) with explanatory notes.
New York University Costco Profile of Country Market Presentation
Impact of WTO Agreement on Agriculture on Developing Countries
1. Introduction Agreement on Agriculture is definitely a historic decision which was approved, by the member countries during the Uruguay Round in order to create a global trading reign for agriculture under the GATT disciplines. As the principles objectives lay, Agreement on Agriculture prowled to introduce code of conduct in Market Access, Domestic support measures and Export subsidies in order to cut down restrictions on agricultural products, by mainly forbidding the extensive use of NTB, which is the non-tariff barriers for the easy market access, removing the domestic support policies, and reducing export subsidies. The agreement on agriculture is important as it takes into account the concerns that are non-trade with the inclusion of security of food and the need for protection of the environment. In this essay, we are going to have a discussion on the agreement of agriculture as a whole followed by its impacts and an overview of the literature in relation to the agreement in the first part. In the second part of the essay, we will be discussing the impact of the agreement on the developing countries like India and the mechanisms and demand employed for safeguarding these developing countries. Finally a conclusion regarding the scope of the agreement as developing countries are concerned. 2. Literature Review Agriculture is identified as the oldest culture in the entire civilisation of humans. The history in relation with agriculture within India has relevant traces back from ten thousand years. The WTO agreement is the successor of the General Agreement on Trade and Tariff, comprised of eight rounds. The WTO agreement based on agriculture is known to be the ‘International Treaty’ and is one of the major agreements that has been negotiated during the participation of one hundred and twenty-three countries in the Uruguay Round. The main aims and the objectives of the laws in relation to WTO are the promotion of liberal and free trade. There was a certain misuse of the concept that was identified which resulted in the dumping of products in the importing countries by the exporting countries, with a serious threat to the economy of the countries which are developing, like that of the agriculture in India (Merlinda,2003). According to iatp.org. (2018), the WTO Agreement on Agriculture imposes an impact on the agriculture of India. There has been domination of exports by trading agents and Multi-National Companies whereas the imports which were cheap has hit the market of India severely. The effects of the policies of Agreement on Agriculture proved to be under democratic due to a lack of negotiation transparency. Other factors evolved around the low production in India which eventually has to lead to a very negligible force in the market which is global to agriculture. The products that have been included in the purview of the Agreement on Agriculture are usually the ones that are considered to be the part of agriculture except for the forestry and fishery products along with jute, coir, sisal etc. As there have been maintenances of quantitative restrictions by India resulting from a balance of the reasons of payment, India did not require the undertaking of any kind of commitments in relation to the access to the market. The negotiations that have been implemented by the WTO agreement on agriculture has been conducted in a special set of sessions like the concerns that are non-trade, differential and special treatment for developing members and the establishment of a fair market in relation with the trading system of agriculture. There were also proposals made on the areas adhering to the Access to market, support that is domestic, a competition of export and the security related to the food. These proposals were drafted by the member countries based on the inputs that were received from the wide range of consultations from the different stakeholders of the agreement and taking into consideration the objective of India within the negotiations. Due to the implementation of the agreement on agriculture, it can be commented that the US has got 90% from this agreement. Along with that, per capita income of some countries has also inclined. Moreover, a country like India has got a benefit of 7.52% increase in total production. Non-product subsidies have increased by to Rs 4581 crores of India (Wilkinson, Hannah
How extensive is the drug problem among American Youth today? Term Paper
online assignment help Abstract Prescription drug abuse has increased in the recent years. More youth are being introduced to prescription drug abuse than anytime before. For the first time in the history of America, the number of new abusers of prescription drugs was at par with that of marijuana users. Depressants, stimulants and opioids have become among the most common causes of admissions in rehab centers. One important finding is that the rate of prescription drug abuse increased five fold while the rate of prescription of opioids increased. This means that most of these abused drugs are found in the house than bought over the counter. It was also established that the youth are the greatest abusers of these drugs. People aged between 17 and 29 were found to be the most abusive in most of the studies. Finally, alcohol is the only drug that showed a substantial reduction in its rate of abuse. Introduction Surprisingly, abuse of prescription drugs has taken an increasing trend for the last few years. The number of youth indulging in prescription drugs abuse has assumed an upward direction leading to concern among policy makers. In a study carried out recently, it was identified that abuse of painkillers was ranked the second most problematic issue in illegal drug abuse. It was beaten only by marijuana. Many people deny abusing these drugs with the nonchalant supposition that they were recommended by the medical practitioners. National Institute of Drug Abuse defines drug abuse as the action of, “taking a prescription medication that is not prescribed for you, or taking it for reasons or in dosages other than as prescribed” (2005, par. 1). While it might not seem harmful, prescription drugs abuse can have equally devastating effects like the illegal drugs. This paper intends to point out the extent of prescription drug abuse in American youth today. Examples of Abused Drugs Several drugs are abused. Unlike illegal drugs, availability of prescription drugs makes it possible for the youth to access them. For instance, all they need is go to the cupboard, take out the drugs, and use them. National Institute of Drug Abuse further outlines the most abused prescription drugs. Among the most outlined drugs are opioids. These are drugs prescribed as painkillers. They are also prescribed to patients that require depression of the central nervous system. They are prescribed mostly for anxiety and sleep disorder patients. This drug is also used by ADHD and narcolepsy patients as a stimulant. Under this group, there are several types including hydrocodone. One of the brand names for hydrocodone is vicodin. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There is Oxycodone whose brand names include OxyContin. Then there is propoxyphene whose brand names include Darvon. There is Hydromorphone whose brand names include Dilaudid. There is meperidine including Demerol. Finally, there is Diphenoxylate, which includes Lomotil. Other prescription-abused drugs include Pentobarbita sodium whose brand names include Nembutal and Benzodiazepines, which include diazepam. They also include alprazolam like Xanax. These drugs are prescribed as central nervous system depressants. Commonly abused stimulants are Dextroamphetamine, which includes Dexedrine. They also include Methylphenidate like Ritalin and Concerta. Finally, there are amphetamines like Adderall, Dexedrine, Dextrostat, Desoxyn, ProCentra, and Vyvanse and Benzedrine. Depressants are among the most abused prescription drugs. (McCabe, Knight, Teter and, Wechsler, 2004) defines depressants as “chemical agents which destroy and depress any activity of the body parts especially it deactivates the central nervous system” (p. 32). They are used as prescriptions or taken illegally. There are two classes of depressants, barbiturates and benzodiazepines. While barbiturates are very effective when it comes to their designated roles, they can be extremely addictive and usually offer a high-level overdose potential. One of the main characteristics of having used a depressant are slurring in speech, feeling dizzy and most of all evidence of lack of coordination; effects closely related to those of alcohol. This family of prescription drugs includes alcohol, narcotics, sedative-hypnotics, 1st generation antihistamines, and several anesthetics. The most widely used prescriptions of benzodiazepines in the USA include valium, Xanax and Librium. Medically, they are recommended to manage sleep disorders, reduce tension or anxiety and in some cases to reduce pain in patients with acute pain. They are safe if used properly. However, many individuals resort to abusing these drugs yet just like any other drugs; depressants can be very addictive if abused. Valium is the most abused of depressants. Stimulants are medications intended to facilitate brain functioning. These drugs have a thrilling effect and are mostly prescribed to relieve symptoms in conditions like attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, asthma, sleep disorders and other respiratory complications. Since these drugs cause a sense of euphoria, they are constantly abused by young people in order to keep sleep at bay, heighten concentration or to pump up the energy levels. We will write a custom Term Paper on How extensive is the drug problem among American Youth today? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The most commonly misused stimulants are Amphetamine, Ritalin and Methylphenidate also referred to as ephedrine. These drugs are used as ‘safe’ substitutes for common illegal stimulants like cocaine and crystal meth. This is a very risky drift as the consequences are quite harmful and in some cases prove fatal. Abuse of stimulants cause abnormal and precarious body temperatures, fatigue, sleep problems, paranoia, loss of appetite, aggression, delusions, sudden attacks and even death. However, these are dismal compared to the long-term effects of abusing these medications. Persistent abuse may result in acute problems such as malnutrition, coronary diseases, suicidal tendencies, panic attacks, mental disorders, addiction, and compromised immunity and even death (Smith, 2006). Trends in America According to the Office of National Drug Control Policy (2007), for the first time in the History of the federal republic of America, the rate of new users of prescription drugs was as high as new users of marijuana. According to the study, new users of prescription drugs who were between 12 and 17 years, almost equaling the rate of new users of marijuana. The study showed that new initiates of prescription drugs were estimates at 850,000 by the year 2005. In the same year, new marijuana initiates were estimated at, 1,139,000. Study carried out earlier in 2003 pointed out that there were 913,000 initiates to prescription drug abuse while marijuana initiates stood at 1,219,000. The numbers in this statistical data highlights two important facts. First, the overall number of initiates in both prescription and marijuana drug abuse reduced. Second, the size of gap between new marijuana users and new prescription drug users reduced meaning that there were more initiates to prescription drugs as compared to marijuana users. During that year of research, 2005, the number of youth who reported to be using prescription drugs at that period stood at 840,000 teenagers. This made it the second most abused drug after marijuana. By the year 2010, the rate of prescription drug abuse was still rising. Brindle 2010 pointed out that the two out of every ten teenagers was abusing prescription drugs. What is very saddening is the number of new users every day. According to her, 2,500 teenagers were having a first attempt on prescription drugs for the main objective of getting high every day. In 2010, the use of prescription drugs continued to remain high. The use of OxyContin remained at 5.1 percent in 2010. This was a stable position for the last four years. However, there was a witnessed decrease in the use of Vicodin. There was a witnessed 8 percent decrease by 12th graders. Not sure if you can write a paper on How extensive is the drug problem among American Youth today? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This was a 1.7 percent decrease as compared to the previous four years. One alarming discoveries by the report was that six, among the top ten most abused drugs were prescription drugs. They were drugs that would easily be bought over the counter. In addition, the report indicated that most of these drugs were given by friends who had also been given by their families, bought over the counter or stolen from other users in the family. Alcohol consumption Brindle (2010) outlines the consumption of Alcohol in the United States. In his study, he points out that in overall the consumption of alcohol in the United States has declined. The number of people consuming alcohol in America has shown a steady decline as the years progressed. In terms of regions, there were notable differences in the consumption of alcohol in the different regions of America. For instance, the South had spent 25% less than the national average of alcohol consumption and expenditure. Northeastern regions on the other hand were noted to have spent 22% more than the national average of consumption. There was a 9% and 12% increase from the Midwest and the West respectively (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011). In terms of age, people above 65 were found to be lower consumers of alcohol as compared to the younger general. Just like the general population, the consumption of alcohol among teens and youth indicated a decline. The report points out that the consumption of alcohol among people aged 12-17 reduced greatly 50% of consumption during 1979 to 17.6% as per 2002. For high school seniors, the number of students who had ever consumed alcohol continued to decrease. There was a notable difference a year after the other. The following table shows the trend of alcohol consumption of high school seniors. Source: Brindle, 2010 On the other hand, there was a historical decline in consumption use for college freshmen. In 2003, the freshmen entering college recorded a record low drinking rate in the entire 38-year history of drinking survey taking for freshmen. Unlike any other year, the percentage of freshmen consuming beer frequently or occasionally dropped to as low as 44.8%. This was a decline from a highest of 73.7% that was recorded in 1982. Similarly, other alcoholic drinks like wines and spirits dropped to the lowest ever recorded level during the entire existence of this study. The study pointed out that almost half; precisely 49% of college students in America did not take alcohol regularly. In a week, 31% of all the college students consumed five or less drinks. Just slightly above one out of every ten college students consumed ten drinks or an amount higher than this. In another survey carried by Harvard School of public Health and quoted by Brindle (2010), on average, the number of drinks taken by American students per week stood at 1.5 bottles. In the continuation of this study, there were similar findings. The number of students abstaining from alcohol was reducing as years passed while the students increased the number of bottles consumed every week. Opioids Abuse Opioids are drugs that are derived from opium. They also include some synthetic drugs whose chemical characteristics are associated with opium. The most common opioids are heroin, Morphine Codeine, hydrocodone, oxycodone and fentanyl. When consumed, this class of drugs offers the user a strong sense of pleasure and some kind of drowsiness accompanied by a feeling of calm. Typically, these drugs are designed to relieve pain given their chemical reaction with the brain. When consumed, they attach themselves on the opioid receptors, which are present in the human brain. When this process occurs, the brain produces certain chemicals whose role is reduction of pain. Such chemicals include endorphin. In addition, consistent use of these drugs could lead to dependence leading to a strong form of addiction. Chemically, the use of opioids causes an increase in the release of “euphoric” chemicals within the brain of the person consuming them. As time goes by, a similar amount of these chemicals would require a greater amount of opioid drug in question as compared to the beginning of using the drugs. Eventually, the amount of drug consumed continues to increase further and further leading to abuse. The greatest risk factors increasing the likelihood of becoming dependent or abusing opioids is age. It was identified that youth, between 20 and 29 are the most likely to abuse these drugs. According to University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine (2011), the prescription of opioids has gone high. On the other hand, prescription of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) assumed a downward trend. In the opioids type of drugs, hydrocodone and oxycodone accounted for the highest number of prescriptions taking up 84.9% of prescriptions of the opioids family. In relation to the same increase in opioids prescriptions, there has been witnessed a fivefold increase in opioids abuse. Organizations dealing with abuse and rehabilitation of drugs have reported that the number of cases pertinent to opioids drug abuse have gone up five times as compared to previous years. Specifically, the number highest number of abusers of these drugs has been noted to be between 18 and 25. The study pointed out that one out of every four people within this age bracket would abuse these kinds of drugs. The report further details that “opioid overdose is now the second leading cause of accidental death in the United States and the prevalence is second only to marijuana” (par. 4). In another study carried out by Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) as quoted by (McCabe, Knight, Teter and, Wechsler, 2004), defines drug abuse as “…the nonmedical use of a substance for psychic effect, dependence or suicide attempt or gesture” (par. 5). For the case of opioids, it is the state where “the compulsive use of opioids harms a person’s health or social functioning, or when a person is addicted to or dependent on opioids” (par. 1). It was also identified that 22.5% of drug users who were aged 12 and above abused a pain reliever at some point. Oxycodone is one of the most commonly abused opioid drugs. Examples of oxycodone brands include OxyContin, Percodan, Percocet and Tylox. In most cases, these drugs are prescribed to people exhibiting moderate or severe pain. However, the drugs can be abused with the aim of getting the feeling of euphoria. These drugs are taken either through pill swallowing or by use of an injection. Other than the mentioned effects of euphoria, the drugs also show some physical symptoms like low blood pressure, difficulties in breathing, headaches, and some times heart failure. Another common drug in the family of opioids is morphine. Apart from acting as a pain reliever, morphines are also employed as surgical anesthetics. Like the effects experienced by the users of oxycodone, morphine users also experience euphoric feelings accompanied with physical symptoms. Abuse of these drugs is associated with dizziness, foul mood, sweating and nausea. Once an abuser develops tolerance, stopping the use of this drug or reduction of quantity could lead to withdrawal symptoms. Hydrocodone is another opioid that is abused often. However, the rate and potential of abuse of this drug is relatively lower than the first two. Its potential of abuse is mostly reduced by the fact that this drugs cannot be bought on its own. It is always combined with other drugs like Acetaminophen. In this case, it becomes rather difficult for youth and teenagers to buy the drug just for the purpose of abuse. Like other opioids, this drug is also characterized by physical symptoms incase of abuse. The abuser can be characterized by dizziness, vomiting, drowsiness et cetera. Equally, dependence leads to withdrawal symptoms if the dosage is reduced or stopped. Stimulants abuse Stimulants abuse is on the upward trend in America especially among the youth and young adults. The ever increasing pressures to make it in life and stay at par with others make young people be tempted to find a quick way through hence end up resorting to drugs. This is a common scenario in high school and college students all over the United States. Research indicates that students are increasingly using prescribed stimulants like Ritalin, Concerta, Adderall and Dexerdrine to help them be more focused, not to fall asleep, repress hunger and experience a general sense of elation. Initially, drugs like Adderall were meant to be used in severe cases of ADHD to boost their attention. However, research shows that students in tertiary institutions are two times more probable to use the stimulants without medical approval compared to those not in high school (McCabe, Knight, Teter and, Wechsler, 2004). According to the National Survey on Drug Use and Health of 2003, the rates at which the drugs are being prescribed have also escalated. Since these drugs are lawfully prescribed and used in medical conditions, they become easily susceptible to abuse. They are taken orally to enhance attention and alertness and inhaled or mixed with water and injected into the blood vessels to get the euphoric feeling (Klein-Schwartz, 2002 p.219-223). Some teenagers suffering from ADHD do not take their prescribed medicines as indicated, preferring to pile them up and distribute them amongst their peers during weekends as they party. Studies also indicate that these teenagers even go to the extent of putting their own prescribed drugs up for sale especially during the exams period. These drugs are commonly used with alcohol, other sanctioned prescriptions from drug stores and even unlawful substances such as cocaine and joints. On the streets, they are procured illegally and go by names such as speed, rippers, bennies, dexies and ritz. The increase in the number of addiction treatment and rehabilitation centres is a sure indication that the problem is on rampage. Depressants abuse Addiction to depressants results from extensive use of the drugs whether for medicinal purposes or illegally. Overdependence on the drugs can prove fatal particularly when used alongside other illegal drugs and substances. An evaluation of emergency rooms in 1993 by Drug Abuse Warning Network noted that almost 70% of cases related to drug abuse were attributed to benzodiazepines. At the same time, recent studies indicate that abuse of gamma hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is on the rise in the USA. Abusers use it to boost performance, induce sleep among other effects. In most cases, it is taken with alcohol and other substances to amplify its influence especially in places like gymnasiums by body builders, nightclubs, bars and in boisterous events. These are regular places for teenagers and individuals aged 20 to 40 years. According to the US Drug Enforcement Administration, increases in date rapes have been linked to abuse of benzodiazepine. Rape cases resulting from abuse of GHB are equally rampant though not reported or lack in evidence as the perpetrators have little recollection of what happened or the victim, if also was under the influence, may also not recall a thing. A survey on drug abuse and health indicated that an estimated 6 million individuals above 12 years of age use prescribed drugs for other purposes than medicinal. Among the abusers of opiate for instance, young adults showed the highest increase in levels in a period of 2002-2004. For the first time in the survey of abuse of prescribed medications, the figure among people aged 12 and above reached 2.4 million in 2004, a number that goes way beyond 2.1 million; those who started abusing marijuana at that age. In 2005 alone, the use of stimulant drugs skyrocketed among 12th graders. 8.6% of the students misused amphetamine while 4.4% abused Ritalin. Conclusion It is necessary that measures are taken to check the increase in abuse of prescription drugs. This is true considering the fact that most of these drugs are easily available in most households. In addition, the drugs are legal and can be bought legally over the counter. Policy makers have a daunting task of ensuring that they come up with prescription strategies that will not allow the youth to continue abusing these otherwise useful drugs. Reference List Brindle, L. (2010). Addressing prescription drug abuse among youth and young adults. Web. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2011). Alcohol and public health. Web. Klein-Schwartz, W. (2002). Abuse and Toxicity of Methylphenidate. Current Opinion in Pediatrics, 14, 2, 219-223. McCabe, S. E., Knight, J. R., Teter, C. J. and Wechsler, H. (2004). Non-medical Use of Prescription Stimulants among US College Students [electronic version]. Addiction, 99, 96-105 National Institute on Drug Abuse. (2005). Prescription medications. Web. Office of National Drug Control Policy. (2011). Prescription drug abuse prevention. Web. Smith, K. (2006). Dangers of Stimulant Abuse. The University Daily Kansan.888, 52-53. Web. University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine (2011, April 6). Opioids now most prescribed class of medications in America. ScienceDaily. Web.
Table of Contents Introduction Discussion Conclusion Works Cited Introduction The role played by a character in any play defines his or her traits. These roles depend on the themes that the writer wants to discuss throughout the play. The writer could talk about love and compassion, greed and injustice. The theme of the play brings out the main traits of character revealed within the play. A positive theme shows positive traits whereas a negative theme highlights negative ones. Different styles become necessary to help represent better the traits designed for the plays. This essay compares and contrasts the characters of Gatsby and Jean Valjean in the Les Miserable novels and films. Gatsby was a young man whose life got transformed from poverty to riches. He grew up under sheer impoverished circumstances as a young boy but became extremely wealthy. He should be about thirty years old and full of life. Raised from a struggling family, Gatsby desired riches and hated the miserable life his family lived. He became obsessed with seeking shortcuts or a quick way to gain some fortune and wealth. He was eager to get power that came with being wealthy. He hated processes and procedures. He could not keep up at school because he did not see how the school curriculum could get him out of poverty. He dropped out of school barely two weeks after admission because of dissatisfaction with the duties assigned to him at school – janitorial duties. He could not bear the shame of the assigned duties. This was also his only way of paying his school fees. Stopping to do the chores meant that he would have to leave school. That is what he did by expelling himself (Fitzgerald, 2008). Left with no other choice, Gatsby resorted to criminal living. He formed a gang engaging in several organized criminal activities including the sale of illegal brews (alcohol) and stolen securities. The decision by Gatsby to live such a life came as a need to be loved by a lady Daisy Buchanan. The obsession for riches and wealth got fueled by the desire to have this woman as his wife. He wanted to make a great impression on this lady with his wealth and would not give up until he acquired everything he wanted. The lady Daisy was from a rich family with an elegant background. Gatsby lied about his own background in order to prove that he is worth this lady. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The writer of the novel, The Great Gatsby, deliberately delays the information about Gatsby’s obsession with lady Daisy until the end of the novel. He presents him rather as a flamboyant man who loved to throw opulent parties at his luxurious mansion. He paints him living a luxurious life surrounded by powerful men and gorgeous women (Bloom, 2010). Jean Valjean is a central character in Les Miserables who became the main figure of love and compassion as highlighted in the Gugo’s trials. He was a criminal whose life got transformed by the deplorable conditions and experiences acquired at the prison. He went into the prison naïve and emerged as a hardened criminal with immense hatred for the church and society. He did not care about respect and greeted even the bishop with much contempt and hatred. His meeting with Myriel Digne changed his life. He was forced to make a promise to become honest in all his undertakings. The once hardened and desperate criminal was influenced by love and yielded to its redemptive power and compassion. His diligence helped him to become a symbol of change within his hometown. Jean Valjean ended up as a philanthropic wealthy man (Hugo, 2006). Discussion The stories of the dominant Gatsby and Jean Valjean show some similarities concerning their characters. Both of them have lived criminal lives even though fueled by different passions. They are both conquered by love. Gatsby and Valjean end up wealthy and powerful. On the contrary, the two characters differ in their personality and strength. Gatsby strikes the readers as a naïve and lovesick individual though his character is negative. His desperation is clear. He is a cheat who tells lies about his background. He is selfish. He only thinks of himself and what he wants as opposed to what can benefit the others. When conquered by love, Gatsby resorts to criminal activities to sustain it. On the other hand, we see Valjean who is physically strong and hardworking. He is an honest man who keeps his word (promises). His life is transformed by love and compassion. He becomes visionary and philanthropic. Gatsby spends his money and wealth only on himself. He is evil and lacks a vision. Valjean is a symbol of hope. The factual changes that occur in the life of Valjean prove that anyone can experience a better life after a negative experience. Gatsby is a symbol of evil and discontentment. He is constantly in pursuit of what he lacks for. He is not willing to discover and do what is right while Valjean seeks to do what is right. Conclusion Gatsby and Valjean have similarities and differences. Valjean’s life changes for the better in the face of love unlike that of Gatsby. Their stories highlight the fact that these individuals are unique and different. We will write a custom Essay on Jay Gatsby
The Role of the Coach as a Catalyst for Change
The coach is a catalyst who promotes change but does not direct it. Discuss this statement in the light of your own experiences of coaching, discussing the a. coaching relationship, b. contracting, c. the use of models in coaching and d. your own development as a coach. The Greek philosopher Socrates, born in roughly, 469 BC, said “the secret of change is to focus all of your energy not on fighting the old, but on building the new”. More than 2000 years later humans still resist change, the fear of the perceived loss that will be incurred overshadowing the ability to see the potential and opportunities that the future holds. Despite this natural and inherent fear, people who approach coaching with an open mind can gain the self-awareness necessary to develop both themselves and those around them. The Oxford English Dictionary defines a “catalyst” as “a person or thing that precipitates an event”. The role of a coach is to enable the coachee to gain a clear understanding of where on their career path they currently are and support them as they find the clarity to understand where they would like to be. The coach then works with the client to develop strategies for dealing with challenges and empowers them to make the change required to achieve their goals. The strength of the relationship that exists between the coach and coachee is fundamental to the success of the practise. Douglas Riddle of The Centre for Creative Leadership says “the qualities associated with coaching, such as deep self-awareness, genuine interest and caring expressed through curiosity, open questioning, and listening, are the ones that energize us and generate creativity and commitment.” (Riddle, 2016, p. 3). When we examine this statement, at its’ core is the desire of the coachee to be listened to and to be provided with a safe environment in which they can explore their experiences, decide on their future goals and create the plan to get them from A to B. It is impossible for any of this to develop without trust and openness on both parts. The coach’s curiosity must be unbiased, without any preconceived notions on where the conversation should go. This will present the client with a “blank slate” against which they can take the time to explore their options, without undue influence. Challenging conversations and questions are a natural part of the dialogue, the purpose of the challenge being to awaken awareness and in the words of Eckhart Tolle, “Awareness is the greatest agent for change”. At times, the client may be uncomfortable but the role of the coach is to provide an impartial space where difficult questions can be asked and ultimately answered. While deeply interested in the progress and wellbeing of the coachee, the coach has no vested interest in the specific events being discussed. Maximum value can only be achieved when there is complete honesty from the client. Central to the success of the coaching relationship is ensuring that the boundaries and expectations of both parties are clearly outlined from the beginning. According to “Techniques for Coaching and Mentoring” (Natalie Lancer, 2016, p. 40), “coach supervisors tend to agree that a high proportion of the problems in coaching relationships occur because of a failure in the contracting process”. Taking the time at the beginning of the process to clearly define the roles and responsibilities of the coach and the coachee is important in avoiding issues further down the line, despite the fact that “initial contracting can often be a brief and slightly embarrassing affair!” (Natalie Lancer, 2016, p. 45). Without this process confusion may arise as to the nature or purpose of the coaching sessions. In his book, “Coaching for Performance” (Whitmore, 2017, p. 168), John Whitmore provides a detailed checklist for the initial coaching session, much of which covers the content of the “coaching contract”. One of the most significant points centres around the importance of informing the coachee of how coaching differs from mentoring, counselling or consulting. The deeply personal nature of the conversations that will take place makes establishing ground rules at the beginning particularly important. John Whitmore also points towards the importance of discussing assumptions and understanding how much support or challenge the coachee wants from the coach. This conversation also gives the client the chance to highlight “red line” issues, things that they are certain that they don’t want to discuss. The possibility exists that as the trust in the relationship builds these are the issues that will come to the fore but in the initial phases this must be respected. In situations where a third party has suggested, or is paying for, the coaching sessions, the contract establishes the baseline around confidentiality and trust. This is the place where clarity is given on what is discussed with a third party and how those discussions take place. For example, if a HR department is involved it may be that the contract establishes that no conversations will take place between the coach and the HR department without the coachee present. Spending the time discussing the contract in the initial conversation also allows both the coach and the coachee align on simple housekeeping issues such as length and format of sessions, cancellation policies and setting expectations of the sessions. Although these may seem like basic elements of any professional relationship, openly discussing the basics gives an insight into the values of the client and is the first step in establishing a good rapport before moving forward with the coaching relationship and formal coaching models. If the purpose of the coaching relationship is to enable the coachee to see the potential that exists within them, there are a number of techniques, or models, available to the coach to nurture that journey of self awareness. Sir John Whitmore developed the GROW model throughout the 1980’s, having realised that the coaching methods and techniques initially designed for sport were equally applicable to business leaders and organisations. (Whitmore, 2017, p. 97). This model is widely used in coaching today and asks the client to discuss their Goal, Reality, Options and what they Will do. As in any sport the importance of both short and long term goals is vital as it gives a person something to aim for but also a sense of achievement when the shorter term goals are accomplished. Incremental achievements on the way to larger successes help an individual stay focussed and keep momentum going. Working with a client to set these goals, it must be remembered that all goals should be specific, measurable, achievable, realistic and timely. The role of the coach is to challenge unrealistic goals but also to encourage the client to see beyond their self-limiting beliefs and set goals that stretch and test them. The CLEAR coaching model was developed by Peter Hawkins (Hawkins, 2007), also in the 1980’s and has a slightly broader approach than the GROW model. CLEAR encourages Contracting, Listening, Exploring, Action and Review. Exploring challenges the coachee to review both the impact that the situation is having on themselves and also the options that are available to them in the situation. As a novice coach, it’s easy to fall into the trap of thinking that each session must begin and end with a full round of the GROW or CLEAR models. Experience is showing me that this is not the case and it may take one or two sessions to work on goals, before moving to options and then back to the reality of the situation. The models are a framework to work within but not a rigid method that is only successful when applied in the correct order. Gregg Thompson talks about the 3 C’s of coaching in his book “The Master Coach” (Thompson, 2017). Describing coaching as “a powerful, interpersonal process that stimulates and equips a person to perform at a higher level while accelerating their development”, Thompson advocates the 3C Coaching Model built on “Character, Connection” and “Conversation.” Character can be defined as sharing and staying true to your values because coaching without values is worthless. This comes underpins the importance of the coaching contract, ensuring that your values as a coach are outlined at the beginning. Connection is seen as identifying, believing in and building on your clients’ potential and strengths. This encourages coaches to see their clients as “Talent”, becoming their chief supporter but also challenging them when necessary. The third C, Conversation aligns with the self-awareness aspect of other models, encouraging the coach to focus every word and thought on the client in an open minded and unbiased manner. All of these models require that the coach approach the sessions in an impartial way, allowing the client the space to explore their thoughts, without judgement. The changes that the client wishes to make are already possible, if they can take the time to explore their own potential. The opportunity to work with someone as they explore their potential comes with responsibilities and perhaps the greatest of these is the ability to give them your full attention. I have found that my personal journey of development has focussed on 2 key areas, emotional intelligence and the neuroscience of “changing your mind”. Gaining a greater understanding of these has enabled me to see that, while the part played by the coach is an important one, the true power rests with the client. Developing my own emotional intelligence is central to providing the platform from where the client can move forward. The key to this rests with self-awareness, David Clutterbuck describes it as having “the courage to see ourselves as we are and to behave as who we are, rather than feel we have to put on an act” (David Clutterbuck, 2016, p. 149). The self-limiting beliefs we carry with us can cloud our judgement and blind us to the possibilities that surround us. As a coach we can work with our clients in a non-judgemental way and using the tools and techniques previously discussed, guide them to an awareness of their own possibilities. Gaining an understanding of my own values and biases allows me to work with the client in a non-judgemental way, ensuring that the solutions discovered come from within them rather than me. The role of the coach isn’t that of “problem solver” but rather a guide to the problem’s solution! There’s a quote I’ve often heard about change that goes; “Consider how hard it is to change yourself and you’ll understand what little chance you have in trying to change others”. The neuroscience behind habits is fascinating and goes a long way to explaining how difficult we find changing out behaviours. Being introduced to the work of Richard Davidson, the founder of the Centre for Healthy Minds, has shown me that we can literally change our mind through mindfulness and reinforcing positive behaviours. According to Davidson, research shows that there are 4 components of well-being that can be improved by meditation. (Tlalka, 2016) These are resilience, outlook, attention and generosity. Although resilience takes thousands of hours to build up, outlook and attention can be improved in a reasonably short period of time. Given that we live in an “always-on” world, the ability to self-care and nurture quiet spaces in our lives is of utmost importance for both mental and physical health. Understanding that we can build new neural pathways that ultimately lead to greater happiness is a powerful realisation. As a coach, it is of benefit to our clients if we can introduce them to a “pause” button, exercises that can help them step back and review a situation calmly, having taken a moment to centre themselves. This will allow them to choose their reaction to a situation rather than reacting without thought. The decision to make changes rests with the client in a coaching relationship. The coach can challenge preconceived notions and provide an opportunity for the coachee to become more self-aware, and in the words of Eckhart Tolle, “awareness is the greatest agent for change”. Bibliography David Clutterbuck, D. M. (2016). Building and Sustaining a Coaching Culture. London : Chartered Institute of Personal Development. Hawkins, P. (2007). Coaching, Mentoring and Organizational Consultancy: Supervision and Development. Maidenhead: Open University Press. Natalie Lancer, D. C. (2016). Techniques for Coaching and Mentoring. Oxon: Routledge. Riddle, D. (2016). Truth and Courage, Implementing a Coaching Culture. Greensboro, NC. Brussels: The Centre for Creative Leadership. Thompson, G. (2017). The Master Coach. New York: Select Books. Tlalka, S. (2016). How Science Reveals that Well Being is a Skill. Mindful, 3. Whitmore, J. (2017). Coaching for Performance – The Principles and Practice of coaching and leadership (Fifth Edition ed.). London Boston: Nicholas Brealey Publishing.