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New Psychological Knowledge and Existing Theories Essay

Table of Contents Introduction Child Violence and Social Learning Theory Theories of Attachment The Impact of Additional Research Other Examples Conclusion Bibliography Introduction One can argue that in any field, not only psychology, a theory must be tested multiple times and present the same results to be proven as valid. However, often an experiment proving a specific concept becomes widely popular, and the practice can be adopted by many without questioning the validity of findings. The dangerous implication of this is that further research is based on faulty outcomes, producing more inadequate findings that affect the existing body of knowledge. This paper aims to evaluate the claim that advances in psychology can only be achieved through questioning the existing theory. Child Violence and Social Learning Theory To discuss the implications of psychological advancement based either on challenging the existing theory or using it as the basis of one’s work, it is necessary to examine specific examples relevant to this issue. In Chapter 3 titled Learning from Watching, Oates (2012) discusses the aspects of social learning theory and advances made in this field over the years. The context described in this chapter is very relevant to the issue of advancing psychological knowledge because it mainly focuses on the merits of the digital era, such as computer technology and the Internet. The primary implication of the research cited by Oates (2012) is that use of innovational technology is a part of a child’s social learning process. For instance, many media resources and some research cite violence depicted in film or video games as significant harm to children’s psychological development. However, the main question is whether the social learning theory provides valid evidence suggesting the direct impact of what a child sees when growing up on his or her development or not. One of the recent examples is the response of the United States government to the mass shooting in Texas, where both the President and the Congress blamed video games for fostering violence in young individuals (Tassi, 2019). Based on the description from Chapter 3, it can be argued that the misconception is a result of the common assumption that people learn behaviors by observing their environment and others. To understand the issue more specifically, an example of research that led to the prevalence of claims in the media regarding the danger of exposing children to video games should be examined. The experiment cited by Oates by Badura et al. and conducted in 1963 indeed provided evidence supporting the idea that children who were exposed to violent behavior can mimic it and be more aggressive than their peers (cited in Oates, 2012). While this study had several groups of children and used appropriate methods for research in psychology, the interpretation of findings can be questioned. For example, the Society for Research in Child Development (2019) cites new research conducted in 2019 by Hygen et al., which explicitly focuses on video games and their impact on children of different ages. The findings suggest that there are some implications for concern, although in general there is no direct link between violence and video games depicting it. The concern is mainly connected to the development of social skills but not aggressive behavior. Hence, the two examples of studies provide an understanding of the need to treat the results of experiments in psychology with caution and conduct further research into the specific matter to have concrete evidence. The new findings suggest that the conclusions made based on the original experiment were incorrect, hence questioning the study allowed advancing the understanding of the matter. Theories of Attachment Another example of the beneficial impact of questioning existing theory is the attachment theory. Within Chapter 5, the author Custance (2012) explores the issue of love in the context of the attachment theory. Bowlby’s focus on human attachment was possible because the researcher aimed to examine the idea that challenged the previous focus on the mother-child bond (cited in Custance 2012). In essence, this allowed the development of a more in-depth understanding of different attachments that exist among humans. Other research, such as findings of Harlow regarding the importance of tactile contact for infants based on the observations of monkeys provides further advancement into the concept of human relationships (cited in Custance 2012). It can be concluded that both Bowlby and Harlow made significant advancements to the understanding of attachment as more than just a mother-child connection by challenging existing approaches. The Impact of Additional Research The significant implication is that within the field of psychology, there are many variables and options for potential bias affecting the findings, which should be considered when evaluating the conclusions. Arguably, the only logical approach to determining the cohesiveness of the findings and the underlying theory is to test multiple times in different conditions, questioning the original methodology. Next, it is necessary to explore the results to ensure that no need for questioning the existing theory is present. One argument against this can be the financial and resource issue arising from retesting the theories. In the context of advancing psychology and finding out more about the human mind, this appears to be a question requiring further exploration. A counterargument exists, suggesting that it is impossible to advance and improve using evidence that does not correspond to the actual state of things. Thus, such advancement would be made in the wrong direction, and resources would spend inappropriately. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Using the previous example of Rorschach’s test, it should be noted that some still believe in its validity and use it regularly. Sears (2017) argues that unlike IQ testing or standard approaches, Rorschach’s test offers a better insight into one’s personality because it has no correct answer. The example outlined by the author suggests that this can be a better approach to understanding one’s personality. It is possible that the current state of comprehending the test and interpreting its implications is imperfect and can be improved by further research. Arguably, the line between proving a theory wrong and finding specific elements of it that can improve the understanding of human psychology is unclear. The example of the experiment by Badura et al. cited by Oates (2012) provided a better insight into the child development issue, which was used by subsequent researchers to improve the knowledge further. Hence, nowadays, the evidence suggests that child behavior in regards to the social learning theory is more complex and is not merely a result of observing and copying others. Hygen et al. found that girls playing video games are more inclined to fall behind on developing adequate social skills if they dedicate much time playing these games (cited in the Society for Research in Child Development 2019). However, boys of the same age group did not display any adverse effects in regards to social behavior or violence. This claim suggests that psychological issues explored by researchers are complex and cannot be excellently studied with a single experiment. This is especially relevant in the context of a modern society where technology development and exposure to innovation can impact people in ways that are yet to be comprehended. The evidence explored above suggests that some advances made in the field of psychology were enabled by building current research on the findings of previous studies. Chapter 8 by Edgar and Edgar (2012) emphasizes aspects, which can provide some evidence suggesting the need to use existing theory as the basis for future advancements. The authors described research by Broadbent who explored the attention theory and succeeding research, focusing on providing a more in-depth understanding of the researcher’s findings. Studies conducted by Cherry can be used to improve the model initially developed by Broadbent (cited in Edgar and Edgar 2012). Because the original author was unable to incorporate some of the elements such as the direction of the voice, its distinct features, and other characteristics. This example suggests that some theories and concepts in psychology require refinement and improvement to create a cohesive understanding of psychological phenomena. Other Examples Based on the explored information, it can be concluded that researchers should treat any theory indifferently and subject it to thorough testing to redefine it or explore new characteristics of a concept. Another example of the famous psychological experiment that is popular even outside the professional circles is the Stanford prison experiment. According to Resnick (2018), new findings based on Zimbardo’s notes provide an understanding of the misleading practices used by researchers that arguably affected the outcomes. For instance, the article suggests that correctional officers were explicitly instructed to behave in a cruel manner – which is thought to be the main finding of this study. Hence, the work that has been cited by many others and provided the foundation for the development of other concepts appears to be misleading. Rorschach’s test was questioned by many because of the uncertainty about the underlying theory. This is an open-end task that requires one to use visualization for interpreting the ink pictures. According to Sears (2017) and Strochlic (2017), many debates exist around this theory, primarily because it can produce controversial results. Another aspect is that this test has been used for many years, which implies that most individuals are aware of the purpose and outcomes that can be manipulated. However, it is possible that more research into this technique can improve it and advance the subject of understanding an individual’s personality. Conclusion Overall, it can be concluded that the existing practices for testing concepts imply the need to check the findings and challenge the ideas presented by the authors. For one, a correct theory would produce consistent results throughout the experiments, providing even more evidence supporting the claims. The importance of the argument that advances in psychology can only be made by challenging the existing theory should be reviewed from both the perspective of exposing faulty research findings and using prior studies as the foundation for new experiments. It can be argued that by challenging the theory, researchers can make significant contributions to the field of psychology. It is because in both cases when the theory is proven right or wrong, the subject can receive more evidence or new implications for further examination. Bibliography Custance, D 2012, ‘Determined to love?’, in N Brace
CUNY College of Staten Island Advertising Functions Exercise.

I’m working on a marketing project and need support to help me study.

Description:The influence of advertising in everyday life is greater than many people realize. This is because the effects of advertising often work in subtle ways, to the point that many people do not even realize they are being marketed to after encountering advertisements.Generally speaking, advertising is valued due to being recognized as performing up to five critical communication functions: informing, influencing, reminding and increasing salience, adding value and/or assisting with other company efforts and cross-promotion. For Project 4, you’ll analyze advertising examples and to what extent they perform the five critical communication functions:Choose one of the following companies: Nike, Costco, Samsung or Baskin-Robbins.Check out your chosen company’s Facebook page and pick one of their social media posts. Take a screenshot of their post and submit it as part of this project.Answer the following questions (minimum 2-3 sentences for each)Which target market is the company directing their ad to?What is this ad trying to accomplish? What function is the ad serving (informing, influencing, reminding and increasing salience, adding value and/or assisting with other company efforts and cross-promotion)?Critique the advertisement. Does it effectively convey their message to their target market? Offer recommendations to make the ad better.
CUNY College of Staten Island Advertising Functions Exercise

Need accounting help with an Internal Memo.

You are a junior accountant at a small accounting firm. A
partner of the firm has asked you to communicate the new Statement of
Accounting Standards (SAS 112) regulation–rules auditors have to follow–to
certain groups and to explain how this change would affect these groups. The
partner has asked you to create and submit a package of materials that includes
the following components:
1.  Research SAS 112 on
accounting auditors from the American Institute of CPAs (AICPA) website.
2.  Research SAS 115 on accounting
auditors from the AICPA website. 
3.  Write a brief, 1 1/2 page internal memo for other accountants at the firm.
(Reference
required)

Need accounting help with an Internal Memo

Processes in local government elections

Processes in local government elections. Discuss the processes involved in local government elections. Local Government elections are the basis of democratic society today, sometimes the higher levels of government have no effect on the average individual; however Council Tax, services and amenities are essential to individuals. In addition, the local government is essential for providing financial assistance for housing, students and determining whether social assistance should be meted out. These are all important aspects of everyday living, in addition, local government elections have a direct effect on whom is elected in the central government. Therefore it is highly important to the basic political theory that the individual has a direct say in the election of good governance. Locke said instead of giving up the right to do absolutely anything to the sovereign entity, the rational man would put these rights in the hands of a government that holds the good of the people as supreme. Locke did not believe that man gives up all these natural rights, but each person retained rights that were regulated by a political government, to ensure a person would not use their rights in a way that would harm the rights of others. Locke’s version of rights was one of the first models of inherent rights to life, liberty, freedom and property, where the government was there at the will of the people and benevolent in nature. The essential right that the individual retains is the right to in modern society directly elect those officials that govern their daily lives, as well as ensure the accountability for the funds that the individual metes out to ensure that basic amenities are provided. In recent years the participation in elections has reduced, therefore the processes of voting at a particular station on a particular day have been expanded for the modern day lifestyles. This includes mail-in ballots and e-ballots. The Government is committed to modernising and encouraging people to engage in the democratic process and this includes the way elections are conducted. We have taken several legislative steps in recent years to modernise and simplify electoral law and processes so that they take account of and are more relevant to modern lifestyles and habits. The problem with such processes is that it creates a problem in respect to accountability and monitoring of fair voting practices. The problems with re-enabling the electoral process will not affect local governments UK wide until after 2006, but the European Parliamentary and Local Elections (Pilots) Bill, introduced into Parliament on 17 September. The Bill, subject to Parliamentary approval, will allow pilots of innovative voting methods at next year’s European Parliamentary and combined local elections. These processes at the local government level will allow for the increased participation in the electoral process, which play a very important indicator for the possible outcome of general elections. Also the campaigns at the local level play a very important role for what is in the interest of the public and hinge around the issues of the general election. Therefore the higher the participation at the lower level, the better the indication of importance at the higher levels of politics and the elected parliament provides what the citizenry want. The process of local elections are the providence of the Office of the Deputy Prime Minister (ODPM) and it is at this level that the lower echelons are allowed to use new techniques in promoting participation in the electoral process. This is a very important act because it is a result of the UK’s decentralisation of government, which ensures that the central government’s agenda does not overrun the wants and needs of specific areas of the nation, rather it allows more leeway for local governments right from the election process to take control: The ODPM is taking forward at a local level the Electoral Modernisation Pilot Programme, inviting local authorities to trial new ways of voting and counting votes… [which is part of] the Government’s policy for increasing participation in democracy via information and communication technologies, and invites comments [from the electorate] on the recent consultation paper ‘In Service of Democracy’. The democratic system has realised that it needs to modernise from the bottom up, rather than the top down approach. This has been a major change in the political development of less developed countries (LDCs); however, finally it has been recognised that it needs to be done at all governmental levels. Whereby an important part of development politics surrounded the introduction of MNCsinto LDCs and the technology introduction, education to use the technology, and job creation would have a trickle down effect to boost the economy of the country, which in turn would pass on a better standard of living to the average person. However, the reality of the situation has arguably turned out to be quite different. Therefore the traditional globalisation economics have not provided the development to LDC as originally believed, instead, some economic theorists such as Krugman have suggested that these theory are not just misguided but incomprehensible. Rather a bottom-up approach has been suggested, whereby greater participation on the bottom levels that promotes a better development of economics and higher amounts of participation of higher levels of the democratic process. This theory has promoted the decentralisation movements of local governments, hoping that the electoral process can be advanced at the lower levels. This is being promoted with vengeance by parliament with the audits of political participation: Like the first audit, it measures the nature and extent of the UK public’s political engagement through MORI’s annual Political Engagement Poll. It also reviews how political engagement has changed over the past 12 months. We have focused on six key political engagement indicators for this update audit. These are knowledge and interest, action and participation, and efficacy and satisfaction. Therefore the political processes of local government in constant change at the moment, with the powers in respect to elections and how they are controlled is growing through the decentralisation movement in the UK. In addition, this is modernising for the good, taking in new political approaches and theory which recognises that political participation from the bottom up is essential to ensure that political and economic development evolves for the better. Bibliography: Irma Adelman, Fallacies in Development Theory and their Implications for Policy, from Ed. Gerald M. MeierProcesses in local government elections

Deliverable Length: 400–600 words

python assignment help Deliverable Length: 400–600 words.

Primary Discussion Response is due by Friday (11:59:59pm Central), Peer Responses are due by Tuesday (11:59:59pm Central).Primary Task Response: Within the Discussion Board area, write 400–600 words that respond to the following questions with your thoughts, ideas, and comments. This will be the foundation for future discussions by your classmates. Be substantive and clear, and use examples to reinforce your ideas.In the Mercantile period, from the 16th through the end of the 18th centuries, trade was driven by a need to accumulate gold and silver. Nations worked to restrict imports and drive exports. With the advent of the Industrial Age, classical economists began to look at trade and international commerce in a different light. In his seminal work The Wealth of Nations, Adam Smith discussed the idea that the basis of trade could be seen in light of what he called absolute advantage. His contemporary, David Ricardo, took a different and modified approach and laid out a framework called comparative advantage. This latter theory is the basis for all modern views of international trade. For this Discussion Board, complete the following:Define absolute and comparative advantage. Compare the two views on trade. How does the concept of opportunity cost factor into comparative advantage? Discuss why you think comparative advantage has become the fundamental and accepted theory of trade. Provide concrete examples.Responses to Other Students: Respond to at least 2 of your fellow classmates with at least a 100-word reply about their Primary Task Response regarding items you found to be compelling and enlightening. To help you with your discussion, please consider the following questions:What did you learn from your classmate’s posting? What additional questions do you have after reading the posting? What clarification do you need regarding the posting? What differences or similarities do you see between your posting and other classmates’ postings? For assistance with your assignment, please use your text, Web resources, and all course materials.
Deliverable Length: 400–600 words

Herbal Medicine Review Paper

Herbal Medicine Review Paper.

A hallmark of graduate level education is the ability to read and interpret the disciplinary literature, synthesize the information, and write a review of that literature clearly and concisely. This assignment will provide you with the opportunity to develop and enhance these skills.For this assignment, you will pick a Lifestyle Medicine topic of your choice (Herbal Medicine) and write a 10-12 page review paper based on the scientific literature. The page count does not include the title page, abstract, references, tables or figures. You are to include a minimum of 20 references from the peer-reviewed literature that have been published in books or journals. Some of you may find it challenging to keep your paper within the maximum page limit and some may have difficulty reaching the minimum requirement. For the former, clear brevity is a skill (and a gift) that can be developed. For the latter, there is lots of information available on many lifestyle medicine topics. Enjoy your time reading and synthesizing what you find. In this paper please use AMA writing styleHere are the sources I have already found for the writing:Brief History of Herbal Natural Medicine https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0737080697805540 http://eds.b.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail/detail?vid=0&sid=e204db18-fddc-44cb-8034-e58652cbac12%40sessionmgr101&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=ccm&AN=104667826 https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/ced.13229 Evolution of Herbal Medicine: Behavior Perspective https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0003347205002563 Types of Herbal Medicine (just do a brief overview on some common ones) https://www.clinicalkey.com/#!/content/playContent/1-s2.0-S0095454317300271?returnurl=null&referrer=nullExamples Used in the Medical/Clinical Setting (includes tables and figures) Cautiously Using Natural Medicine to Treat Liver Problems https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5442075/ Holistic Healing Through Herbs: Effectiveness of Aloe Vera on Post Extraction Socket Healing https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5427443/ Use of Herbal Medicine in Digestive Health http://eds.a.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail/detail?vid=0&sid=2b5e26f5-5b6f-449f-82dd-2cde5e2bd16c%40sessionmgr4007&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=ccm&AN=136792368 Chinese Herbal Medicine to Reduce Risk of Stroke with Patients with Parkinson https://doaj.org/article/901c7107660947fb91420ad7c7d720d1 Successful treatment with Korean herbal medicine and lifestyle management in an obese woman with polycystic ovarian syndrome https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2213422017300689?via%3Dihub Efficacy and safety of Chinese herbal medicine for depression: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S002239561930024X Treatment of glioblastoma with herbal medicines https://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/s12957-018-1329-2 Use of Beetroot Juice https://academic.oup.com/biomedgerontology/article/72/9/1284/2452303 Perception of Herbal Medicine Consumption by Thai Eldery http://eds.b.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail/detail?vid=0&sid=b6e6a5eb-f2ac-4208-9aeb-f41e4d6aae9b%40pdc-v-sessmgr04&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#AN=89570299&db=bth Western Medicine Use of Herbs for Menstrual Problems https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/ptr.6001 Negatives/Controversies of Herbal Medicine Herbs for health, but how safe are they? http://eds.a.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail/detail?vid=0&sid=af5b1cfc-de3d-4ba2-b908-4a28d50fcf1d%40sdc-v-sessmgr01&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#AN=4953379&db=aph Centre Turns Away from Healing Herbs https://www.nature.com/articles/462711a Bad Herbal Medicine – Too high of dosages? http://eds.b.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail/detail?vid=0&sid=b6e6a5eb-f2ac-4208-9aeb-f41e4d6aae9b%40pdc-v-sessmgr04&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#AN=89570299&db=bth Concerns of Herbal Medicine Commercialization and Future https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0965229907000040
Herbal Medicine Review Paper

Highland Tower Collapse and Ramp Construction

Highland Tower Collapse and Ramp Construction. Introduction The purpose of this essay is to find out from a field, a building that experienced construction catastrophe, study its short comings and come up with solutions and recommendations of what could be done to ensure the same problem doesn’t happen in the future. The building upon which the research is based in this assignment is called the Highland tower, a building in Selangor Malaysia which collapsed and 48 people died and 12 others were evacuated from the other building. The Highland Towers collapse was an apartment building collapse that occurred on 11 December 1993 in Taman Hillview, Ulu Klang, Selangor, Malaysia. The collapse of Block One of the apartments caused the deaths of 48 people and led to the complete evacuation of the remaining two blocks due to safety concern. It was one of the most tragic building accidents in Malaysian history where residential towers collapsed and killed people. Since then, the government and its subsidiaries sat down in a committee to see a way forward for the construction industry especially construction in hilly areas to minimize casualties. The event has been widely publicized, when an American tourist in particular because it is captured in the next ten days and taken to the Tower of photos a dramatic sequence, and crazy rescue operations. Building professionals with the case of several important influence in Malaysia, which will be the focus of this paper, but also lead to tort law in Malaysia interesting development and clarification. Case study Highland Towers consists of three 12-storey buildings in a steep hill, was later extensively on the terraces in the early 1980s in western base built in stages between 1974 to 1982. Each block is named: Block1 (built in 1977, the most southern) Block2 (built in 1979, north-west block 1, slightly elevated than the other two, the closer to the top of the hill) Block3 (built in 1981, the Northwest block 1, block West 2). Parking behind the mountain rain collapsed building in the swimming pool located on both sides and the rear between Northwest Northeast parking lot after the landslide caused by the failure of the retaining wall behind the building failed, for 10 days. The tower is home to the affluent middle-class families ; considerable proportion of residents are expatriates . Highland Tower was once notorious early 1980s and 1990s for wealthy people to hide their mistress popular place . The water tower is behind a small stream known as the ” East Creek .” Eastern Creek flows into the tower site tower ” before construction. Later, build a pipeline system to divert flow to bypass the tower in 1991, a new housing development project, called” Wu Antarabangsa Development Project “, located in the tower Peak behind the start . As a result, the mountain has been cleared of trees and other vegetation and land cover, soil erosion exposed land, which will lead to land slides from the construction site of the water diverted into the river to divert the flow of the same East piping systems. eventually, the pipeline system to become over- pressurized water, sand and silt from the Eastern Creek and the construction site. pipe burst at different locations in the mountains, the soil had to absorb excess moisture . December 1993 monsoon rains further worsening the situation . (Block One of the Highland Towers collapsed) Role and responsibilities The Architect (I) there is no defense of this contact is a limited one, at least you must ensure that other aspects of the work of others is competent to complete. Defensive architect, he only retained the design and supervision of three apartment buildings, and denied that his range extends to the drainage, earthworks and retaining walls. It was dismissed by that court. The court held that the architect must take into account the building on which is built in the vicinity of the land, and the land itself, the safety assessment of the building, it must be evaluated. [In addition, the court held that as a matter of fact, the architect concerned about the neighborhood and the building itself, when he submitted the layout plan, the authorities because it includes high tower behind the slope terraces and drainage. Therefore, he must ensure that the work carried out although others in a competent and workmanlike manner] (Ii) there is no difference between the standard care of unqualified doctors Although the architect in reality just a building draftsman, measure their behavior on the court has the ability to architect a standard that if a person is unqualified, but showed himself to have a skill, he will be judged by the standard a competent and qualified staff. (C) there is no excuse to say that compulsory employer does not comply with regulations Finally, the Court seems to have flatly rejected the architect’s excuse that he can not do anything to stop his boss (employers and engineers in obtaining certificates of fitness in three apartment buildings do not fulfill the conditions stipulated by the local authorities in collusion background, instead of terraces and retaining walls to ensure proper design, provide and sufficient to withstand, even though he knew it would affect the building, he was in charge) slope instability – the Court has made clear that, when the law is broken, the architect must report to the authorities – after the architect must ensure that the law, even in the risk of being discharged. Engineer Defense engineer, he only retained the design and supervision of three apartment buildings, Highland Towers compound structures within two retaining walls, and submit plans, drainage, and two and denied his range extends to the drainage, earthworks. It was dismissed by that court. The court found that engineers must take into account the building on which is built in the vicinity of the land, and the land itself, the time to assess the safety of buildings, must be evaluated. He should ensure the stability of the slope behind Highland Towers. His duties not by a mere belief that they are built on terraced slopes and retaining walls were discharged by an engineer or other consultant. He should ask the professional is qualified, whether he was doing what impact the safety of cascading tower. [Neglect other aspects of engineers – a serious violation of the authorities to take care of his responsibilities to a notification issued by the buyer, and only 10 percent is based on the approved drainage construction] In summary locations near building professionals need to be considered, as well as the safety assessment of the site itself, especially taking into account the adjacent hillside. Building professionals to participate in a limited range can not hide behind, these are the things that they themselves and their employers, but they may be subject to the duties owed to the scope of their service is not limited to this. Building professionals required to ensure that others do the work to engage them in the design may affect / supervisory structure is competent, workmanlike manner to carry out the work. If you think the general building professionals have expertise in a specific area of ​​eligibility when they are unqualified, their behavior will be a measure of this expertise qualified doctor. After building professionals must ensure that law and, if necessary to report to the authorities if their clients break the law, even in danger by their client to be discharged. Case application on law of tort Negligence The Highland Towers decision becomes another Malaysian High Court decision which diverges from the approach of the English Courts and adopts the approach taken by other Commonwealth jurisdictions in allowing the recovery of “pure economic loss”, especially where sufficient proximity can be demonstrated between the negligent act and the loss. Pure economic loss is the loss related to the product itself which is defective by reason of negligence, as opposed to the loss or damage caused to the property of the Plaintiff by this defective product. Nuisance In this cause of action, a Defendant is liable if the Plaintiff can show the Defendant is responsible for a condition or activity which interferes with use or enjoyment of his land, and that condition or activity is not a reasonable user by the Defendant. The Highland Towers decision, requiring the plaintiff must establish an additional requirement that is the type of damage whether the defendant could reasonably foreseeable, the principles adopted from English case law on the extension of the disturbance is limited in Malaysia, Cambridge Water Company leather Co. Ltd. v. Eastern European countries. Cause of structural failure The water tower is behind a small stream known as the ” East Creek .” Eastern Creek flows into the tower site tower ” before construction, so the establishment of the pipeline system is to divert the flow to bypass the tower. In 1991, a new housing development project, called ‘Bukit Antarabangsa Development Project’, located in the tower under construction behind the top of the hill . The mountain is cleared of trees and other vegetation and land cover, land exposed soil erosion is a major factor causing landslides. Construction site of the new water diverted into the existing pipeline systems used to transfer the East river flows. This heavy-duty piping and water, sand and silt from the river and east into the pipeline construction site . Pipes burst, several places in the mountains, and the surrounding soil to absorb excess moisture . December 1993 monsoon rains further deterioration of the situation . The water content in the soil becomes super saturated, so that the soil has become viscous, actually become the degree of clay. October 1992 by the hillside is saturated with water, the water is flowing down the slopes and considered retaining walls . Shortly thereafter, landslides, destroying the construction of a retaining wall. Landslide mud that contains an estimated one hundred thousand square meters – a mass equivalent to 200 Boeing 747 aircraft. Rammed earth base to first, gradually pushing it forward. After a month of this constant pressure, foundations snapped and November 1993, the residents began to see cracks forming and expanding the highlands surrounding the tower, on the road warning of collapse. Unfortunately, no further investigation before a collapse December 11, 1993. Safety authorities and Investigation procedures. These were the findings of the investigation that came from the accident. Also indicating who was to blame for the occurrence of the accident. Within the first 24 hours, only two women and an infant were pulled out of the rubble. Indonesian maid Umi Rashidah Khoruman, 22, and her 18-month old daughter Nur Hamidah Najib, survived the ordeal, but the second woman, Japanese national Shizue Nakajima, 50, succumbed to her injuries. Final report from the investigations showed that It was the fault of the property owners not to drain the land that caused the silt to build and thus the massive land slide that led to the collapse of the structure that claimed 48 lives. Liabilities. The following are the court ‘s findings of liability : The first defendant was negligent in assuming responsibility not to engage a qualified architect, building terraces insufficient, inadequate, could reasonably be expected to have caused the collapse of the retaining walls and drains eastward diversion from its natural course and failed to ensure that the slope is adequate water pipe culverts, and hate not maintained drains and retaining walls . The second defendant ( the architect ) is assumed liability for negligence does not ensure adequate drainage and retaining walls built in the adjacent highlands tower site, which he foresaw or should have foreseen that the building would endanger the hillside, he is responsible for, not specified with the authorities on drainage, and the first defendant and the third defendant ( engineers ) collude to get fitness certificate does not fulfill the conditions by the fourth defendant ( local authorities ) are required, in doing so does not comply with his duties, the architect and no investigation retaining walls, even though he knew they would affect the terraced hillsides and construction of buildings, he was responsible for, and hate, because he is an unreasonable land users . The third defendant ( engineer ) is behind the negligence of responsibility without considering the hillside or slope of the tower, there is no basis for the design and construction to accommodate lateral load or alternatively landslide has ensured that the adjacent slope stability, without implementation of the approved drainage plan, and the first and second defendants colluded to get fitness certificate does not fulfill the conditions stipulated by the fourth defendant and a nuisance, because he is irrational use of land. The fourth defendant ( local authorities ) Although the negligence of its construction-related jobs. That is about the building plan approval process to ensure the implementation of the approved construction of drainage systems, and in the Certificate of Fitness problem remains because S95 Street, Drainage and Building Act (2 ) immunity. The fourth defendant, but a maintenance function Eastern stream late in fulfilling its construction can not be spared for its negligence . It also attracted a nuisance liability . The fifth defendant ( Arab – Malaysian financial BHD) is liable for the negligence of failure to maintain drains their land, and in the land after the collapse of the measures taken to restore stability . Seventh defendant (Metrolux property ) and its project manager, the eighth defendant, who is the responsibility of negligence and nuisance, to prevent water from flowing into the downhill ( into their website ), but to guide the stream of water into the East, when they knew or ought to have known, this will increase the amount of water injected into the mud and, in particular, have their own extensive land clearing, go east into the stream, it will be deposited, which will in turn ( to prove ) cause or contribute to drainage fault system and a collapse. The ninth and tenth defendant ( basically the state government ), found no liability due to a technical problem on the prosecution of a particular political party. The sixth defendant ( who carried out the work site clean- Arab – abortion buyer of land in Malaysia ) found no evidence of responsibility . Remedies About remedies the first this is find a qualified contractors and qualified Designer and construction engineer. In this case causes of building collapse the main reason is to find designer contractor caused by the irrational. So we summary have five points: (i) Nearby locations building professionals need to be considered, as well as the safety assessment of the site itself, especially taking into account the adjacent hillside. (Ii) building professionals to participate in a limited range can not hide behind, these are things that they themselves and their employers, but they may be subject to the duties owed to the scope of their service is not limited to this. (Iii) building professionals required to ensure that others do the work may be engaged to supervise their influence in the design / construction is competent, will carry out their work, a workmanlike manner. (Iv) if the building professionals think they have expertise in specific areas when they are unqualified, their behavior will be a measure of this general qualifications expertise qualified doctor. (V) construction professionals must ensure that the law after a report to the authorities if necessary, if their clients break the law, even in danger by their client to be discharged. The second thing to do is to ensure that the experience and expertise to this project. Next to it is to ensure that all materials and components to be installed and used in order to test its functionality and satisfactory compliance with the required standards. For example; specific laboratory tests should be taken before using compressive strength, stability and durability. Finally, before any part of the project is complete, responsible for the approval before its next regulatory bodies should be. The project is a model for all the items necessary tests, carried out before the actual implementation. Engineers can also use the cause of the weather and other aspects of the model. The third thing is because this situation has occurred for many years, although the court has not yet made the decision, but still want to remind contractors, who together oversee project quality, and how to resolve some of the risk around. Do not let the tragedy happen again. Percentage Frequency of Causes of Building Collapse(Malaysia 1960-2010) NO Investigated causes of building collapse Malaysia Percentage (%) 1 Structural failure 1 10 2 Faulty design 2 20 3 Poor workmanship 1 10 4 Substandard materials 1 10 5 Due to surrounding building development 2 20 6 illegal conversion 0 0 7 Inexperience contractor 3 30 8 Building usage 0 0 total 10 100 So in this table we can see Causes of Building Collapse most reason is Inexperience contractor. Now we need clean know find an experienced contractor is very important, faulty design and due to surrounding building development also account for a large proportion. Recommendations From the above analysis and discussion presented, you can infer that the main reason for the building’s structural failures, design errors and poor workmanship, which may also be applicable to other countries in the world . Also from the results of this study,it is believed that there are three types of claims, can produce any buildings collapsed, that contract claims, tort claims and incidents of both contract and tort claims ; This means that a party can be made in this both his / her request. Therefore, the following recommendations for who had suffered losses in the square building collapse Events so that their requirements: (i) The Government shall endeavor to assist in the investigation of any incidence of building collapse, to allow victims to know the responsible party, and from whom to make a claim . (ii) The Government should assist owners or who have suffered the loss of a building collapse in the event a third party to prosecute their cases in court as they do their other requirements, if they can not, because The expensive nature of the proceedings. (iii) The Government should enact laws that will improve the effectiveness and standards for the construction of buildings. (iv) In addition, the government should monitor, manage and enforce the law, its effectiveness. (v) Every building owner should ensure that qualified professionals and experienced contractors are engaged in carrying out their construction process . (vi) Every professional body should monitor their members and also be ready to penalize any erring member who ISS found liable in building collapse incident. Conclusion Ramp construction led to landslides – like we definitely hear a lot of news, and landslides claimed more and more of life events, why is everywhere and felling of trees for the construction of the activities. Otherwise, this tragedy 21 years ago can be avoided! I hope the Government will seriously look at this issue! REFERENCES http://malaysiafactbook.com/Highland_Towers_collapse http://www.nst.com.my/nation/general/i-saw-highland-towers-block-crash-to- Highland Tower Collapse and Ramp Construction