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New Nursing Educational Organization’s Development Research Paper

Introduction The development of the nursing sector is vital for the enhancement of the health conditions within a community. Setting up a nursing educational organization to facilitate training for the development of skills among students within a particular environment is a strategic move towards satisfying the health needs of a given community. Nursing schools aim at equipping individuals with skills to facilitate their qualification as nursing practitioners, thus aiding in the diagnosis and treatment of chronic and acute illnesses. In this case, the establishment of the Northway College of Nursing is essential for the provision of educational nursing programs to the community surrounding the institution and beyond. This paper will focus on the strategies for the development of the Northway College of Nursing. It will address the functions of the new organization in the provision of educational and training programs in nursing. Purpose of the Organization The establishment of any organization should be aimed at the attainment of particular ends through the inputs of its members to deliver desired outputs (Johnson, 2012). Therefore, the development of the Northway College of Nursing is geared towards the accomplishment of certain results. The organization seeks to provide a high standard of nursing education and training programs to provide the community with skilled nursing practitioners. Additionally, the aim of the organization is to ensure that the training and educational programs are in line with the current developments in the healthcare industry through the facilitation of research that seeks to improve the delivery of services by nursing practitioners. Furthermore, the organization strives to enhance patient advocacy by facilitating the patients’ safety in health care procedures. The Organization’s Target Population A target population is essential for an organization to plan strategically for its operations and satisfy the needs of the group. The Northway College of Nursing seeks to target individuals that are interested in pursuing their careers in nursing. The target group includes individuals who possess the minimum educational requirements required for enrollment in the nursing school regardless of their background, age, or gender. Additionally, the organization targets the community as a whole in its corporate social responsibility (CSR) programs. This aspect entails efforts put forward by the organization to improve the social, economic, and environmental conditions of the surrounding community. Stakeholders The involvement of various parties in the development of a new organization is essential for its growth. In particular, the health sector has to consider different parties that have a direct implication on the effective running of operations through interdependence (Wolf, Hanson
Introduction Literature review is a necessary process that allows researchers to be aware of research that has been conducted in their area of interest (Webster and Watson, 2002). It thus avoids unnecessary repetition of research. Additionally it allows the researchers to integrate the work of other researchers into their own. By conducting literature review researchers can be familiar with methods that work and challenges that are unique in their areas of study. Topic and context of study The review covers the topic of drug misuse and its impact on crime. Best, et al. (2001), conducted a research on the polydrug users who reported for treatment. The focus of the study was on crime and expenditure. According to Best, et al. (2001), the aim of the study was to find out if there is a correlation between treatment for drug use using methadone and crime. It also aimed to find out if crime is related to crime that seeks to support drug habit. There have been numerous studies conducted to access the effectiveness of drug treatment. There has also been much research done to find out if drug treatment that substitute Opiate are beneficial. The study concentrates on the interaction of replacement of opiates and benefit in reducing crime. Crime is one of the consequences and cause of crime. The study is necessary in order to understand if the treatment of replacing opiates is indeed helpful. One was of measuring this is in the levels of crime committed by those on opiates and those on methadone treatment. If the research finds that the treatment does not help in reducing crime attributed to drug misuse, then it would follow that new treatment options should be tried. Study of this nature is important to the study of drugs in general because it provides additional knowledge on drug use. In the study by Best, et al. the knowledge gained is specific about the motivation for drug use and motivation for crime for drug users. It also helps in the evaluation of some treatment options and their effectiveness and pinpointing why the methods fail. The literature review conducted by Best et. Al (2001), was related to their subject of study. One of the study they reviewed was conducted by Ball and Ross in 1991. This study examined methadone maintenance treatment and its effectiveness (Ball and Ross, 1991). This was an important review since the topics are closely related. It provided the research with insights into relevant information that would facilitate their research. Type of review Best, et al. Literature review was integrative. According to Friedman (2006), this is because it concentrated on finding out what was known about the topic at the beginning of their study. The review traces relevant studies that have been conducted and their findings. The review also looked at the concentration of most of the research done on the topic which has been based on several hypotheses. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The research sought to test the hypotheses and gain more knowledge which may present a more fitting hypothesis. The literature used also justifies the way Best, et. al conducted their own research. According to Levy and Ellis (2006), a review informs a researchers methodology, approach and validity of the research. Breath of Review The literature review by Best, et. Al (2001), has breath of review sufficient for its study. Since their topic of study is quite narrow they have taken literature that sufficient for their research (Shaw, 1995). The literature review is thus not very broad. A literature review needs to be broad enough to cover necessary content of the research. By using sufficient literature review Best, et al. (2001), demonstrate how their research builds into what has been done before. Best, et al. (2001), target literature that has specifically addressed their topic. Depth of Review The literature review used has slightly more depth since it is narrow. According to levy and Ellis (2006), a literature review should be deep enough to offer grounds for synthesis and analysis. Best, et al. conducted a literature review that is not very deep. This is possibility due to the scope of their study which is not big. However the review is enough to direct to relevant conclusions, methods and significance of previous studies while indicating the importance of previous studies to the one being undertaken (Friedman, 2006; Levy and Ellis, 2006). Methodology The method used in the research by Best, et al. was appropriate for their research. This is because the tools they used were appropriate and have been tested in corresponding researches (Best, et al., 2001). In previous researches interviews have been effective in providing reliable information. This proved to be of importance to the research as interviews could also be used in the research without compromising the outcome. Additionally the researchers became aware of several challenged. For one the researchers realized that to get genuine answers from the interviewees they would have to give them a separate background to their treatment center. This would allow the interviewees to separate the work of the researchers from their daily experiences at the center and feel more free. The researchers thus moved the interviews from the regular center room. In addition the researchers realized that they needed to reassure the interviewees of confidentiality. This was based on the nature of the questions asked during th interview. The interviewees were self reporting and needed to be reassured that whatever was discussed during the interviews was confidential. That allowed the self reporting to be genuine and honest. An alternative method that may have been used is questionnaire. This is because the interview questions could be administered in that way and is more cost effective and easier to analyze (Survey Systems, 2007-10) We will write a custom Report on Drug Misuse and Its Impact on Crime specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Contribution of research and its conclusions The research reached the conclusion that there is no significance in the committing of crime by those who are on opiates and those who are receiving methadone treatment. This is of importance to field of knowledge as it reveals that methadone may not be having as much benefit as it is intended to. The treatment with methadone is aimed at helping individual seeking treatment to stop drug misuse and to help society as well. However if it is not achieving this purpose this research gives cause to reevaluate the need of the treatment. Conclusion The research conducted by Best, et al. has made important contribution to the field of study on drug misuse. It had a sufficient literature review. The research also used an effective methodology and reached valid conclusions based on its findings. It has contributed to knowledge and provided areas into which other research can be conducted in future. References Best, D. et al., 2001. Crime and expenditure amongst polydrug misusers seeking treatment. British Journal of Criminology, 41 (1), pp. 119-126. Friedman, L. W., 2006. Writing the literature survey paper. (Online). Web. Levy, Y. and Ellis, T. J., 2006. A systems approach to conduct an effective literature review in support of information systems research. Information Science Journal, 9 (6), pp. 181-126. Shaw, J., 1995. A Schema approach to the formal literature review in engineering thesis. System, 23 (3), pp 325-335. Survey Systems., 2007-10. Survey design. Web. Available at https://www.surveysystem.com/sdesign.htm . Webster, J. and Watson, R. T., 2002. Analysing the past to prepare for the future: writing a literature review. Journal of Management Information System, 26 (2), pp. 13-23. Not sure if you can write a paper on Drug Misuse and Its Impact on Crime by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More
Corporate Fraud.

Corporate FraudThere are several examples of corporate fraud. Some of these are:
Adelphia
Global Crossing
Qwest Communications
Rite Aide
Tyco
WorldCom
Xerox
GlaxoSmithKline
Choose one of the given examples of corporate fraud and write a 4- to 5-page report in Microsoft Word, addressing the following questions:
How was the fraud perpetrated? How much money was involved? Explain.
How was the fraud uncovered? How did the law enforcement agency investigate and prosecute the crime?
Which laws were violated?
What was the outcome of the case?
Was this the best possible outcome given the circumstances of the case?
Be careful in selecting your sources for research. Many people have strong opinions on these subjects and post inaccurate information. Be sure to only use reliable news sources to learn the details related to the example you choose. Support your responses with examples.Cite any sources in APA format.
Corporate Fraud

46(10). Write two pages discussions for a sociology class.

46(10). Write two pages discussions for a sociology class..

Write two pages discussions for a sociology class. I have attached all the requirements, sample, cases you need and the reading materials. Please do read the requirements carefully. Thank you!Directions:1.Based on your
client’s biological age, what stage of human development are they in? How is
your client’s human developmental stage relevant to the case? What unique
ethical concerns arise during your client’s stage, and how would you address
them? (Hint: Ch7 Talks about birth – 18 CH 8 Talks about 65+ See the
Developmental Stages Power Point in the module for additional information.)2.What are two social
welfare programs (Macro Social Work) that your textbook mentioned that you
think could help your client based on their Human Developmental Stage and their
presenting problems and needs? Why did you select these two programs? (Consult
and use your course textbook for specific social policies/programs. Hint: Ch 7,
8, and 11 have some specific policies/programs, as does the rest of the
textbook.)3.What kinds of
attitudes does the public display toward people who are in the same human
developmental stage as your client? What are the expectations does society have
for people in that human development stage?4.What is your role as
a social worker based on your client’s human developmental stage? How could you
help your client navigate the attitudes and expectations they face from
society?5.What is one question
that you have about your case study/client and its relation to this week’s
module material6.Please ensure that
you respond to at least one peer in addition to your own post! Peer responses
are expected to be a minimum of 100 words. Be sure to include critical thinking
and thoughtful feedback in your response to ensure you earn the full amount of
points in your post
46(10). Write two pages discussions for a sociology class.

Leading and Managing Organisational Resources

cheap assignment writing service Executive summary This report demonstrates the details of a start-up business organization, Matchbox Architect Limited. It is a construction company in the UK. The detailed report entails the annual turnover, net profit for the financial year and the previous year. The main objective of this report is to analyse the hot topic “Ambidexterity” under the following perspectives like leadership, operations and Information systems. In order to become a successful corporate entrepreneur Matchbox Architect can implement transformational leadership, proper training to employees to develop skills, knowledge sharing with practical approach and Strategic human resource management by implementing Hr – Workforce Model. Introduction The Matchbox Architect Limited (MBA) is an Architect Engineering Company that functions in the UK since the year of 2009. MBA is the second largest Architect firm in Northampton. It became a Private Limited company of 22 existing employees at present. The managing director of this organization is Neil Scroxton. This business organization belongs to the Chamber of Commerce in the Northampton shire. In the last data that was collected from the business organization, the annual turnover, the net profit of the financial year and the previous year the turnover profit was released. For the year 2017, it released its annual turnover of an amount of £ 494,015, the profit for the year 2017 is £ 7,547. At the same time, the turnover for the financial year 2018 went up to £ 731,012, the profit for the financial year 2018 is £ 122,926. They have experienced the turnover growth of 48% compared to the last financial year. MBA has a diverse client base that includes Residential developments (locally), commercial and industrial building contracts (regional / national). MBA is trying to expand their client base and market to expand their business. They have step into a new sector of business – Education. The MBA has completed 10,000 small businesses programme under Goldman Sachs and tend to be in state of growth. Currently the organization has 22 employees working under and they try to increase their capacity to 50 employees within next 5 financial years. The report talk about the hot topic – Ambidexterity (balance between being productive and innovative) as stated by Tushman and O’Reilly. (1996). The ambidexterity is analysed in the following perspectives leadership, operations, Information systems. Analysis Key aspect – Transformational Leadership to maintain ambidexterity As stated byTushman and O’Reilly. (1996), the ability of an organization is to be both exploit (efficient) and explore (innovative) is called Ambidexterity. The exploration and exploitation are alone not required by the organization to be ambidextrous it also requires capability to adapt to changes and technologies in order to with stand in the competition with the competitors (O’Reilly

ADP7116 Microteaching Session Plan: International students

ADP7116 Microteaching Session Plan: International students. Aims: The session aims to introduce students to current issues in river assessment methods and explore turbulence as practical and effective solution to link fluvial processes with aquatic biota. Intended learning outcomes: By the end of the session, students will be able to: Understand the current issues in assessing hydromorphological condition of rivers; Understand the two ways of interaction between hydrodynamics and aquatic biota; Explore the benefits and challenges to integrate turbulence in the current river assessment methods. Time (minutes) Tutor activity Student activity Aids/Resources 0-1 From poor to excellent river conditions Watch the video video 1-2 (Introduction) GT introduces topic Plenary PPT slide 2-5 Participants to identify bad and good factors to evaluate the current status of rivers Quiz 5-6 GT present the current variables to assess river condition Plenary PPT slide 6-8 Video of turbulence Questions to tutor Students watch the video (create a question) Slide (questions written by students) video 8-10 GT presents turbulence concepts Plenary PPT slide 10-12 Pairs to come up with the 2 benefits and 2 challenges to integrate turbulence in river assessment Write on post-it notes Post its 12-13 Pairs to stick the post its on the poster 13-15 Conclusion Formal/informal assessment task Answering to quiz result of bad/good factors to predict an effective assessment and answering question to benefits and challenges. Consolidation following the session Tutor to send slides. Tutor explains problem/solution to students for review. Analysis of session plan The focus of this session is to highlight the need to update the current river assessment adopted by Environment Agency to provide a valid and effective evaluation of fluvial ecosystems (Voulvoulis et al., 2017) to adapt to change in climate conditions. Students are academics and teaching assistants and already acquired basic principles of fluvial processes from previous backgrounds and life experiences. This would provide insights on how to integrate better predictors (e.g. turbulence) to tackle environmental issues. The selected learning outcomes provide a potential development of learning new skills through the application of active learning strategies to improve student’s performance and engagement (Freeman et al., 2014). To achieve the outcomes, participants work on basic skills to remembering, understanding and then applying (Anderson et al., 2001) to come up with basic assumptions of why hydrodynamics would affect habitat used by fish and which challenges and benefits the current methodology in river assessment are facing. To introduce the topic to participants and help them to joined the subject, the session starts with the video of the status of river ecosystems from poor to excellent conditions. Van Kesteren et al (2014) demonstrated the effectiveness of pre-existing concepts in undergraduate students to improve their academic performance by increasing brain connectivity. By encoding brain communications with student’s exam scores, the research highlights the importance of prior knowledge to facilitate the acquisition and activation of memory that improves learning. Although the challenges to connect the neuroscience with education, this finding is in line with Bransford and Johnson (1972) that is relatively old but provide further evidence of the impact of activated knowledge in facilitate comprehension and memorise new information. Overall, more than 50% of the session uses active learning to ensure students actively engaged with the material of the plan and interact to start to gain knowledge. Following the constructivism theory, the student acts as the main character of the play to construct the concept from experience using interactive technology with autonomy (Bada et al., 2015). The collaboration among learners is also important and provide a social knowledge reflecting the interaction between the task, instructor, and learners. To develop this, students work in pair to solve simple problem-based learning because of time constraint. The discussion between learners and the problem-solving activity reflects a good practice to evaluate current issues and enhance student capacity to research a new approach and work in pair (Powell et al ., 2008). As suggested the four cases analysed by Powell et al., (2008), the problem-solving learning reveals excellent impacts in student’s engagement and ability to resolve practical problems. The active learning techniques are then alternate with traditional lecturing using power-point slides to guide students to new concepts and produce an analysis of the benefits and challenges of hydrodynamics integration to river assessment. Active learning aims to apply different teaching strategies to promote students focus and engagement and to stimulate effectively learning process (Anderson et al., 2001), although testing student progress would be challenging compared to the traditional techniques. To address this, I tailor the session with a couple of informal assessment tasks to be sure all the students elaborate analysis and act of making knowledge meaningful. Following this, a quiz is used to ask students to remember and self-reflect of environmental issues. There are three simple questions and students have 2 minutes to answer due to limited time then I make some observations and present the correct answers. A simple survey of their understanding of river health could enhance student learning and long-term retention together with self-evaluation of what students have understood and what the teacher should revise (Dunlosky et al., 2013). In addition, a second video introduces a new concept to encourage questions from students to the tutor to generate their own action and increase their performance and enthusiasm. There might be few issues to address during the session. The first potential problems might reflect the time management of the session. As the multiple active learning requires changing activities, the time could be tight and some delays are possible. To tackle this problem, there is an accurate preparation to make sure the visual aids are ready and avoid any digital/electronic interruptions. The second possible difficulty might be the participation of students and the interactions between students and the tutor. The tutor provides support and help to encourage a good social environment and acts as an aware observer during the activity and if needed, he guides students to the tailored expectations. A final evaluation of the session from both students and teacher is helpful to summarise the successes or failures. A brief evaluation provides evidence of positive and negative practices to improve the tutor’s development. Feedbacks from students provide effective assessment whether the activity has been understood and the learning outcomes have been tailored strategically. An adaptation of the learning wheel is used to assess what students have gained at the end of the session in term of new concepts, practical skills and their participation and engagement (Figure1). Figure 1. This is the brief evaluation to give to students at the end of the session. For a longer session, a problem based learning using a real case study would be suitable to enhance student’s problem solving. Groups of four or five students might be better to emphasise the importance of the problems and enhance the team working skills. To conclude, the session reflects a combination of active strategies to activate student’s prior knowledge to be ready to engage with new concepts and use their problem solving in evaluating these environmental issues. References Anderson, L. W., Krathwohl, D. R., Airasian, P., Cruikshank, K., Mayer, R., Pintrich, P.,ADP7116 Microteaching Session Plan: International students

In-vitro Study of Hexane Fraction of P. Niruri Whole Plant

In-vitro Study of Hexane Fraction of P. Niruri Whole Plant. Effect of hexane fraction of P. niruri on glucose uptake in L6 cells: Figure 79 represents the effect of hexane fractions of P. niruri whole plant, insulin and metformin on glucose uptake by L-6 myotubes. It is evident from the results that hexane fraction of P. niruri caused increases glucose uptake in concentration dependent manner in L6 cells. The hexane fraction of P. niruri whole plant increases basal glucose uptake in L6 myotubes to a significant level at a minimum concentration of 10 μg/ml (1.26-fold, p<0.05). Maximum stimulation was observed at 20 μg/ml concentration, calculated to be around 1.52-fold (p<0.01) as compared to basal control cells. Results were compared with the standard antidiabetic drug Insulin and metformin. Insulin alone caused around 1.65-fold (p<0.01) stimulation and metformin caused nearly 1.78 fold (p<0.01) stimulation at 100nM and 500μM concentration, respectively (Fig 79). Figure 1: Effect of hexane fraction of P. niruri whole plant on 2-deoxyglucose uptake in L6 myotubes. Cells were incubated for 16 h with different concentrations of P. niruri. After incubation myotubes were also stimulated with 500 μM concentration of metformin for 16 h, followed by the determination of 2-DG uptake. Results are expressed as in fold change. Effect of wortmannin on hexane fraction of P. niruri whole plant stimulated glucose uptake in L6 cells: To clarify the mechanism of the enhancement of glucose uptake by hexane fraction of P. niruri, we examined whether hexane fraction of P. niruri whole plant induced glucose uptake was reversed by wortmannin, which is a specific inhibitor for PI-3-kinase that blocks the insulin-signaling pathway. Presence of wortmannin (100 nM) completely reversed the insulin-induced glucose uptake, to the basal level (Figure 80). Treatment of cells with hexane fraction of P. niruri at 20 μg/ml conc. for 16 h, in presence of wortmannin inhibited hexane fraction of P. niruri induced glucose uptake. Hexane fraction-mediated potentiation of insulin response to increase glucose uptake was also completely abolished to basal level in presence of wortmannin as shown in Figue 80. These results suggest that the signal transduction leading to glucose uptake by hexane fraction of P. niruri is primarily mediated via PI3K dependent pathway. Figure 2: Effect of wortmannin on insulin and hexane fraction of P. niruri whole plant induced glucose uptake in L6 myotubes. Cells were incubated in the absence (Cont) or the presence of hexane fraction of P. niruri at 20 μg/ml conc. for 16 h without or with wortmannin (100 nM). After incubation myotubes were left untreated (white bars) or stimulated with 100 nM insulin (black bars) for 20 min, followed by the determination of the glucose uptake. Results are expressed as fold stimulation over control basal. Effect of hexane fraction of P. niruri whole plant on mRNA expression of insulin signaling pathway genes in L6 cells: Figure 85 represents the effect of hexane fraction of P. niruri whole plant on mRNA expression of insulin signaling pathway genes in L6 cells. The gene expression profile results showed that hexane fraction of P. niruri whole plant could upregulated the expression of IRS-1(Insulin receptor substrate-1), AKT2 (Protein Kinase-B), HNF-α (Hepatic nuclear factor-α), PPAR-γ (Peroxysome proliferator activated receptor-γ) and GLUT4 gene, while expression of GSK-3β (Glycogen synthase kinase-3β) remain unchanged. These results suggest that hexane fraction of P. niruri whole plant stimulates insulin signaling pathways genes which may account for the antihyperglycemic effect of this fraction. Figure 3: Effect of the hexane fraction of P. niruri whole plant on the expression of IRS-1, AKT2, GLUT4, PPAR-γ, GSK-3β and HNF-α genes in L6 myotubes. L6 myotubes were treated with 20 μg/ml concentrations of hexane fraction of P. niruri for 16 h and then subjected to Real Time PCR analysis. Experiments are performed in triplicate. Results shown are mean ± SE of three independent experiments. *p< 0.05, **p<0.01, relative to control. Effect of hexane fraction of P. niruri whole plant on IRS-1, AKT, PI3-kinase and AMPK proteins in L6 cells: Figure 82 represents the effect of hexane fraction of P. niruri whole plant on IRS-1, PI3-kinase-AKT proteins in L6 cells. The glucose uptake can be mediated by the insulin signaling pathway, which can stimulate the translocation of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4)-containing vesicles to the plasma membrane. Subsequently, GLUT4 transports glucose across the plasma membrane into cytoplasm. To investigate the mechanistic aspects of the antidiabetic action of hexane fraction of P. niruri whole plant on expression of genes involved in insulin signaling pathway were studied by western blot analysis. As shown in the Figure 82 hexane fraction of P. niruri whole plant increases the proteins expression profile of p-IRS-1, PI3K, p-AKT, and GLUT-4 proteins. Indicating that hexane fraction of P. niruri enhances the insulin signaling pathway protein and thus increasing the glucose metabolism. Figure 4: Effect of hexane fraction of P. niruri whole plant on the phosphorylation of IRS-1, PI3K, AKT, and GLUT-4 proteins in L6 myotubes. L6 myotubes were treated with 20 μg/ml concentrations of hexane fraction of P. niruri whole plant for 16 h and then subjected to western blot analysis. Experiments are performed in triplicate. Results are shown in mean ± SE of three independent experiments. Discussion The whole plant of P. niruri has been used as natural medicine since the Vedic time. Present study was the investigation of antidiabetic effect of hexane fraction of ethanolic extract of P. niruri whole plant at the dose of 100 mg/kg of b.w in validated models of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) ie., STZ-induced diabetic rats; high-fructose high-fat diet fed low dosed STZ-induced diabetic rats; n2-STZ-induced diabetic rats and db/db mice. T2DM is a disorder of dysregulated glucose homeostasis which may due to either alteration in insulin secretion and/or insulin sensitivity, resulting in decreased insulin stimulated glucose uptake, failure to suppress hepatic glucose production, and accumulation of hepatic lipids. Many oral antidiabetic agents are now available for the management of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. These agents have different modes of action and have different types of side effects. These oral agents can be used in combination to give better glycemic control than is possible with each alone. The multi-factorial pathogenicity of diabetes demands a multimodal therapeutic approach. Thus future therapeutic strategies require the combination of various types of antidiabetic agents. Therefore, better management of type 2 diabetes is sorely needed with plant based drugs that can enhance the glucose uptake and inhibit PTP1b in the muscles, hepatocytes, and adipose tissues and also inhibits intestinal α-glucosidase, and eye lens aldose reductase activity. STZ selectively damage β cells by free radical injury of DNA fragmentation and nitric oxide generation induces diabetes in all species animals. STZ-induced diabetic animals are most widely used for screening the compounds including natural products for their insulinomimetic, insulinotropic and other hypoglycemic/antihyperglycemic activities (Bates et al., 2000). In diabetes the hyperglycemia also induces the elevation of plasma levels of urea, uric acid and creatinine, which are considered as the significant markers of renal dysfunction and chronic hyperglycemia is involved in the etiology of development of diabetic complications. (Daisy et al., 2009, Mahalingam and Kannabiran 2010). The present study revealed a significant decrease of basal serum insulin after 10 weeks of STZ injection. This decrease was of percentage change, 45-49% as compared with normal non-diabetic rats. Such results agree with that of (Akhani et al., 2004) and may be ascribed to the diabetogenic effect of STZ which lead to destruction of β-cells and decreased number of insulin-containing secretory granules as indicated in the present study. On the other hand the results obtained for blood glucose profile of STZ-induced diabetic rats showed high levels of blood glucose and impaired glucose tolerance as compared with the normal non-diabetic rats. These results are in accordance with the finding of several authors using STZ-induced diabetic animals (El-Naggar et al., 2005, Helmy et al., 2007, Hassan et al., 2008). As recorded by (Caro et al., 1990) glucose intolerance could arise from either a defect in insulin secretion as in case of insulin dependent diabetes (Type 1) or a defect in insulin resistance (receptor or post-receptor defect) as in case of non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (Type 2). Our finding on serum insulin concentration confirms the previously mentioned hypothesis. In the present study, total lipids were increased in serum of STZ-diabetic rats as compared with the normal ones at the end of the experiment. Our results are in accordance with the finding of (Lalhlenmawia et al., 2007, Rawi et al., 1995) who recorded a marked increase of total lipids in serum of STZ-induced diabetic rats. Several investigators, however, recognized that insulin deficiency in STZ -diabetic animals brings about an enhanced breakdown of fat (Sheela et al.,1992, Rawi et al., 1998) increase in mobilization of free fatty acids from the peripheral depots (Kumar et al., 2010, Shirwaiker et al., 2004) and consequence of the uninhibited actions of lipolytic hormones (glucagon and catecholamines) on the fat depots (Ravi et al., 2005). The antihyperglycemic and anti dyslipidemic activity of the hexane fraction of the ethanolic extract was confirmed by multiple dose treatment of hexane fraction of P. niruri whole plant on STZ induced diabetic rats for 28 consecutive days. It has been found that treatment of this plant fraction significantly improved glucose tolerance, markedly elevates the serum insulin level of diabetic rats this indicates that fraction may promote the release of insulin from β cells of pancreas. As shown in the Table 5 the elevation of serum AST and ALT levels (liver function marker enzymes) may reflect the damage of the hepatic cells (Rawi et al., 1995, Kim et al., 2006), concluded that the elevation in AST and ALT levels may be due to the destructive changes in the hepatic cells as a result of toxemia. Hyperglyceamia also induces the elevation of plasma levels of urea, uric acid and creatinine, which are considered as the significant markers of renal dysfunction (Daisy et a; 2009, Mahalingam and Kannabiran, 2010) is significant increase in the serum level of urea, uric acid and creatinine in the diabetic rats when compared with respective normal control rats. Type 2 diabetes can be produced by combination of diet [high fat (HFD) or high fructose diet] plus low dose of STZ (35 mg/kg, ip) treatment (Srinivasan et al., 2005). Short term HFD feeding produces hyperinsulinaemia and insulin resistance initially followed by treatment with STZ that causes the beta cell damage and frank hyperglycaemia in the presence of almost absolute normal insulin circulating concentrations in rats (Reed et al., 2000, Zhang et al., 2003, Srinivasan et al., 2005). These HFD-fed, low dose STZ-treated rat model, exhibits stable, long lasting hyperglycaemia and the symptoms of type 2 diabetes like polyuria, polydipsia, and polyphagia and diabetic complications such as hypertension. Hence, the treatment of hexane fraction of P. niruri(100 mg/kg) to high-fructose high fat fed low dosed STZ induced diabetic rats, significantly reversed the hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia and it also improves the serum lipid profile declining the levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol along with increasing the level of HDL-cholesterol. The C57BL/KsJ-db/db mice at 12 weeks of age exhibited most of the human characteristics of type 2 diabetes including hyperglycemia in the fasting and fed states, hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance (Shafrir et al., 1992). The hexane fraction of P. nirurishowed significant fall in peripheral blood glucose profile and also improved the glucose tolerance of db/db mice. Further hexane fraction of P. niruriwhole plant also showed antidyslipidemic activity in db/db mice that is comparable to rosiglitazone, at 10.0mg/kg b. w. Therefore in present study the hexane fraction of P. niruriwas further evaluated on glucose uptake in L6 cell lines of rat skeletal muscles. Since skeletal muscle cells are considered a well-established in vitro model to study the regulation of glucose transport, since in skeletal muscle, glucose transporters are the first rate-limiting step for glucose utilization under physiological condition (Clow et al., 2004). Glut 4 exists exclusively in insulin-sensitive tissue mainly skeletal, cardiac muscle and adipose tissue and is thus the major transporter responsible for insulin-mediated whole-body uptake (Eddouks et al., 2009). Impaired glucose transport with reduced Glut-4 translocation and disturbance in insulin signaling cascade are the major defects in insulin resistance and type-2 diabetes mellitus. Results of the present study demonstrated that incubation with hexane fraction of P. niruricaused significant stimulation in glucose uptake in L6 skeletal muscle cells. Incubation with 20 μg/ml concentration of hexane fraction of P. niruristimulated the glucose uptake by around 1.52-fold, which is higher than 500 µM concentration of standard antidiabetic drug metformin which shows 1.78-fold stimulation at 20 μg/ml concentration. Since uptake of glucose is the rate limiting step in its utilization, observed antidiabetic effect of hexane fraction of P. nirurimay be mediated, at least in part, through increased utilization of glucose and skeletal muscle may be the major target of action. Hexane fraction of P. niruri whole plant treatment to L6 muscle cell lines, stimulated glucose uptake in a concentration dependent manner. Further to investigate the mechanism of stimulation of glucose uptake, the effect of hexane fraction on cellular signaling pathways known to modulate these processes was studied. The observations demonstrate that hexane fraction stimulates glucose uptake by inducing GLUT4 translocation in a PI3K dependent manner. This was confirmed by the inhibitory effect of hexane fraction mediated glucose uptake by wortmannin, an inhibitor of PI3K activation. In order to identify the downstream activators of PI3K, an analysis was carried out on the phosphorylation status of Akt (protein kinase B) the important protein kinases shown to regulate insulin mediated GLUT4 translocation. Like insulin, hexane fraction of P. niruri whoe plant stimulates Akt protein in differentiated myotubes (L6 cells). However, hexane fraction of P. niruri treatment resulted in the activation of Akt similar to insulin, suggesting hexane fraction of P. niruri whole plant stimulate GLUT4 translocation and glucose uptake in an Akt dependent manner. Involvement of PI-3-kinase independent pathways in insulin stimulated GLUT4 translocation has been established (Fryer et al., 2002; Tan et al., 2008). In-vitro Study of Hexane Fraction of P. Niruri Whole Plant