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Netherlands globalization impact

Netherlands Globalization Impact CERTIFICATION OF AUTHORSHIP This is to certify that the author(s) of this paper is(are) the student(s) listed above and that any assistance received in its preparation is fully acknowledged and disclosed in the paper. Also cited are any sources from which data, ideas or words, were quoted either directly or paraphrased. This is also to certify that this paper was prepared by the student(s) listed above specifically for this course. AUTHORIZATION FOR DUPLICATION This is to hereby authorize that this assignment can be duplicated copied, reproduced, and be viewed by others. Student Signature (please type): Christopher R. Stoll Instructor’s grade on assignment: According to Luthans and Doh, globalization is an ongoing process by which regional economies, societies, and cultures have become integrated through a globe-spanning network of communication and trade. [4] The impact of globalization varies significantly for each country. For the purpose of this assignment, I will focus specifically on the Netherlands. In order to fully recognize the impact, one must consider some of the main contributing forces, the involved stakeholders, and the resulting implications they have on international management practice. Forces contributing to globalization in the Netherlands include technology, migration, and transportation. These forces have a major impact on various stakeholders. Some of the stakeholders include domestic companies, farmers, and different demographic groups. The relationship between the contributing factors and the stakeholders impact international management practices in various ways. Each will be discussed to illustrate the overall impact of globalization on the Netherlands. To begin, it is important to understand some characteristics of the Dutch business environment. According to, the country is highly ranked on many business aspects. It is listed as 18th out of 183 economies for overall ease of doing business and for starting a business. They are ranked 19th for employing workers, 10th for paying taxes, and 21st for protecting investors. Finally, and most importantly in terms of globalization, the Netherlands is ranked 6th for trading across borders. These high business rankings exemplify the impact that globalization has had on this country. The Netherlands’ GDP, as of 2008, was $827 billion. The majority, about 73.6%, of the GDP comes from services. In addition, this country does not have significant trade or investment barriers, which makes it a very approachable market for U.S. exports as well as important investment partnerships. With that being said, the Netherlands is very involved with U.S. trade. Overall, the Netherlands is the 8th largest destination for U.S. exports and 4th largest direct investor in the United States. To understand how globalization has impacted this country, its stakeholders, and international business practices, it is important to first examine the contributing forces. From there, conclusions can be made about the impact such forces have on the Netherlands. Finally, implications can be drawn about the impact globalization has on the country. Technology is one of the most crucial components of globalization. It allows for integration and communication among regional economies, societies, and cultures. In particular, logistics is an especially important sector of technology, as it coordinates complex operations. Approximately 10% of the Netherlands’ GDP is generated by logistics activities alone. The Port of Rotterdam is vital to its’ world-class logistics infrastructure. It is the number one container port in Europe and ranks third worldwide on a total tonnage basis. Overall, it claims a 45% market share in Northwestern Europe. In addition, the Netherlands has invested heavily in high-speed Internet and advanced cable and digital telecommunications systems. This makes them one of the most “wired” countries in the world. The amount of broadband connectivity in the Netherlands is ranked second highest in the world. Finally, the country maintains a steady expansion of its’ technology through research and development projects. The number of jobs associated with those projects increased from 55 in 2005, to 187 in 2007. This demonstrates continued technological innovation. Overall, the Netherlands’ expansive technology infrastructure is a significant force contributing to globalization in this country. Advanced technology in the Netherlands has a great affect on domestic companies. The developed infrastructure allows companies to communicate with business partners in a more efficient manner. Travel time and expenses are saved, as collaboration on business operations from different regions is possible. The advanced communication technology also benefits customers. For example, ordering processes are streamlined through the internet. A client is able to shop, place an order, and make a payment in one single process. This in turn generates greater revenues for the business. Overall, the international business practices conducted by domestic companies are significantly impacted by the advanced technology available in the Netherlands. Migration is also a major force of globalization in the Netherlands. Amsterdam alone is home to over 200 different nationalities, making this country highly diverse. [3] The Dutch government protects the development of a multicultural society, which is demonstrated in its’ Constitution. The freedoms of religion, culture, and language are specifically protected. Not only is the society diverse, it is highly educated. The culturally sensitive environment promotes education of multiple languages, resulting in a bilingual society. Additionally, the Dutch require 13 years of schooling with an attendance rate of nearly 100%, and a literacy rate of 99%. [6] Therefore, the Dutch society is culturally sensitive, diverse and highly educated. Migration into the Netherlands has had a major impact on the country’s workforce composition. The diversified society offers a strong applicant pool for domestic businesses. Workers who are bilingual and highly educated offer the ability to communicate internationally. In addition, a culturally sensitive workforce makes international business easier. The workers know and understand specific cultural taboos. For example, when working in Middle Eastern countries, individuals will know not to shake with their “unclean” left hand. Particular cultural customs such as this are important to realize and understand when conducting international business. The Netherlands is positioned in the heart of Europe’s transportation network. Train systems, highways, waterways and airports are just a few of the transportation methods available in this country. The train system utilizes 1,745 miles of track, ultimately covering the entire country. This is useful in the transportation of imported and exported goods. The Netherlands also has an extensive highway system consisting of about 78,028 miles, [5] which makes it one of the most dense highway networks in the world. As mentioned earlier, the Netherlands also has several ports upon which goods can be easily transported. The Port of Rotterdam and Port of Amsterdam are the largest in the country, accounting for two thirds of the system. In addition, the Netherlands has several airports. One of the most important is Amsterdam’s Schiphol Airport, which is ranked third among Europe’s cargo airports. Overall, the Netherlands offers several modes for transporting goods, a major force in globalization of this country. Major stakeholders, such as farmers and domestic companies, are positively impacted by the availability of international transportation systems. Domestic farmers are able to export their goods to many outside countries, expanding their global outreach. Domestic companies are affected in the same way. They too can export goods to a larger customer base. Overall, the extensive transportation system available in the Netherlands allows for greater exportation of goods and therefore expands international business. As discussed earlier, globalization is an ongoing process by which regional economies, societies, and cultures have become integrated through a globe-spanning network of communication and trade. The Netherlands is a country that exemplifies this very definition. This country stresses the importance of technology, transportation, and migration which has lead to success in globalization. With a continued effort to make use of and expand upon the existing global forces, the Netherlands will continue to succeed greatly in terms of international business and overall globalization. Works Cited “2008.” European American Business. Web. 22 Mar. 2010. . “Doing Business in Netherlands – Doing Business – The World Bank Group.” Home – Doing Business – The World Bank Group. Web. 22 Mar. 2010. . “Globalization in the Netherlands: History and Modernity.” Diss. St. Petersburg State University, 2007. Feb. 2007. Web. 22 Mar. 2010. . Luthans, Fred, and Jonathan P. Doh. International Management: Culture, Strategy, and Behavior. 7th ed. Boston: McGraw-Hill Irwin, 2009. Print. “Netherlands -.”Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Web. 22 Mar. 2010. . “Netherlands (01/10).” U.S. Department of State. Web. 22 Mar. 2010. .
System Access.

Analyzing network traffic and understanding packets is an important role for IT security professionals. Hackers also use network traffic to steal information or to learn about an organization’s network infrastructure.How can each method of packet capture be useful, and why might one be chosen over another?How is the OSI model useful when discussing packet capture?In preparing your response, cite at least one source from professional or academic literature, such as articles from peer-reviewed journals and relevant textbooks. For this course, the use of Wikipedia is not considered an academic or professional reference. You should also be sure to proof-read and spell-check your responses. All sources should be formatted per academic writing standards and APA style guidelines.Book:Chapter 11 in Hacker Techniques, Tools, and Incident Handling. Online Book Reading:…Required:250 word (Half page)2 credible scholar source15% similarity allowed.
System Access

NRS 428VN GCU Communicable Disease Chain Discussion.

write minimum 2000 wordsNO PLAGIARISM!Write a paper (2,000-2,500 words) in which you apply the concepts of epidemiology and nursing research to a communicable disease. Refer to “Communicable Disease Chain,” “Chain of Infection,” and the CDC website for assistance when completing this assignment.Communicable Disease SelectionChickenpoxTuberculosisInfluenzaMononucleosisHepatitis BHIVEbolaMeaslesPolioInfluenzaEpidemiology Paper RequirementsDescribe the chosen communicable disease, including causes, symptoms, mode of transmission, complications, treatment, and the demographic of interest (mortality, morbidity, incidence, and prevalence). Is this a reportable disease? If so, provide details about reporting time, whom to report to, etc.Describe the social determinants of health and explain how those factors contribute to the development of this disease.Discuss the epidemiologic triangle as it relates to the communicable disease you have selected. Include the host factors, agent factors (presence or absence), and environmental factors. Are there any special considerations or notifications for the community, schools, or general population?Explain the role of the community health nurse (case finding, reporting, data collection, data analysis, and follow-up) and why demographic data are necessary to the health of the community.Identify at least one national agency or organization that addresses the communicable disease chosen and describe how the organizations contribute to resolving or reducing the impact of disease.Discuss a global implication of the disease. How is this addressed in other countries or cultures? Is this disease endemic to a particular area? Provide an example.A minimum of three peer-reviewed or professional references is required.Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.You are required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite.
NRS 428VN GCU Communicable Disease Chain Discussion

Harvard University Data Engineering and Decision Framing Discussion

Harvard University Data Engineering and Decision Framing Discussion.

I’m working on a data engineering multi-part question and need support to help me learn.

Assignment 1 Due June 6, 2021For this assignment, you will be creating an analytics requirements document (ARD) using the DecisionsFirst software. Be sure to review any of the tutorials and other materials to refresh yourself on the process and procedure for using the software.Week 1 Discussion Wednesday, May 19, 2021 12:01 AM EDT – Tuesday, May 25, 2021 11:59 PM EDT.Weekly discussion topics are designed to help you enhance an understanding of the course topics. Each week your discussion forum grades will be credited according to the following expectations. Answer at least one of the discussion questions by Sunday midnight to allow time for classmates’ comments before the week ends. Respond to at least one post by a class member by Tuesday midnight. Make sure that a response adds substance to the post.All posts need to be an original work. The discussion grade will be based on substance, timeliness, the clarity and quality of initial post and response post, and the depth of analysis.Basically, based on the above, one substantive initial post and one substantive response post will give you up to 100% credits.
Harvard University Data Engineering and Decision Framing Discussion

Unethical and Ethical Issues in Prisons (Corrections) Research Paper

assignment writing services Introduction Every society usually has criminals or people who go against set rules and regulations. Prisons are mostly put in place so that such people can be confined therein for various reasons. This includes ensuring that inmates get corrected and also to protect the public from their crime. Prisons have been there since time in history. They usually have measures such as high ramparts, dogs and maximum security to prevent inmates from escaping. Prison systems have continued to transform in diverse ways. The operation of prison systems in various nations is usually known to differ in diverse ways. Numerous ethical and unethical issues can be traced in prison systems. This paper looks at these issues in depth. (Akers, 2000) Unethical issues An analysis of prison systems shows that there are myriad unethical issues that are taking place therein. These issues can be noted among prison warders, prisoners and even the auxiliary staff working in the prisons. It is imperative to look at these issues so that relevant authorities can take corrective measures. (Carroll, 2003) Homosexuality This is one of the unethical practices that are evident in the prison systems. Prisons are usually known to confine offenders in one place. They are never allowed to visit their spouses or families. This leads to a situation where the conjugal rights of prisoners are not met. Research shows that inmates resort to homosexuality within the prisons. This is not a healthy practice as some of them after leaving prison to continue with the vice despite having wives. Through this, many marriages of ex-prisoners are easily broken. It is a very unethical practice since it does not result in a healthy society. Surprisingly, the issue of homosexuality in prisons has existed for quite a long time. Relevant authorities seem unconcerned about this issue, yet it plays a significant role in eroding moral standards within the society. Furthermore, cases of homosexuality are usually noted to be occurring even between prisoners and prison warders. This puts a question mark on the role of prisons in instilling high moral values among offenders in society. (Carroll, 2003) Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Rape This is also another unethical practice within the prison system. Various researchers assert that rape cases in prisons continue to escalate year after year. People with the offense of rape are usually allowed to mingle with the other prisoners. Women are the worst hit in this case. Many women prisoners are often raped but never dare to report to the authorities due to fear. Some men are usually raped by their fellow men. The situation is generally bad for children staying with their mothers in prison. Most of the children are usually born within the prisons as their mothers serve their sentence. Rape is highly evident as many inmates seek medical attention when their private parts are damaged due to the force inflicted during the act. The challenge with rape cases in prisons is that the perpetrators are never mentioned. The affected parties fear since they are usually forewarned by rapists on dire repercussions in case they spill the beans. (Paula, 2004) The raped prisoners stay with the pain and never talk to anyone. In the long run, they end up carrying out the same act on other prisoners as a revenge mission. Sometimes they as infected with HIV Aids and other sexually transmitted diseases through rape. This is mostly carried out on younger prisoners who have not stayed within prison premises for a long time. The cycle then continues; this becomes the order of the day. This is quite unethical. (Paula, 2004) Mistreatment of prisoners’ children Some women are usually put in prison when they have babies that cannot be left at home. Sometimes the women never have someone who can take care of these small children. They end up going to prison with their children. Some of them deliver their children while in prison. Research shows that these children usually go through a lot of mistreatment as if they are the ones who committed the crime. The children are typically made to stay in confinement with their mothers. They are not given adequate bedding and sleep on a cold floor in the night. (Sissela, 1995) We will write a custom Research Paper on Unethical and Ethical Issues in Prisons (Corrections) specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The children are never provided with sufficient food or a balanced diet that is necessary for their growth. This is entirely unethical as these children are innocent and do not deserve such mistreatment. Sometimes the children are verbally abused by prison authorities. They are usually told that they are unruly as their mothers or parents. Some of these children go through sexual abuse while in prison premises. (Paula, 2004) The prison environment is not the best for growing up children as they watch their mothers being mistreated, whipped and verbally abused. They grow up in fear; this affects their self-esteem in the long run. Older children are usually made to do tough chores as if they were criminals. Sometimes the children are typically confined indoors; this leads to emotional abuse. This is an unethical practice that needs to be corrected by relevant authorities. (Paula, 2004) Drug trafficking and abuse It is usually expected that prisons play a significant role in changing offenders’ character; this may still be a mirage. Drug trafficking is mostly known to be thriving within prison systems. In this case, prison warders and authorities are usually noted to be actively involved in the business. In some nations, prison warders assert that low payment stirs them to be involved in such practices. This does not justify the practice at all. Prisoners are usually known to be actively engaged in drug trafficking practices. They link up with other criminals who are generally not in prisons to carry out the practice. Further analysis shows that some prisoners jailed for other offenses start drug trafficking while in prison. This puts question marks on the role of prisons in shaping the character of offenders. Furthermore, many prisoners still abuse drugs such as cocaine and marijuana. The drugs, they say, are readily available to them. They claim that the drugs help them to forget their problems. This practice is mostly known among prison warders since most of them are suppliers. They only ensure that high-ranking authorities that do not condone corruption do not get to know about the practice. This practice within the prison system is quite unethical. (Akers, 2000) Calls of nature Analysis of prisons across the globe shows that some of them have unethical practices. One such method relates to calls of nature for prisoners. It is clear that every human being has to attend to the call of nature. In some prison systems, prisoners are not provided for toilets and lavatories. Buckets are usually put in every cell for inmates to use as toilets. This is bearing in mind that the cells usually are crowded. It is expected that any person who wishes to relieve himself will use the bucket in the presence of the other prisoners in the cell. Not sure if you can write a paper on Unethical and Ethical Issues in Prisons (Corrections) by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More There is no privacy when attending the call of nature. The human waste releases awful smell leading to sicknesses among prisoners. This is a very unethical act no matter the crime one has committed. It infringes against the right to privacy when attending the call of nature. Some of the rooms are littered with human waste making life within the cells unbearable. Death penalty This is also a practice that is common in many prison systems across the globe. Some countries have eliminated the death penalty from their prison system. The death penalty is common for capital offenders such as criminals of robbery with violence and murder among other charges. There are nations where capital offenders are hanged. The death sentence is not ethical. No one has the right to take another person’s life no matter the committed offense. People always need to be given a second chance in life rather than taking away their lives. Some of these people are fathers and mothers that have children looking up to them as parents even if they are criminals. Everyone has the right to life whether he is a criminal or not. If people can be corrected by death, then, in the long run, there might be no more people in society. Research shows that some of the people who go through may be innocent hence killing people who are not criminals. Death penalty in the prison system is quite unethical and should be stopped. Emotional and physical abuse Emotional and physical abuses are usually noted to be quite rampant in prisons. Physical abuse sometimes results in severe health repercussions throughout affected prisoners’ lives. Some prisoners suffer kidney problems due to physical damage while in prison. Other physical injuries make prisoners depend on drugs for the rest of their lives. Some injuries make it hard for affected prisoners to lead healthy lives where they can do physical work. This is not ethical at all. (Sissela, 1995) There are some nations where men are usually hit in their private parts damaging the organs. This leads to a situation where they may never sire any children. This is an act that is highly condemned by governmental and non-governmental organizations. These organizations deal with human rights. The extreme isolation of prisoners is emotional abuse. This leads to depression and suicide in affected parties. Abusive language is common in most prison systems. This leads to low-self esteem among prisoners. As prisoners leave prison grounds, some of them adopt an offensive language towards their friends and family. (Akers, 2000) Escape from prisons This has become very common in the prison system all over the world. This tends to happen even in situations where the prisons are usually given maximum security. The analysis shows that prison warders collude with prisoners in implementing the escapes. Prisoners usually pay prison warders money. The prisoners are then allowed to escape. Prison warders usually pretend that they were not aware of the escape. Sometimes bribes are even given to higher authorities in prisons. This is entirely unethical since, in the long- run, crime may never be minimized or eliminated from society. (Garland, 2002) Selling of ammunition The trade in ammunition is quite rampant in prisons. This is usually carried out by both the prisoners and prison authorities. Prisoners are mostly known to link up with other criminals who are not in jail in the selling of ammunition. To make matters worse, this trade is usually facilitated by prison authorities. This beats the logic since prisons are mostly supposed to be a place where offenders go through correction. Corruption is mainly on the increase in prison systems as prison authorities supply and procures ammunitions. This is usually an unethical practice that enhances crime instead of alleviating. (Garland, 2002) Ethical issues Training in practical skills Despite the unethical matters mentioned above, there are also ethical practices evident in prison systems. One of the ethical problems notable in prison systems is the training of prisoners with practical skills. This includes skills such as tailoring, art, carpentry, and masonry among others. Prisoners who are usually equipped with such essential skills always use them later on in life. They find more meaning to life since such skills help them to start income-generating projects once they leave prison. Research shows that, through such training, prisons have been producing quality products such as designer outfits and even quality furniture. The training project also tends to help prisoners market the products while still in prison and even after they leave prison. Most offenders assert that lack of income leads them to crime. This venture is usually imperative as it solves this problem by helping prisoners gain skills that help them start income generating projects. This means that they do not resort to crime anymore. This means that moral standards of the society. (Sissela, 1995) Allowing spouses to visit prisoners often Changes have been taking place in the prison system across the globe. One factor that usually has adverse effects on prisoners is the denial of conjugal rights. This leads to homosexuality and rape cases. Authorities in most prison systems usually arrange spouse visits for prisoners. Arrangements are usually put in place such that prisoners have rooms for conjugal rights whenever their spouses visit. This is mostly known to lead to improved moral standards for prisoners. This reduces rape and homosexuality cases within prisons. As spouses and family members visit prisons, they give prisoners moral support. This makes offenders desire to join their families. Prison authorities also arrange for recreational activities for families to enjoy themselves as they interact with their loved ones in prison. This includes video watching and dances among other activities. (Garland, 2002) Religious teachings This is one of the ethical activities that are common in many prison systems across the globe. Prisoners are mostly taught the word of God that is quite imperative in shaping their character. Research has shown that, through these teachings, some of them change their lifestyle and have a very close relationship with their creator. Governmental and nongovernmental organizations mostly support this venture. Some of them usually assert that they got their spiritual calling while in prison. They even start teaching their fellow inmates on religious doctrine. These teachings help prisoners to know the expectation of their maker and the repercussions of disobeying God. This teaches them how they should live with other people well without hurting them in any way. They learn the advantages of high moral standards and blessings that accompany such a choice. This quickly leads to reformed people and society with high moral standards. (Albrecht, 1977) Education Education is also another ethical thing that can be noted in prison systems that play a significant role in improving the lives of prisoners. Some prisoners are jailed when they do not have any education. Some of them assert that the lack of schooling influences them to join crime. Many prison systems across the globe have incorporated education to give prisoners a second chance to pursue their education. Prisoners are usually given an opportunity to study while serving their term. They are typically encouraged to pursue an education that is necessary for their success after their prison life. (Carroll, 2003) Many enroll for elementary lessons, high school and college lessons in prison. This is usually free of charge hence motivates many prisoners to join. They pursue elementary, high school and even higher education in prison. This is mostly an extremely ethical practice in prison systems. It helps in determining the future of ex-prisoners. The program usually tailored in such a way that, after gaining professional skills, they are generally helped to get employment. This often allows offenders to have a brighter future and leave the life of crime altogether. (Carroll, 2003) Conclusion There are unethical and ethical practices that can be noted in prison systems. Some ethical practices include allowing spouses to visit inmates often and providence of education. Prisoners are also given training in practical skills such as carpentry and given religious teachings that transform their lives. Unethical practices in prison include rape, homosexuality, emotional and physical abuse, the death penalty and escapes from prisons among other issues. These issues need to be corrected if these facilities are to improve the lives of prisoners. References Albrecht, S. (1977): Re-moralization process, Application in relation to attitude Performance; Scientific Study Journal, 16, 263-274. Akers, R. (2000): Criminological Theories: Introduction, Evaluation, and Application. 3rd edition; Los Angeles: Roxbury Press. Carroll, A. (2003): Business and society ethics and stakeholder management (5th Ed.); South-Western Publishing Co; Cincinnati Ohio. Garland, D. (2002): Of Crimes and Criminals, in Maguire and Robert Rainer: The Oxford Handbook of Criminology, 3rd edition; U.K; Oxford University Press. Paula C. (2004): Inner life: African- American women in- Prison’s voices, New York; University Press. Sissela, B. (1995): Common Values; Columbia, MO: University of Missouri Press.

Irvine Valley College Media Writing Leads Research Paper

Irvine Valley College Media Writing Leads Research Paper.

LEADS ASSIGNMENT Write four leads based on the information provided. As you will see, the information is not organized in media format fashion and there are many more facts than can be accommodated in a lead that is not longer than 35 words.Your first and most important task is to decide what single fact is most newsworthy or significant. Here are a few tips:Do not start with when or where the event occurred. Do not begin by citing the source of information. Do be sure you attribute appropriately. Review your leads before submitting them.
Irvine Valley College Media Writing Leads Research Paper

Factors Which Affect Firm S Profitability Economics Essay

Afza Hussain tried to seek out different factors which determine the capital structure of a firm. They observed the financial data of manufacturing sector of Pakistan. A firm adopts suitable mix of sources of finance such as retained earnings, issuance of ordinary and preference shares and debt to maximize shareholders wealth. By using debt financing, a firm may get tax shield but it raises the risk of bankruptcy. Thus, the possible advantages of a debt financing lessen due to bankruptcy cost and firms which have high debt financing rate are deemed to be highly risky firms. The cost of equity financing is higher than the cost of debt financing due to floatation cost and demand of dividend is higher by the shareholders. They concluded that firms which have good asset structure ought to finance their operations by debt financing and the firms which have high cost of debt ought to utilize retained earnings and if more funds are required then use equity financing. Eriotis, Frangouli and Neokosmides (2011) concerned about the impact of financial structure on firm’s performance. They took data from 53 firms of various industries for the period of 1995-1996 and concluded that debt-to-equity ratio has a negative impact on the profitability of the firm. Negative impact means that either the benefit from the investment through borrowed capital is lower than the cost of borrowed capital or those firms are more profitable which prefer self financing for investment than firms which finance their investment by borrowed capital. They suggested that level of investment can be increased through the use of borrowed capital and it increased the return of invested capital but it also increased the risk for the firm and for the owners due to fixed expenses of interest. In this study, they analyzed that firms those prefer retained profit to finance their investment are more profitable than those which prefer borrowed capital to finance their investment. Amjed (2011) highlighted the impact of capital structure on firm’s performance while taking the sample of Pakistan’s Chemical industry. He claimed that a firm with equity financing has larger free cash flow, freedom to take operational decisions and flexibility to take risk. If a firm has lower degree of debt then it can move to more productive but riskier projects and lenders prefer these types of firms. Optimal capital structure can be achieved where cost of debt is less than benefits of debt. With the optimal capital structure, stockholders get higher return. He claimed that long term debt has a negative impact on firm’s performance and short term debt has a positive impact on firm’s performance. His results also revealed that profitable firms favor internally generated funds. Singapurwoko