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Write R code to test if the Placebo is different from Medium dose and from Low dose of Aspirin, when it comes to stabilizing the temperature to the normal 98.6°F.Include all the steps listed in the lab presentation:1.Set a working directory2.Enter the data in R3.Plot the data 4.Use ANOVA to test the differences5.Run the post-hoc tests 6.Interpret the model results. Report results of the ANOVA (F-value, degrees of freedom, P-value) and results from each post-hoc comparison (P-values). State which results are significant.—Will provide you with a slides that should you a lot
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In 1979 the renowned business strategist Michael E. Porter identified five competitive forces that influence planning strategies in a model called porter’s five forces. It is a management tool that allows an external analysis of an enterprise, through the analysis of the industry or sector to which it belongs. The competitive forces that this tool considers are: Barriers to entry Threat of substitutes Buyers power Supplier power Degree of rivalry Sorting these forces thus allows a better analysis of the business environment or industry to which it belongs and, thereby, based on this analysis, to design strategies to exploit the opportunities and address the threats. Barriers to entry This point refers to the potential entry of companies that sell the same type of product. If the companies enter to the industry easy, the competition will be more cutthroat. When trying to enter a new business to an industry, it could have entry barriers such as lack of experience, customer loyalty, scarcity of resources, market saturation, lack of distribution channels, government restrictions or legislation… The analysis of the threat of entry of new competitors it is interesting because it allows us to establish entry barriers that prevent the entry of these competitors. Supplier power It refers to the ability to negotiate with suppliers that have, for example, while there are fewer suppliers, the greater its bargaining power, and that absent such input supply, they can easily increase their prices. Some of the most typical reasons that suppliers might have power are: Many suppliers of a particular product There aren’t substitutes The product is very important to buyers Switching to another (competitive) product is very costly The analysis of the bargaining power of suppliers, we can design strategies to achieve better agreements with suppliers or, in any case, strategies that allow us to acquire or have more control over them. Buyer power It refers to the ability to negotiate with consumers who have or buyers, for example, while there are fewer buyers, the greater its bargaining power, and that absent such a demand for products, they can claim for lower prices. Besides that there are many buyers, the bargaining power of buyers also might depend on: Volume of purchase The product is not very important to buyers Customers are price sensitive Switching to another (competitive) product is simple The analysis of the bargaining power of consumers and buyers, we can design strategies to attract more customers or obtain greater fidelity or loyalty of these, for example, strategies such as increasing advertising or offering more services or warranties. Availability of substitutes It refers to the potential entry of firms that sell products substitutes or alternatives to the industry. The principal problem could be the similarity of substitutes. For example, if one customer likes coffee but the price of coffee rises substantially, that customer may change the cup of coffee for a tea. In analyzing the threat of substitute products income allows us to design strategies to prevent penetration of companies selling their products or, in any case, strategies that allow us to compete with them. Degree of rivalry This point refers to companies that directly compete in the same industry, offering the same type of product. The degree of rivalry among competitors will increase as raising the amount of these, go matching in size and capacity, lower product demand, prices fall … The analysis of the rivalry between competitors allows us to compare our strategies and competitive advantages of other rival companies thus know, for example, whether to improve or redesign our strategies. Case study Barriers to entry The threat of new entities entering the oil industry is insignificant due the high barriers to entry that exist. Oil industries need a huge capital associated with the activities, but it depends on the area of the market. In addition, it is required an enormous capital for the development of oil fields. For these reasons the threat of new entries are insignificant, these costs cannot be supported by everyone. This does not only include costs for exploration of new fields, but also for drilling, oilfield services, scientific research, materials and energy, all of which create substantial barriers for potential entrants. Other areas of the oil business require highly specialized workers to operate the equipment. Another barrier prevalent here are economies of scale. Due to the increased unit costs in the exploration and production of oil, only big oil companies and refineries that are able to take advantage of economies of scale can survive. This makes things very difficult for new players, since they usually don’t have access to a big number of oil reserves. The need to secure access to distribution channels can also create barriers to entry. Usually only major oil companies possess well established channels of distribution. Oil pipelines for some companies, as means of distribution, are costly and require time to build. This creates obstacles for new entrants. However, some of the greatest impediments for potential entrants come from different government policies that favour national companies in different ways. Oil is state owned resources and governments tend to give access to these raw materials to national companies. Most of the oil-rich countries also allow other companies to engage in the exploitation of oil fields, but in partnership with the national company. Supplier power There are a lot of oil companies in the world, but only a small handful of powerful companies dominated the oil business. The large amounts of capital investment tend to eliminate a lot of the suppliers of rigs, refining … There isn’t a big competition between them, but they have a bit power over smaller companies. Big oil companies, like Petrobras , have a complex chain of suppliers, ranging from ‘suppliers’ of oil (fields), to suppliers of engineering, field development management, pipeline installations, specific equipment and materials, or even scientific researchers and engineers. Oil is a scarce resource and we have to speak about OPEC nations. Open nations were the ones to actually nationalize oil production in their countries and take over most of the business from big oil corporations. As OPEC nations own 2/3 of the world’s proven reserves, with oil that is one of the cheapest to produce, they in fact possess significant bargaining power to oil corporations. Therefore OPEC’s bargaining power is one of the most bargaining powers when it comes to granting oil-fields-concession rights to international companies. The conclusion within this point is that the power distribution between oil companies and their suppliers is that it all depends on the type of the supplier. Big oil companies can exert power due to their position, However, the ‘suppliers’ of oil fields, with OPEC countries as a specific example, which hold most of the easy-to access oil reserves in the world. Buyer power The oil industry in different comparing with others because the Price of the product is determine on a global level, based on the economic relationship between global demand and supply of oil. The oil customers are refiners, major international companies, national oil companies, marketers, distributors, traders and the countries themselves. The last point it is important due the countries can be the only customers that can exert some degree of bargaining power, through different volumes of demand. These countries are the US, the EU, China and Japan, which account for more than half of the world consumption of oil over the world. Although nowadays countries are experiment with other renewable energies, in the next decades oil will be need and rise especially for transportation and industry. So the conclusion is that only the largest buyers can exert some bargaining power in this market. Availability of substitutes Oil is a dominant and prevailing source of energy, still irreplaceable in many sectors, especially in transportation and industry. The oil exploitation technology is every day more sophisticated, for this reason oil is likely to stay one of the cheapest sources of energy in the following years. However the policies of the countries are working in renewable energies like as: coal, natural gas, renewables (wind, solar energy, From the substitutes, based on the Energy Information Administration, natural gas… Governments around the world think also that fossil fuel make a big harm to the planet. The projections are that gas is going to gain significant market share in the industrial, residential and commercial sectors. This is a bad notice to oil industries. Renewable energies, like wind-, hydro- power or hydrogen are expected to slowly but surely increase their market share in the future. However, without major proactive governmental policies aimed at reducing the impacts of carbon dioxide emissions in the atmosphere, the process of adopting renewable energies on a large scale is going to be rather slow. So long as these sources of energy have relatively high production costs, they will not be economically competitive to fossil fuels. The conclusion within this point is that oil energy will predominate the following decades, but the intensive search for alternative energy resources will be a real threat for this product. Degree of rivalry The competitive environment in the oil industry can be described as: a few big and strong players and several smaller players with less power. Most of the oil companies are inside the OPEC, so they operate as a single entity, reducing rivalry or competition among these companies. However, it is true that exist a big rivalry between producers when they need to replace drying fields. This leads to make alliances, acquisitions or mergers. In the end, other factors are: the high fixed and storage costs and the lack of product differentiation. http://www.investopedia.com/features/industryhandbook/oil_services.asp http://www.smalltimes.com/articles/article_display.cfm?Section=ARCHI
Political Science Harvard Cold War United States & the Soviet Union Paper.

Which was more responsible for the Cold War, the United States or the Soviet Union? Use historical facts to support your argument.(1) A clear introduction that addresses directly the question (2) A body of factual examples that support your thesis; these examples may be drawn from either the assigned readings or footnoted sources researched independently by the student; Wikipedia is not an appropriate source for academic essays;(3) A coherent paragraph structure that highlights your main points; and (4) Appropriate citations for materials drawn from the works of othersPlease sight all sources using mla format. include a works cited section. Have many factual examples.
Political Science Harvard Cold War United States & the Soviet Union Paper

Walden University Week 4 Social Movements that Defined a Decade Discussion

Walden University Week 4 Social Movements that Defined a Decade Discussion.

Learning ResourcesNote: To access this week’s required library resources, please click on the link to the Course Readings List, found in the Course Materials section of your Syllabus.Required ReadingsDanver, S. L. (Ed.). (2011). Revolts, protests, demonstrations, and rebellions in American history: An encyclopedia. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, LLC.Revolts, Protests, Demonstrations, and Rebellions in American History: An Encyclopedia, by Danver, S. Copyright 2010 by ABC-CLIO INC. Reprinted by permission of ABC-CLIO INC. via the Copyright Clearance Center.Urban Uprisings”Los Angeles Uprising (1992)” (pp. 1095–1105)Darwall, R. (2014). The church of Gore: Environmentalism as metaphysical belief. National Review, 66(4), 33–35.This article examines environmentalism as a political issue, perspectives on consumerism, and the challenges and/or impossibility of reorganizing society along environmental lines.Herod, J. (2010). Capitalists, global warming, & the climate justice movement. Anarcho – Syndicalist Review, 54, 23-28. Can global warming be stopped within a capitalist framework—within what is arguably a global social order? This article, written from an anarcho-syndicalist point of view, makes a case for why, if the planet is to survive, decision making must be taken from the ruling, profit-oriented class and placed in the hands of ordinary people—a complete social reorganization.Maslauskas, B. (2011). The battle for Blair Mountain. Industrial Worker, 108(8), 1–6.The Battle for Blair Mountain, which took place in 1921, was the largest labor uprising in U.S. history. Nearly 100 years later, Blair Mountain was the site of opposition by environmentalists and labor activists to the practice of coal mining by a technique called mountaintop removal. This article tells the story of both events.Wright, J. (2013). Only your calamity: The beginnings of activism by and for people with AIDS. Journal of the American Public Health Association, 103(10), 1788–1798.The roots of AIDS activism, spearheaded by pioneering organizers such as Bobbi Campbell, Dan Turner, and Larry Kramer, is the subject of this powerful article that traces the efforts to politicize, humanize, and medically and ethically respond to what would become a worldwide epidemic.Discussion: The 80s and the 90s: Social Movements that Defined a DecadeAs the United States entered the 1980s, race and gender issues continued to take center stage, but other concerns also became the focus of many grassroots activists. From HIV/AIDS awareness to the environment, activists challenged local, state, and federal authorities and big business to improve the way of life for humans, animals, and the earth. In many cases, their activism not only raised awareness, but also spurred increasing government intervention.For this week’s Discussion, you will identify a social movement that you believe defined a decade.In preparation for this Discussion:Review this week’s Learning Resources. With these issues providing context for this time period, consider the many social change movements and issues that emerged or escalated during the 1980s and 1990s, including:Quality of education (A Nation at Risk)Access to health careWar on drugsGender inequalities (the feminization of poverty)Ongoing civil rights movementsGay rightsAIDS activismEnvironmental issuesUrban and rural povertyUsing the Walden Library and other reliable resources, research these varied issues and movements to gain an overview of the breadth of concerns that impacted Americans in the 1980s and 90s. Consider the background of each and the populations that were impacted.What changes have occurred regarding these issues?What impact, if any, did these movements have on the United States and the world?With these considerations in mind, select a movement that you think defined either the 1980s or the 1990s.With these thoughts in mind:Post a 2- to 3-paragraph explanation of how one social movement defined either the decade of the 1980s or the decade of the 1990s. Include in your posting a brief description of the movement, a rationale for its relevance, and the impact that this movement has had on the both the United States and the world.
Walden University Week 4 Social Movements that Defined a Decade Discussion

The Active And Passive Voice English Language Essay

order essay cheap The question we must ask is what is the sentence about In the two sentences above, the first is about a dog that is why it is mentioned first and the second sentence is about Peter. The structure- active or passive – depends on how the sentence starts. Sometimes the passive is the more natural choice. Think of the situations where you would read the following and you will see why the passive is the obvious choice: 1. Children must be carried. 2. Outdoor shoes must not be worn in the gym. 3. These gates will be locked at 8pm daily. 4. Hard hats must be worn at all times. No. 1 is a sign in the London Underground at the top and bottom of escalators. It has more impact than if you have a child with you, please carry him or her. No. 2 is a sign in a school outside the gymnasium. It is more direct than you mustn’t wear your outdoor shoes in the gym. No. 3 is a sign on the gates of a park warning people to be out of the park before the gates are locked. Warning signs are always as short as possible. No. 4 is a common sign on building sites. Again, it is an important safety sign and needs to be as short as possible. You must wear a hard hat at all times does not have the impact or authority of the passive. Active vs. passive A simple sentences For our research studies we normally produce a preliminary analysis. We then publish the findings and circulate them to various experts. This is exactly what we did when we applied for the current patent. We are therefore very surprised that you have contacted us in this matter. We can assure you that we completed all the relevant documentation. In the meantime we will investigate your claims further. For our research studies a preliminary analysis is normally produced. The findings are then published and circulated to various experts. This is exactly what was done when the current patent was applied for. We are therefore very surprised that we have been contacted in this matter. We can assure you that all the relevant documentation was completed. In the meantime your claims will be investigated further. Form Every active sentence has at least two parts: a subject [1] an active verb form [2] We normally produce a preliminary analysis. [1] [ 2 ] Every passive sentence has at least two parts: a subject [1] a passive verb form [2] A preliminary analysis is normally produced. [ 1 ] [ 2 ] Uses We use the active verb form in speech and writing to describe actions and events. For example: Paper still plays a vital role in our lives – newspapers tell us the events of the day. And books entertain and educate us. Paper has been with us since 105 A.D. The Chinese first used it to make records; later it spread to all parts of the world. We can use the passive in the following situations: 1. We are not interested in the doer. Ancient paper was made entirely of rags; modern paper is made from wood pulp -a faster and cheaper alternative. 2. in process descriptions. First the logs are stripped of bark, cut into smaller sections, and made into chips. The chips are put into a large tank called a digester and allowed to stew in a chemical mix under pressure. The wood pulp that is created by this process is then washed to remove any chemicals and pressed through screens to remove chunks and foreign objects. The pulp is then drained of water to form a mass that is then bleached and washed again. The first two corresponding active sentences would be: First we strip the logs of bark, and then we cut them in to smaller sections, and make them into chips. We then put the chips into a large tank called a digester and allow them to stew in a chemical mix under pressure. 3. in impersonal language. The chemical since this process are toxic: safety clothing must be worn. This is the typical style of a written order or instruction. The corresponding active sentence would be: The chemicals are toxic: wear safety clothing. PASSIVE TENSES AND ACTIVE EQUIVALENTS Notice that the tense of the verb to be in the passive voice is the same as the tense of the main verb in the active voice. Example: to keep TENSE / VERB FORM ACTIVE VOICE PASSIVE VOICE Simple present keeps is kept Present continuous is keeping is being kept Simple past kept was kept Past continuous was keeping was being kept Present perfect have kept have been kept Past perfect had kept had been kept Future will keep will be kept Conditional present would keep would be kept Conditional past would have kept would have been kept Present infinitive to keep to be kept Perfect infinitive to have kept to have been kept Present participle/gerund keeping being kept Perfect participle having kept having been kept The passive voice Form A. The passive of an active tense is formed by putting the verb to be into the same tense as the active verb and adding the past participle of the active verb. The subject of the active verb becomes the ‘agent’ of the passive verb. The agent is very often not mentioned. When it is mentioned it is preceded by and placed at the end of the clause: This free was planted by my grandfather. B. Examples of present, past and perfect passive tenses: Active: We keep the butter here. Passive: The butter is kept here. Active : They broke the window. Passive : The window was broken. Active People have seen wolves in She streets. Passive Wolves have been seen in the streets. C The passive of continuous tenses requires the present continuous forms of to be, which are not otherwise much used: Active :They are repairing the bridge. Passive :The bridge is being repaired. Active :They were carrying the injured player off the field. Passive :The injured player was being carried off the field. Other continuous tenses are exceedingly rarely used in the passive, so that sentences such as: They have/had been repairing the road and They will/would be repairing the roads are not normally put into the passive, D Auxiliary infinitive combinations are made passive by using a passive infinitive: Active You must/should shut these doors. Passive These doors must/should be shut. Active They should/ought for have told him. (perfect infinitive active) Passive He should/ought to have been told. (perfect infinitive passive) E Other infinitive combinations Verbs of liking/loving/wanting/wishing etc. object infinitive form their passive with the passive infinitive: Active He wants someone to take photographs. Passive He wants photographs to be taken. With verbs of command/request/advice/invitation indirect object infinitive we form the passive by using the passive form of the main verb: Active He invited me to go. Passive I was invited to go. But with advise/beg/order/recommend/urge indirect object infinitive object we can form the passive in two ways: by making the main verb passive, as above, or by advise etc. that, should passive infinitive: Active He urged the Council to reduce the rates. Passive The Council was/were urged to reduce the rates or, he urged that the rates should be reduced. Agree/be anxious/arrange/be determined/determine/decide/demand infinitive object are usually expressed in the passive by that. . . should, as above: Active He decided to sell the house. Passive He decided that the house should lie sold. F Gerund combinations Advise/insist/propose/recommend/suggest gerund object are usually expressed in the passive by that. . . should, as above: Active He recommended using bullet-proof glass. Passive He recommended that bullet-proof glass should be used. Practical English Grammar It/they need gerund can also be expressed by it/they need passive infinitive. Both forms are passive in meaning. Other gerund combinations are expressed in the passive by the passive gerund: Active I remember them taking me to the Zoo. Passive / remember being taken to the Zoo. B. In colloquial speech get is sometimes used instead of be: The eggs got (= were) broken. You ‘II get (= be) sacked if you take any more time off. C. Note that in theory a sentence containing a direct and an indirect object, such as Someone gave her a bulldog, could have two passive forms: She was given a bulldog. A bulldog was given to her. The first of these is much the more usual, i.e. the indirect object usually becomes the subject of the passive verb. D. Questions about the identity of the subject of an active verb are usually expressed by an affirmative. What delayed you? Which leant won? Questions about the subject of a passive verb are also expressed by an affirmative: Something was done. ~ What was dime? One of them was sold. ~ Which of them was sold? Interrogative verbs in active questions may become affirmative verbs in passive questions: What did they steal? (interrogative) What was stolen? (affirmative) Note, however that, when the question refers to the agent, an interrogative verb is necessary: Who painted it? (affirmative) Who was it painted by? (interrogative) Prepositions with passive verbs As already noted, the agent, when mentioned, is preceded by by; Active Dufy painted this picture. Passive this picture was painted by Dufy. Active What makes these holes? Passive what are these holes made by? Note, however, that the passive form of such sentences as: Smoke filled the room. Paint covered the lock will be: The room was filled with smoke. The lock was covered with paint. We are dealing here with materials used, not with the agents. , When a verb preposition 4- object combination is put into the passive, the preposition will remain immediately after the verb; Active We must write to him. Passive He must be written to. Active You can play with these cubs quite safely. Passive These cubs can be played with quite safely. Similarly with verb preposition/adverb combinations: Active They threw away the old newspapers. Passive The old newspapers were thrown away. Active He looked after the children well. Passive The children were well looked after. Infinitive constructions after passive verbs After acknowledge, assume, believe, claim, consider, estimate, feel, find, know, presume, report, say, think, understand etc. Sentences of the type People consider/know/think etc. that he is . . . have two possible passive forms: It is considered/known/thought etc. that he is . . . He is considered/known/thought etc. to be . . . Similarly: B After suppose 1 suppose in the passive can be followed by the present infinitive of any verb but this construction usually conveys an idea of duty and is not therefore the normal equivalent of suppose in the active: You are supposed to know how to drive = It is your duty to know/Vim should know how to drive though He is supposed to be in Paris could mean either ‘He ought to be there’ or ‘People suppose he is there’- 2 suppose in the passive can similarly be followed by the perfect infinitive of any verb. This construction may convey an idea of duty but very often does not: You are supposed to have finished = You should have finished but He is supposed to have escaped disguised as a woman = People suppose that he escaped etc. C Infinitives placed after passive verbs are normally full infinitives: Active We saw them go out. He made us work. Passive They were seen to go out. We were made to work. leLt, however, is used without to: Active They let us go. Passive We were let go. D The continuous infinitive can be used after the passive of believe, know, report, say, suppose, think, understand: He is believed/known/said/supposed/thought to be living abroad = People believe/know/say/suppose/think that he is living abroad. You are supposed to he working = You should be working. The perfect form of the continuous infinitive is also possible: He is believed to have been waiting for a message = People believed that he was waiting for a message. You are supposed to have been working = You should have been working. Basic Methodology: Passive vs. Active Voice Active and passive-like major (duuri) and minor (molli) keys in music-are the two types of voice. Tenses are unrelated to voice; tense indicates time. Note the difference between tenses-present, past, and perfect-and voice. The English passive always includes two to four verbs and allows the addition of “by” someone / something. And even a future passive is possible-though horrible: “The test will have been given”! As recently as 1997, Paul Leedy insisted, in his book Practical Research, Planning and Design, that “the researcher … should be anonymous. The use of the first-person pronoun or reference to the researcher in any other way is particularly taboo. … All of the action within the drama of research revolves around the data; they, and they only, speak.” (Emphasis mine) My response: Then why not let the data speak? Here, Leedy himself elegantly states that the action . . . revolves-in active voice. He has “data” speaking in the active voice, as well. These are fine inanimate agents-non-living causes of actions. If such agents serve as subjects, we avoid any need for personal pronouns to call the researcher(s) “I” or “We.” Leedy continues, “The passive voice … is used to indicate [Why not “the passive voice indicates”?] that no identifiable subject is performing the act. It is a kind of ghostly form of the verb that causes events to happen without any visible cause being present.” Then, “Note the passive voice construction in this sentence: ‘A survey was made of the owners of the Rollaway automobiles’ or ‘The researcher made a survey of the owners of Rollaway automobiles.’ … Here we have [an] . . . intrusion of the researcher. … The best research reporting does not use it.” Instead of the passive verb or “the researcher made,” why not “A survey of the owners . . . showed that …”? All surveys producing results have already been “made.” In the active, this is both shorter and stronger. He adds that passive voice verbs can even “suggest events … in the future without any indication of who will do them by using the future passive form of the verb … ‘The test will have been given before the students are permitted to read the novel.'” These two passives consume eight words. Because all tests, once finished, “have been given,” why not: “After the test / after taking the test, the students will / can then read / will be able to read the novel”? Active voice and short. ô€¸ Present tense, active voice: “he finds.” Passive: “it is found” ô€¸ Past tense, active: “he found.” Passive: “it was found” ô€¸ Present perfect active: “she has found.” Passive: “it has been found” ô€¸ Past perfect active: “she had found.” Passive: “it had been found” Do you worry about journals’ accepting papers written entirely in the active voice? Although active voice is rarely possible to maintain throughout Methods, in Nature Medicine, authors freely use “We, we, we”! That means lines like “We processed the samples. Then we rinsed the residue in a solution of . . . .” Here are more empirical data (Note: The word “data” is plural.) Back in 2001, biologist Rupert Sheldrake queried 55 journals in the biological and physical sciences. Only two still required use of the passive voice. “Most scientific journals accept papers in the active voice,” he said, “and some . . . positively encourage it.” (New Scientist, 21 July 2001) The British Medical Journal’s “House Style” on the internet has for many years made the following demand: “Write in the active and use the first person where necessary.” Even in active voice, however, “I/We” first-person pronouns are usually unnecessary. (Interestingly, “our” seems popular, even when the writer avoids “we.”) The valuable inanimate agent allows you to avoid these pronouns and use active voice. Save passive verbs for when they do, however, prove useful: “Some of us will greatly Miss Professor Aho” implies that some will be quite happy he is gone. Avoid sending this sentence to his or her widow or widower! Instead, “(The late) Professor Aho will be missed.” (“Late” is a polite adjective for deceased.) To be gentle: “You’re fired / sacked” is “Your candidacy / position is revoked /eliminated.” Similarly gentle, “Your breast must be removed.” “Your results will arrive after tests are run.” To maintain anonymity: “The suggestion was made today that nurses should go on strike.” To be cute: “When my great-grandmother status is achieved, greater respect will be required.” The other usages of the active and passive Passive (1) (is done/was done) A. Study this example: This house was built in 1930. ‘Was built’ is passive. Compare active and passive: Somebody built this house (object) in 1930. (active) This house (subject) was built in 1930. (passive) We use an active verb to say what the subject does: * My grandfather was a builder. He built this house in 1930. * It’s a big company. It employs two hundred people. We use a passive verb to say what happens to the subject: * This house is quite old. It was built in 1930. * Two hundred people are employed by the company. B. When we use the passive, who or what causes the action is often unknown or unimportant: * A lot of money was stolen in the robbery. (somebody stole it but we don’t know who) * Is this room cleaned every day? (does somebody clean it?–it’s not important who) If we want to say who does or what causes the action, we use by… * This house was built by my grandfather. * Two hundred people are employed by the company. C. The passive is be (is/was/have been etc.) the past participle (done/cleaned/seen etc.): (be) done (be) cleaned (be) seen (be) damaged (be) built etc. For irregular past participles (done/known/seen etc.), see Appendix 1. Study the active and passive forms of the present simple and past simple: Present simple active: clean(s)/see(s) etc. Somebody cleans this every day. passive: am/is/are cleaned/seen etc. This room is cleaned every day. * Many accidents are caused by careless driving. * I’m not often invited to parties. * How is this word pronounced? Present simple active: cleaned/saw etc. Somebody cleaned this room yesterday. passive: was/were cleaned/seen etc. This room was cleaned yesterday. * We were woken up by a loud noise during the night. * ‘Did you go to the party?’ ‘No, I wasn’t invited.’ * How much money was stolen? Passive (2) (be/been/being done) Study the following active and passive forms: A. Infinitive active: (to) do/clean/see etc. Somebody will clean the room later. passive: (to) be done/cleaned/seen etc. The room will be clean later. * The situation is serious. Something must be done before it’s too late. * A mystery is something that can’t be explained. * The music was very loud and could be heard from a long way away. * A new supermarket is going to be built next year. * Please go away. I want to be left alone. B. Perfect infinitive active: have done/cleaned/seen etc. Somebody should have cleaned the room. passive: have been done/cleaned/seen etc. The room should have been cleaned. * I haven’t received the letter yet. It might have been sent to the wrong address. * If you hadn’t left the car unlocked, it wouldn’t have been stolen. * There were some problems at first but they seem to have been solved. C. Present perfect active: have/has (done) The room looks nice. Somebody has cleaned it. passive: have/has been (done) The room looks nice. It has been clean. * Have you heard the news? The President has been shot! * Have you ever been bitten by a dog? * ‘Are you going to the party?’ ‘No, I haven’t been invited.’ Past perfect active: had(done) The room looked nice. Somebody had cleaned it. passive: had been (done) The room looked nice. It had been clean. * The vegetables didn’t taste very good. They had been cooked for too long. * The car was three years old but hadn’t been used very much. D. Present continuous active: am/is/are (do)ing Somebody is cleaning the room at the moment. passive: am/is/are being (done) The room is being cleaned at the moment. * There’s somebody walking behind us. I think we are being followed. * (in a shop) ‘Can I help you, madam?’ ‘No, thank you. I’m being served.’ Past continuous active: was/were (do)ing Somebody was cleaning the room when I arrived. passive: was/were being (done) The room was being cleaned when I arrived. * There was somebody walking behind us. We were being followed. Passive (3) A. I was born … We say: I was born … (not ‘I am born’): past simple * I was born in Chicago. * Where were you born? (not ‘where are you born’) but present simple * How many babies are born every day? B. Some verbs can have two objects. For example, give: * We gave _the police_(object 1) _the information._(object 2) (= We gave the information to the police.) So it is possible to make two passive sentences: * The police were given the information. or The information was given to the police. Other verbs which can have two objects are: ask offer pay show teach tell When we use these verbs in the passive, most often we begin with the person: * I was offered the job but I refused it. (= they offered me the job) * You will be given plenty of time to decide. (= we will give you plenty of time) * Have you been shown the new machine? (= has anybody shown you …?) * The men were paid L200 to do the work. (= somebody paid the men L200) C. I don’t like being… The passive of doing/seeing etc. is being done/being seen etc. Compare: Active: I don’t like people telling me what to do. Passive: I don5t like being told what to do. * I remember being given a toy drum on my fifth birthday. (= I remember somebody giving me a toy drum…) * Mr. Miller hates being kept waiting. (= he hates people keeping him waiting) * We managed to climb over the wall without being seen. (= … without anybody seeing us) D. Get Sometimes you can use get instead of be in the passive: * There was a fight at the party but nobody got hurt. (= nobody was hurt) * I don’t often get invited to parties. (= I’m not often invited) * I’m surprised Ann didn’t get offered the lob. (… Ann wasn’t offered the job) You can use get to say that something happens to somebody or something, especially if this is unplanned or unexpected: * Our dog got run over by a car. You can use get only when things happen or change. For example, you cannot use get in these sentences: * Jill is liked by everybody. (not ‘gets liked’ – this is not a ‘happening’) * He was a mystery man. Nothing was known about him. (not ‘got known’) We use get mainly in informal spoken English. You can use be in all situations. We also use get in the following expressions (which are not passive in meaning): get married get divorced get dressed (= put on your clothes) get changed (= change your clothes) It is said that… He is said to… (be) supposed to… A. Study this example situation: Henry is very old. Nobody knows exactly how old he is, but: It is said that he is 108 years old. or He is said to be 108 years old. Both these sentences mean: ‘People say that he is 108 years old.’ You can use these structures with a number of other verbs, especially: thought believed considered reported known expected alleged understood Compare the two structures: * Cathy works very hard. It is said that she works 16 hours a day. or She is said to work 16 hours a day. * The police are looking for a missing boy. It is believed that the boy is wearing a or white pullover and blue jeans. The boy is believed to be wearing a white pullover and blue jeans. * The strike started three weeks ago. It is expected that it will end soon. or The strike is expected to end soon * A friend of mine has been arrested. It is alleged that he kicked a policeman. or He is alleged to have kicked a policeman. * Those two houses belong to the same family. It is said that there is a secret tunnel between them. There is said to be a secret tunnel between them. These structures are often used in news reports. For example, in a report about an accident: * It is reported that two people were injured in the explosion. or Two people are reported to have been injured in the explosion. B. (Be) supposed to Sometimes it is supposed to … = it is said to… * Let’s go and see that film. It’s supposed to be very good. (= it is said to be very good) * ‘Why was he arrested?’ ‘He’s supposed to have kicked a policeman.’ (= he is said to have kicked a policeman) But sometimes supposed to has a different meaning. ‘Something is supposed to happen’ = it is planned, arranged or expected. Often this is different from what really happens: * I’d better hurry. It’s nearly 8 o’clock and I’m supposed to be meeting Ann at 8.15. (= I have arranged to meet Ann, I said I would meet her) * The train was supposed to arrive at 11.30 but it was an hour late. (= the train was expected to arrive at 11.30 according to the timetable) * You were supposed to clean the windows. Why didn’t you do it? ‘You’re not supposed to do something’ = it is not allowed or advisable for you to do it: * You’re not supposed to park your car here. It’s private parking only. * Mr. Bond is much better after his illness but he’s still not supposed to do any heavy work. (= his doctors have advised him not to …) Have something done A. Study this example situation: The roof of Jill’s house was damaged in a storm, so she arranged for somebody to repair it. Yesterday a workman came and did the job. Jill had the roof repaired yesterday. This means: Jill arranged for somebody else to repair the roof. She didn’t repair it herself. We use have something done to say that we arrange for somebody else to do something for us. Compare: * Jill repaired the roof. (= she repaired it herself) * Jill had the roof repaired. (= she arranged for somebody else to repair it) Study these sentences: * Did Ann make the dress herself or did she have it made? * ‘Are you going to repair the car yourself?’ ‘No, I’m going to have it repaired.’ Be careful with word order. The past participle (repaired/cut etc.) is after the object (the roof your hair etc.): Have object past participle Jill had the roof repaired yesterday. Where did you have your hair cut? Your hair looks nice. Have you had it cut? Julia has just had central heating installed in her house. We are having the house painted at the moment. How often do you have your car serviced? I think you should have that coat cleaned soon. I don’t like having my photograph taken. B. You can also say ‘get something done’ instead of ‘have something done’ (mainly in informal spoken English): * When are you going to get the roof repaired? (= have the roof repaired) * I think you should get your hair cut. C. Sometimes have something done has a different meaning. For example: * Jill and Eric had all their money stolen while they were on holiday. Of course this does not mean that they arranged for somebody to steal their money. ‘They had all their money stolen’ means only: ‘All their money was stolen from them.’ With this meaning, we use have something done to say that something happens to somebody or their belongings. Usually what happens is not nice: * George had his nose broken in a fight. * Have you ever had your passport stolen? Summary The use of the passive Compare the active and passive sentences. Active: The secretary typed the report. Passive: The report was typed (by the secretary). When the person doing the action (the secretary) is the subject, we use an active verb. When the subject is what the action is directed at (the report), then we use a passive verb. We can choose to talk about the secretary and what he/she did, or about the report and what happened to it. This choice depends on what is old or new information in the context. Old information usually comes at the beginning of the sentence, and new information at the end. In a passive sentence the agent can be the new and important information (…by the secretary.), or we can leave it out if it does not add any information. We say The report was typed because the fact that the typing is complete is more import

Grantham University Gadget Used for Network Connectivity Project

Grantham University Gadget Used for Network Connectivity Project.

Record the dateThroughout the day, journalize about your interactions with technology, particularly the use of a phone, television, radio, tablet, laptop, or desktop.If the technology interactions require network connectivity, record the general purposes of your technology interactions.Review the types of networks in Chapter 6. Examples of network types are Cellular, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, LAN, MAN, WAN, PAN, Cable, DSL, T1, Satellite, Fixed Wireless, Fiber to Premises, Optical Carrier, Broadband over powerlines (BPL).For each instance when you connected to a network, describe the type of network or combined networks that carried your communication. If you do not know the specific types of networks used, describe the networks to which you imagine you were connected. Explain your logic for indicating each type of network as having supported your technology interaction.Conclude whether or not, without the network connectivity, you could have accomplished each task (described in #3) within the same day.
Grantham University Gadget Used for Network Connectivity Project

Terrorism and the Usage of Improvised Explosive Devices and Vehicular Borne Explosive Devices.

Terrorism and the Usage of Improvised Explosive Devices and Vehicular Borne Explosive Devices..

This is a research paper. I will attach several tools to help you. I need 15 pages by Sunday Evening. This is a very important assignment and must be written according to the instructions. I am attaching the literature review, and another paper with the same research. Please use the references provided but change the wording. This will help you work faster. You are free to add different references as Well. The capstone is an example of formatting, this is something I wrote basically you are writing the same paper but with different wording.
Terrorism and the Usage of Improvised Explosive Devices and Vehicular Borne Explosive Devices.